World Trade Center station (PATH)
|PATH rapid transit station|
|Location||70 Vesey Street|
Manhattan, New York City
|Owned by||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Line(s)||Downtown Hudson Tubes|
|Platforms||3 island platforms, 1 side platform|
|Connections||New York City Subway:|
at WTC Cortlandt
at Park Place
at Chambers Street
at World Trade Center
at Cortlandt Street
NYCT Bus: M55
2016 (as World Trade Center Transportation Hub)
|Electrified||600V (DC) Third rail|
|Rebuilding of the|
World Trade Center
World Trade Center is a terminal station on the PATH system, within the World Trade Center complex in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City. It is served by the Newark–World Trade Center line at all times, as well as by the Hoboken–World Trade Center line on weekdays, and is the eastern terminus of both.
The World Trade Center station is near the site of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (H&M)'s Hudson Terminal, which opened in 1909. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey bought the bankrupt H&M system in 1961, rebranded it as PATH, and redeveloped Hudson Terminal as part of the World Trade Center. The World Trade Center station opened on July 6, 1971, as a replacement for Hudson Terminal, which was closed and demolished as part of the construction of the World Trade Center. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, a temporary PATH station opened in 2003 while the World Trade Center complex was being rebuilt. Work on a permanent station building commenced in 2008. The main station house, the Oculus, opened on March 3, 2016, and the terminal was renamed the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, or "World Trade Center" for short.
The World Trade Center station has five tracks and four platforms in the middle of a turning loop. Trains from New Jersey use the loop to turn around and head back to New Jersey. The platforms are located four floors below ground level. The floor immediately above the platforms is occupied by the station's fare mezzanine. The New York City Subway's WTC Cortlandt station is adjacent to and above the mezzanine.
The $4 billion Oculus station house, designed by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, consists of white ribs that interlock high above the ground. The interior of the station house contains two underground floors, which house part of the Westfield World Trade Center mall. The transportation hub connects the various modes of transportation in Lower Manhattan, from the Fulton Center in the east to the Battery Park City Ferry Terminal in the west, and includes connections to various New York City Subway stations. It is the fifth-busiest transportation hub in the New York metropolitan area. The new station has received mixed reviews: although the hub has been praised for its design, it has also been criticized for its high costs and extended delays.
|G||Street level||Vesey Street, West Broadway, Greenwich Street, September 11 Memorial and Museum|
Broadway and 7th Avenue Line stations
|Northbound||← toward 71st Avenue (City Hall)|
← toward Ditmars Boulevard weekdays (City Hall)
← toward Ditmars Boulevard late nights (City Hall)
|Southbound|| toward 95th Street (Rector Street) → |
toward Whitehall Street weekdays (Rector Street)→
toward Coney Island late nights (Rector Street) →
|Balcony||Westfield World Trade Center; elevators, escalators, and stairs to lower concourse|
|Northbound||← toward 242nd Street (Chambers Street)|
|Southbound||toward South Ferry (Rector Street)→|
|West Concourse Balcony||Shops, passageway to Brookfield Place|
|Subway passageway|| trains at Chambers Street–World Trade Center|
trains via Fulton Center
|Subway crossunder||MetroCard machines, turnstiles and entrance to Broadway Line platforms|
|Westfield World Trade Center||Shops and booths|
|Subway crossunder||MetroCard machines, turnstiles and entrance to 7th Avenue Line platforms|
|PATH fare control||MetroCard/SmartLink machines, access to PATH platforms|
|West Concourse||Shops, passageway to Brookfield Place|
|Track 1||← HOB–WTC rush hours toward Hoboken (Exchange Place)|
|Island platform (Platform A)|
|Track 2[a]||← HOB–WTC weekdays toward Hoboken (Exchange Place)|
|Island platform (Platform B)|
|Track 3[b]||← HOB–WTC weekdays toward Hoboken (Exchange Place)|
|Track 4[c]||← NWK–WTC toward Newark (Exchange Place)|
|Island platform (Platform C)|
|Track 5[d]||← NWK–WTC toward Newark (Exchange Place)|
|Side platform (Platform D)|
The station has five tracks served by three island platforms and one side platform in a basement four stories underground.:S.10 Platform A, next to tracks 1 and 2, opened as part of the Transportation Hub on February 25, 2014. Platform B between tracks 2 and 3 opened on May 7, 2015. The other two platforms opened on September 8, 2016.
