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|Upcoming season or competition:
2016 World TeamTennis season
|No. of teams||6|
|Most titles||Sacramento Capitals (6)
Washington Kastles (6)
|TV partner(s)||Tennis Channel
Originally played on a no-line court, each match consists of five sets. Each set features a different configuration (men's singles, men's doubles, women's singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles). Prior to each match, coaches decide the order in which the sets will be played. Each player on a team usually plays in at least one of the five sets. Scoring is no-advantage; there is no requirement to win a game by two scores; at deuce (3-3, the equivalent of 40-40 in a conventional scoring system), whoever scores the next point wins the game. The first team to reach five games wins each set. A nine-point tiebreaker is played, if a set reaches four-all. One point is awarded for each game won. If necessary, overtime and a super-tiebreaker are played to determine the winner of the match.
The World Team Tennis (WTT) Professional Tennis league was founded in 1973 by four people: Larry King (owner of San Francisco Golden Gaters), Dennis Murphy (founder of the World Hockey Association), Fred Barman and Jordan Kaiser. The league began play in May 1974 with George MacCall as Commissioner of the 16 teams: Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo-Toronto, Chicago, Cleveland, Denver, Detroit, Florida (Miami), Hawaii (Honolulu), Houston, Los Angeles, Minnesota (Minneapolis-St.Paul), New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco.
The original league format included a four-colored tennis court, a 44-contest season, and teams of at least two men and two women. A match consisted of the first player or team to win five games, with a nine-point tiebreaker at four-all, and no-ad scoring in women’s singles and doubles, men’s singles and doubles, and mixed doubles. This made WTT the first professional sports league to give equal weight to each man and woman competing for their teams.
WTT also held annual All-Star games for the seasons from 1975 to 1978. Marty Riessen (Cleveland) and Greer Stevens (Boston) won Most Valuable Players (MVP) honors for the inaugural all-star gala won by the East, 28–21, at the Inglewood Forum in Los Angeles. In 1976 the West All-Stars, led by Chris Evert and Betty Stöve, capped an incredible comeback when they defeated Billie Jean King and Evonne Goolagong in a super tiebreaker, 5–4, giving the West a stunning 28–27 overtime victory at the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum. After trailing at one stage by 24–17, the West, led by Stove and Dianne Fromholtz, won the final set plus two games in overtime to draw the West All-Stars even at 27. Tom Okker (San Francisco) and Dianne Fromholtz (Los Angeles) won MVP honors that year. In the 1977 All Star Game held at the San Diego Sports Arena, Björn Borg (Cleveland-Pittsburgh) and Betty Stove (Seattle-Portland) captured MVP awards as the East bested the West, 23-18. WTT held its final All-Star event in Las Vegas in 1978.
WTT was the first professional sports experience for Jerry Buss (eventual owner of the NBA's Los Angeles Lakers and the NHL's Los Angeles Kings), and for Bob Kraft (eventual owner of the NFL's New England Patriots and MLS's New England Revolution).
The first league ended play in 1978.
The league resumed play in 1981 as TeamTennis and fluctuated between four and twelve teams. In 1992, the name was changed to World TeamTennis (WTT). In 2005, twelve teams competed.
Billie Jean King became Commissioner and major owner of the league in 1984, following her retirement from tournament tennis competition. She retired as Commissioner in February 2001 and Ilana Kloss became the new WTT commissioner, a position she still holds.
Many top tennis players have participated in the league over the years, including: Billie Jean King, Rod Laver, Björn Borg, Chris Evert, John McEnroe, Evonne Goolagong, Jimmy Connors, Martina Navratilova, Andre Agassi, Pete Sampras, Michael Chang, Venus Williams, Serena Williams, Maria Sharapova, Lindsay Davenport, Kim Clijsters and Martina Hingis. Connors and Goolagong were not allowed to participate in the 1974 French Open due to their associations with WTT. Connors' exclusion from the French Open denied him the opportunity to become the first male player since Rod Laver to win all four Major singles titles in a calendar year.