Above the station, there are three mezzanine levels. The top two levels contain shops as part of the Westfield World Trade Center. The first mezzanine level below ground also contains the Cortlandt Street–Greenwich Street station for the 1 train and a direct entrance to the northbound platform. A connection to the Cortlandt Street–Church Street station's southbound platform, for the N, R, and W trains, is located at the far east end of the mezzanine, past the mall's shops. The second mezzanine level contains the entrances to the station, as well as more connections to the subway. The third mezzanine level, located directly above the platform, contains the fare control and access to the platforms.:S.10
Prior to reconstruction, station had a temporary entrance on Church Street, which opened along with the rest of the temporary station in November 2003. With the redevelopment of the World Trade Center site, the entrances and size of the temporary station have changed over time. In 2007, the Church Street entrance was relocated to the south, and the old entrance was closed and demolished. In April 2008, a third and final temporary entrance to the station was located at Vesey Street, facing Greenwich Street and adjacent to 7 World Trade Center. The temporary entrance was a one-story building on the south side of Vesey Street. On March 3, 2016, the permanent PATH station building opened and the temporary entrance was closed. The former temporary entrance was demolished later that year to make way for the Performing Arts Center.
A connection to Brookfield Place opened on October 27, 2013, through a permanent passageway known as the West Concourse. On August 16, 2016, the Westfield World Trade Center entrance opened. To accommodate repairs to the Downtown Hudson Tubes, service on the Newark–World Trade Center line between Exchange Place and World Trade Center was suspended during almost all weekends in 2019 and 2020, except on holiday weekends.
|Fulton St to Cortlandt St subway cross-section|
|Greenwich St||WTC Transportation
Hub (Oculus) /
|Nassau St||William St|
|1||R / W||4 / 5||J / Z south||mezzanine|
|underpass||underpass||Dey Street Passageway||underpass||mezzanine||J / Z north||mezzanine||2 / 3|
|mezzanine||← A / C →|
Hudson Terminal was built by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad and opened on July 19, 1909. Hudson Terminal included two 22-story office buildings located above the station on the two blocks between Greenwich, Cortlandt, Church, and Fulton Streets. The terminal was designed with ramps to allow pedestrian traffic to flow in and out of the station quickly and easily. The station was served by two single-track tubes connected by a loop to speed train movements. The loop included five tracks and 3 platforms (2 center island and one side) and was somewhat similar to the arrangement of the first and second World Trade Center stations.:59–60
By 1914, passenger volume at the Hudson Terminal had reached 30,535,500 annually. Volume nearly doubled by 1922, with 59,221,354 passengers that year. Overall ridership on the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad declined substantially from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958, after new automobile tunnels and bridges opened across the Hudson River.:56 The H&M went bankrupt in 1954. The state of New Jersey wanted the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to take over the railroad, but the Port Authority had long viewed it as unprofitable.
The Port Authority ultimately took over the H&M as part of an agreement concerning the construction of the World Trade Center. The Port Authority had initially proposed constructing the complex on the East River, on the opposite side of Lower Manhattan from Hudson Terminal. As an interstate agency, the Port Authority required approval for its projects from both New Jersey's and New York's state governments, but the New Jersey government objected that the proposed trade center would mostly benefit New York. In late 1961, Port Authority executive director Austin J. Tobin proposed shifting the project to Hudson Terminal and taking over the H&M in exchange for New Jersey's agreement. On January 22, 1962, the two states reached an agreement to allow the Port Authority to take over the railroad and build the World Trade Center on the Hudson Terminal site, which was by then deemed obsolete.
Old PATH stations
Original PATH station
Groundbreaking on the World Trade Center took place in 1966. The site was on land fill, with bedrock located 213 feet (65 m) below the surface. A new method was used to construct a slurry wall to keep out water from the Hudson River. During excavation of the site and construction of the towers, the original Hudson Tubes remained in service as elevated tunnels. The new station cost $35 million to build. At the time, it had a passenger volume of 85,000 daily.
The Hudson Terminal station closed on July 2, 1971, to allow a three-day maintenance period to divert service to the World Trade Center PATH station. The new PATH station opened on July 6, 1971, west of the original terminal. Larger balloon loops in the PATH station platform allowed 10-car trains; the previous station with its tight loops could only handle trains of up to 6 cars. When the station opened, it had nine high-speed escalators between the platform level and the mezzanine level. The WTC PATH station was served by Newark–World Trade Center and Hoboken–World Trade Center trains. The station was connected to the World Trade Center towers via an underground concourse and a shopping center. There were also underground connections to the New York City Subway (A, C, and E trains at World Trade Center, and N, R, and W trains at Cortlandt Street–Church Street). By 2001, the volume of passengers using the WTC PATH station was approximately 25,000 daily. While the construction of the World Trade Center neared completion, a temporary corridor was provided to take passengers between the station and a temporary entrance on Church Street.
The station sustained minor damage during the 1993 World Trade Center bombing; a section of ceiling in the station collapsed and trapped dozens. Within a week, the Port Authority was able to resume PATH service to the World Trade Center.
The station was closed on September 11, 2001, after American Airlines Flight 11 hit the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8:46 a.m.. In the minutes afterward, three PATH trains pulled into the station. One had arrived from Newark and two others from Hoboken. The first Hoboken train turned around without stopping, not letting off passengers or opening any doors. The second Hoboken train arrived on track 3 at 8:52 a.m. and was ordered to be evacuated, employees included; the train never left the World Trade Center complex and was found during the 9/11 recovery process. A train from Newark came into the terminal at 8:55 a.m. and stopped only to pick up passengers. After United Airlines Flight 175 hit the South Tower at 9:03 a.m., dispatchers ordered the closure of the Exchange Place and World Trade Center stations; the former was closed due to severe water damage. A fourth train was sent to the station at 9:10 a.m. to pick up a dozen PATH employees and a homeless individual, leaving the station empty. The station was subsequently destroyed during the collapse of the World Trade Center.
Temporary PATH station
With the station destroyed, service to Lower Manhattan was suspended for over two years. Exchange Place, the next station on the Newark–World Trade Center line, also had to be closed because it could not operate as a terminal station. Instead, two uptown services (Newark–33rd Street, red on the official PATH map; and Hoboken–33rd Street, blue on the map) and one intrastate New Jersey service (Hoboken–Journal Square, green on the map) were put into operation. Cleanup of the Exchange Place station was needed after the attacks. In addition, the downtown Hudson tubes had been flooded, which destroyed the track infrastructure. Modifications to the tracks were also required since the Exchange Place station was not a terminal station. The uptown PATH tubes, ferry routes, and NJ Transit lines across the Hudson River could not handle the displaced ridership on their own, and it was deemed necessary to rebuild the World Trade Center terminal.:S.3 After the reconfiguration of the Exchange Place station was completed, it was reopened to PATH trains on June 29, 2003. The setup was temporary: passengers at Exchange Place would transfer to ferries to Lower Manhattan until the World Trade Center station could be reopened later that year.
PATH service to Lower Manhattan was restored when a temporary station opened on November 23, 2003. The inaugural train was the same one that had been used for the evacuation. The temporary PATH station was designed by Port Authority chief architect Robert I. Davidson and constructed at a cost of $323 million. It was located at the same place as the original station.:S.4 The station featured a canopy entrance along Church Street and a 118-by-12-foot (36 by 3.7 m) mosaic mural, "Iridescent Lightning," by Giulio Candussio of the Scuola Mosaicisti del Friuli in Spilimbergo, Italy. The station was also adorned with opaque panel walls inscribed with inspirational quotes attesting to the greatness and resilience of New York City. These panels partially shielded the World Trade Center site from view.
Some sections of the station, including the passageway and the signage on the northeast corner, were only lightly damaged on September 11, 2001, during the collapse of the World Trade Center. These sections of the station were retained in the temporary station, and remained in the new station. Following its reopening and the resumption of Newark–World Trade Center and Hoboken–World Trade Center services, the station quickly reclaimed its status as the busiest station in the PATH system. However, it had several limitations. The temporary station had 8-car-long platforms, whereas the original station had 10-car-long platforms. The station frame was also not strong enough to support development above it, and parts of the station were located outdoors in the "bathtub".:S.4 The temporary station had only one entrance, at Church Street, and disabled patrons needed to take four elevators to go from street level to platform level.:S.5
The station was also home to a StoryCorps booth, which opened in 2005. Through this program, visitors could arrange to give oral recorded histories of the disaster. The booth closed in the spring of 2007 to make way for construction at the World Trade Center site. In June 2007, the street entrance to the temporary station was closed and demolished as part of the site construction. A set of new staircases was constructed several feet to the south, and a "tent" structure was added to provide cover from the elements. The tent structure, by Voorsanger Architects and installed at a cost of $275,000, was designed to have an "aspiring quality," according to architect Bartholomew Voorsanger. That entrance on Church Street was closed in April 2008 when the entrance was relocated once again. On April 1, 2008, the third temporary entrance to the PATH station opened for commuters. The entrance was located on Vesey Street, adjacent to 7 World Trade Center. It was demolished with the opening of the permanent Calatrava-designed station, since it was on the site of the future Performing Arts Center.