- Boston Lobsters (1974)
- Chicago Aces (1974)
- Cincinnati (never played) / Cleveland Nets (1974–1976) / Cleveland-Pittsburgh Nets (1977) / New Orleans Sun Belt Nets (1978)
- Dallas (1979 expansion franchise – never played)
- Denver Racquets (1974) / Phoenix Racquets (1975–1978)
- Detroit Loves (1974) / Indiana Loves (1975–1978)
- Golden Gate Otters (never played) / San Francisco Golden Gaters (1974–1978)
- Houston E-Z Riders (1974)
- Los Angeles (1979 expansion franchise – never played)
- Los Angeles Strings (1974–1978)
- Minnesota Buckskins (1974)
- New York Sets (1974–1976) / New York Apples (1977–1978)
- Pennsylvania Keystones (never played) / Soviet National Team (1977, often simply called "The Soviets") / Anaheim Oranges (1978)
- Philadelphia Freedoms (1974) / Boston Lobsters (1975–1978)
- Phoenix (never played) / Baltimore Banners (1974)
- Pittsburgh Triangles (1974–1976)
- St. Louis (never played) / Florida Flamingos (1974)
- San Diego (1979 expansion franchise – never played)
- San Diego Friars (1975–1978)
- San Diego Swingers (never played) / Hawaii Leis (1974–1976) / Sea-Port Cascades (1977) / Seattle Cascades (1978)
- Toronto-Buffalo Royals (1974) / Hartford Royals (never played)
League play resumed in 1981 as TeamTennis with four California teams, expanding to eight teams in 1982. In 1985 a recreational league for non-professionals was added, which was co-branded with the professional league.
In 1992, the current name World TeamTennis was restored.
- Minnesota Penguins, 1993
- Idaho Sneakers, 1994–1997
- New Jersey Stars, 1987–1995 (relocated and became the Delaware Smash)
In 2000 the current logo was adopted.
In 2005 & 2006 the league consisted of 12 teams and in 2007 the Hartford FoxForce ceased operations.
Prior to the 2008 season, the Houston Wranglers ceased operations and the Washington Kastles joined the league.
In the 2009 season, 10 teams competed: Boston, NY Buzz, NY Sportime, Philadelphia, Washington DC, Kansas City, Newport Beach, Sacramento, Springfield, and St. Louis.
Sacramento won the year-end Championship six times.
Before the start of the 2011 season the New York Buzz and the New York Sportimes merged into one New York team, the Sportimes. During the 2011 season the Washington Kastles completed a perfect 16–0 schedule, winning their second championship in three seasons.
In 2012, the Washington Kastles completed their second consecutive perfect season, going 16–0 for the second season in a row to become the first professional sports franchise to go two complete seasons without a loss. Their 32-consecutive-match winning streak is one shy of the major professional sports record of 33 consecutive wins set by the 1971–72 Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. They began the next season with 2 wins making their streak 34 games, setting the new record.
In 2013, World TeamTennis was renamed Mylan World TeamTennis after Mylan signed a three-year deal as the title sponsor. The Kansas City Explorers relocated to Irving, Texas, and became the Texas Wild.
On November 21, 2013, the Orange County Breakers were sold, relocated to Austin, Texas and renamed the Austin Aces. On January 16, 2014, the New York Sportimes were sold, relocated to San Diego and renamed the San Diego Aviators. On February 4, 2014, the Sacramento Capitals were relocated to Las Vegas and renamed the Las Vegas Neon. On March 5, 2014 the Las Vegas Neon franchise was terminated, leaving the league with seven teams.
On January 13, 2016, WTT announced that the California Dream franchise had been terminated. On February 17, 2016, WTT announced the Boston Lobsters had ceased operations and had been replaced with a new franchise called the New York Empire.