World Trade Center Transportation Hub
The World Trade Center Transportation Hub is the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey's formal name for the new PATH station and the associated transit and retail complex that opened on March 3, 2016. The station's renaming took place when the station reopened. It was designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava and composed of a train station with a large and open mezzanine under the National September 11 Memorial plaza. This mezzanine is connected to an aboveground head house structure called the Oculus—located between 2 World Trade Center and 3 World Trade Center—as well as to public concourses under the various towers in the World Trade Center complex.
In addition, the station was designed to connect the PATH to the New York City Subway system, and to facilitate a below ground east–west passageway that connects to the various modes of transportation in Lower Manhattan, from the Fulton Center to the Battery Park City Ferry Terminal. Furthermore, to replace the lost retail space from the original mall at the World Trade Center, significant portions of the Hub are devoted to the new 365,000-square-foot (33,900 m2) Westfield World Trade Center mall.
After the September 11 attacks, officials proposed a $7 billion redesign of transit in Lower Manhattan. This included a new PATH terminal, the Fulton Center, the South Ferry/Whitehall Street terminal further downtown, and the reconstruction of the West Side Highway.:S.5 Other development projects to restart Lower Manhattan's economy were also proposed, and a new PATH terminal was seen as instrumental in making this happen.:S.5 In August 2002, the U.S. government allocated $4.5 billion to build a terminal linking the subway and PATH stations at the World Trade Center site. Four locations were considered,:S.8 and it was ultimately decided to build the new terminal four levels underground, along the base of the World Trade Center "bathtub".:S.11
A large transit station was not part of the 2003 Memory Foundations master plan for the site by Daniel Libeskind, which called for a smaller station along the lines of the original subterranean station that existed beneath the World Trade Center. Libeskind's design proposed that the current station house's site be left as an open plaza, forming a "Wedge of Light" so that sun rays around the autumnal equinox would hit the World Trade Center footprints each September. The plaza would have included a wedge whose lines showed the sun's rays at 8:46 a.m. and 10:28 a.m. on September 11 of each year. These times respectively represented when American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower and when it collapsed.
In early 2004, the Port Authority, which owns the land, modified the Libeskind plan to include a large transportation station downtown, intended to rival Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal. Calatrava was hired as the architect for this new, $2 billion design, and he revealed his plan in January 2004. Calatrava's design called for an above-ground station house (now the Oculus) with curved supports that extended outward, like wings. These wings would run the length of the concourse, which would run from Church Street in the east to the PATH station under Greenwich Street in the west. The building itself would be located on its own block, bounded clockwise from the north by Fulton, Church, Dey, and Greenwich Streets.
A skylight would run the length of the station building. The roof was originally designed to mechanically open to increase light and ventilation to the enclosed space. In a nod to the Libeskind concept, the Oculus was built to maximize the effect of the autumnal equinox rays (coinciding with the skylight opening on or around September 11 every year). On the actual anniversary of the attacks, the skylight would open for 102 minutes to commemorate the duration between the time the first tower was hit and the collapse of the second tower. If needed, the skylight could also be manually opened to provide air ventilation.
As outlined in the reconstruction plan, the new terminal would be rebuilt in several stages. The first phase would include the construction of a temporary northern entrance, which would be open between 2005 and 2006. The second phase would entail the construction of an East-West Concourse under the West Side Highway, connecting to the World Financial Center (now Brookfield Place). The third phase would include temporary structural underpinning for a temporary platform and track, as well as the construction of Platform D, the first permanent platform. The fourth phase would consist of the lengthening of the other three platforms, expansion of the mezzanine, and structural completion, while the fifth phase would include the construction of the station house. The complex would be completed by 2009 or 2010 under this plan.:S.14–S.15
The station design received critical acclaim. In 2004, Herbert Muschamp, architecture critic for The New York Times, compared the design to the Bethesda Terrace and Fountain in Central Park. He congratulated the Port Authority for hiring Calatrava, and predicted that the new station would be able to impact the city's future. Muschamp continued that the architect's vision "should satisfy those who believe that buildings planned for ground zero must aspire to a spiritual dimension." Another New York Times critic, Michael Kimmelman, wrote that the PATH hub was appropriate for the World Trade Center site, as it would be "a major cultural contribution" to the New York City skyline. A committee for Manhattan Community Board 1 called the station design "beautiful" in 2005.
Calatrava described the original design as representative of "a bird being released from a child's hand". However, Calatrava's original soaring spike design was scaled back because of security issues. The New York Times observed in 2005 that the "bird has grown a beak", and that because of the new security features, the station might "now evoke a slender stegosaurus more than it does a bird". The design was further modified in 2008 to eliminate the opening and closing roof mechanism because of budget and space constraints.