- 1974 Denver Racquets 2–0 Philadelphia Freedoms
- 1975 Pittsburgh Triangles 2–1 San Francisco Golden Gaters
- 1976 New York Sets 3–0 San Francisco Golden Gaters
- 1977 New York Apples 55–39 Phoenix Racquets
- 1978 Los Angeles Strings 108–93 Boston Lobsters
- 1979–1980 No tournament
- 1981 Los Angeles Strings (regular season champion, no playoffs)
- 1982 Dallas Stars 27–22 Phoenix Sunsets
- 1983 Chicago Fyre 26–20 Los Angeles Strings
- 1984 San Diego Buds 30–13 Long Beach Breakers
- 1985 San Diego Buds 25–24 St. Louis Slims
- 1986 San Antonio Racquets 25–23 Sacramento Capitols
- 1987 Charlotte Heat 25–20 San Antonio Racquets
- 1988 Charlotte Heat 27–22 New Jersey Stars
- 1989 San Antonio Racquets 27–25 Sacramento Capitols
- 1990 Los Angeles Strings 27–16 Raleigh Edge
- 1991 Atlanta Thunder 27–16 Los Angeles Strings
- 1992 Atlanta Thunder 30–17 Newport Beach Dukes
- 1993 Wichita Advantage 26–23 Newport Beach Dukes
- 1994 New Jersey Stars 28–25 Idaho Sneakers
- 1995 New Jersey Stars 28–20 Atlanta Thunder
- 1996 St. Louis Aces 27–16 Delaware Smash
- 1997 Sacramento Capitals (regular season champion, championship match rained out)
- 1998 Sacramento Capitals 30–13 New York OTBzz
- 1999 Sacramento Capitals 23–15 Springfield Lasers
- 2000 Sacramento Capitals 21–20 Delaware Smash
- 2001 Philadelphia Freedoms 20–18 Springfield Lasers
- 2002 Sacramento Capitals 21–13 New York Buzz
- 2003 Delaware Smash 21–14 Sacramento Capitals
- 2004 Newport Beach Breakers 23–17 Delaware Smash
- 2005 New York Sportimes 21–18 Newport Beach Breakers
- 2006 Philadelphia Freedoms 21–14 Newport Beach Breakers
- 2007 Sacramento Capitals 24–20 New York Buzz
- 2008 New York Buzz 21–18 Kansas City Explorers
- 2009 Washington Kastles 23–20 Springfield Lasers
- 2010 Kansas City Explorers 21–18 New York Sportimes
- 2011 Washington Kastles 23–19 St. Louis Aces
- 2012 Washington Kastles 20–19 Sacramento Capitals
- 2013 Washington Kastles 25–12 Springfield Lasers
- 2014 Washington Kastles 25–13 Springfield Lasers
- 2015 Washington Kastles 24–18 Austin Aces
- "World TeamTennis Firsts". World TeamTennis. Retrieved 2009-12-17.
- "Chrissie Evert in 1976 World Team Tennis All-Stars Match". chrisevertdotnet (Youtube). Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "Steve Dimitry's WTT Web Page". Steve Dimitry. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "World TeamTennis and Mylan Announce Three-Year Collaboration". www.wtt.com. October 16, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
- "SPORTS PEOPLE: TENNIS; King Wants Navratilova to Finish Year". The New York Times. 1994-07-15.
- John Barrett, ed. (1975). World of Tennis '75. London: Queen Anne Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 9780362002171.
- "Connors, Goolagong 'Can't Play'". The Palm Beach Post. May 22, 1974.
- "Struggling WTT Adds Three New Franchises". The San Bernardino County Sun. December 1, 1978. p. 65.
- "WTT:Virginia Wade". World TeamTennis. Retrieved 2009-12-17. References both "Sets" and "Apples".
- "New York Sportimes to Play Two WTT Matches in Albany This Summer As World Team Tennis' New York Teams Consolidate" http://www.wtt.com/page.aspx?article_id=2411
- "Mylan World TeamTennis team relocates to Austin; Andy Roddick to star on team" http://www.austinacestennis.com/teams/article.aspx?article_id=4160
- "Mylan World TeamTennis team headed to San Diego" http://www.sandiegoaviators.com/teams/article.aspx?article_id=4247
- "Mylan World TeamTennis team relocates franchise to Las Vegas" http://www.lasvegasneontennis.com/teams/article.aspx?article_id=4290
- "LEAGUE STATEMENT ON LAS VEGAS FRANCHISE TERMINATION" http://www.wtt.com/page.aspx?article_id=4330
- "Mylan World TeamTennis Returns to Sacramento Area in 2015 with California Dream". World TeamTennis. February 23, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- "Sacramento pro tennis team folds". The Sacramento Bee. January 13, 2016.
- "WTT Updates Status of Boston Lobsters". OurSportsCentral. February 17, 2016.
- "Mylan WTT 2016 Season Includes NYC Return, Expanded Broadcast Coverage". OurSportsCentral. February 17, 2016.
- "Steve Dimitry's WTT Web Page". source data for 1981-2005. tennis-reference. Archived from the original on 2005-02-22. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- Greg Hoffman, The Art of World Team Tennis, San Francisco Book Company, 1977 ISBN 0-913374-65-2
- World TeamTennis, Official Website
- Brief History of World TeamTennis. From the WTT site.
- WTT Logos
- More WTT Logos
- "Tennis: Navratilova, Connors picked". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. March 27, 1998. p. 3C.