A Curbed NY reporter wrote in 2015, "The platform's mezzanine level ... is kind of amazing and shows off the station's soaring ribbed structure", but other reviews derided the station redesign as being more gaudy than utilitarian. In 2014, Benjamin Kabak, a blogger writing for The Atlantic's CityLab, criticized the emphasis placed on form over function, citing design flaws driven by aesthetic choices that detract from the station's usability as a transit hub. He stated that the staircases could not accommodate the number of passengers using the station during rush hours, and that any leaks caused the marble floors to become slippery. Kabak also said that "the PATH Hub is shaping up to be an example of design divorced from purpose." Steve Cuozzo of the New York Post described the station in 2014 as it was being built as "a self-indulgent monstrosity" and "a hideous waste of public money". Michael Kimmelman, architecture critic for The New York Times, referred to the structure as "a kitsch stegosaurus". In 2015, as the station neared completion, New York magazine referred to the hub as a "Glorious Boondoggle" and, while withholding final judgement on the unfinished structure, did note the "Jurassic" appearance. When the station opened in 2016, the New York Post editorial board called the hub the "world's most obscenely overpriced commuter rail station — and possibly its ugliest", deeming the transit hub a "white elephant" and "monstrosity", comparing the Oculus to a "giant gray-white space insect".
A 600-foot (180 m) pedestrian underpass under the West Side Highway, referred to as the West Concourse and formerly as the East-West Connector, links the WTC station mezzanine with Brookfield Place in Battery Park City, on the west side of the World Trade Center. It contains stores as part of Westfield World Trade Center. The concourse itself opened on October 23, 2013. Access to One World Trade Center from the West Concourse became possible for employees when the tower opened on November 3, 2014. On May 29, 2015, the same day the tower's observatory opened, the entrance to the observation deck opened. The concourse cost $225 million to build, and has been described as the most expensive passageway in the world.
Construction of the Oculus called for relocation of the World Trade Center cross in April 2006. However, the Oculus's construction did not begin in earnest until July 8, 2008, when the first prefabricated "ribs" for the pedestrian walkway under Fulton Street were installed on the site. The mezzanine level of the station was undergoing major construction and work on the foundation was underway. By March 2011, over 225 of the 300 steel pieces that make up the roof of the station were installed. Later that month installation of the Vierendeel Truss, one of the hub's key components, began with the installation of a 50 short tons (45 long tons) section of the 271-short-ton (242-long-ton) truss. The truss serves as the mezzanine roof and also acts as a support for the northeast corner of the WTC Memorial.
The Oculus's $542 million construction contract was awarded to Skanska in summer 2010. The project included steel erection for the substructure; construction connecting to the Vehicular Security Center; the Greenwich Street corridor and the steel and concrete placing under the 1 train's subway box; and preparations for installation of east arch truss. By June 2013, ten pieces of exterior arches were installed for the Oculus. The initial construction was expected to conclude at the end of 2014 or beginning of 2015, and the internal construction such as paint, turnstiles, and ticket booths, was expected to complete in the end of 2015, with an official opening scheduled for December 17, 2015. On October 23, 2013, the West Concourse opened with access to the World Financial Center, now renamed the Brookfield Place. The storefronts were covered and not yet opened, and the second floor was still closed for construction of One World Trade Center.
On February 25, 2014, half of the first platform of the new station, Platform A, was opened to the public with service to Hoboken. The new platform, an island platform, was fully modernized and contains new lighting, speakers, illuminated signs, escalators and elevators. The west side of the platform was walled off at the time. On November 3, One World Trade Center opened, as did the PATH entrance from that building. Eight days later, the Fulton Center and Dey Street Concourse opened to the public. The Dey Street Concourse entrance into the Transportation Hub was closed until the Hub opened. On November 22, the last of 114 rafters was installed. Also by this date, one crane had been disassembled and painting of the hub continued.
On May 7, 2015, Platform B and the remaining half of Platform A opened, and Platform C closed. A few weeks later on May 29, the entrance to the observation deck in the West Concourse was opened on the same day One World Observatory also opened. In late September, the temporary new West Walkway opened with access from the platforms to the West Concourse.
Cost and delays
The Transportation Hub has been described as either one of the world's most expensive train stations, or the world's single most expensive station, for its massive reconstruction cost of approximately $4 billion. By contrast, the proposed 2-mile (3.2 km) extension of the Newark–World Trade Center PATH service to Newark Liberty International Airport is projected to cost $1.5 billion. The hub was also criticized for its delays, as the hub was completed almost 10 years later than originally projected. However, even the original cost projections for the hub were high, as the original proposal was projected to cost almost $2 billion. The high cost for a single station is attributed to the extravagant design, which stems from the Port Authority needing to convince the government of New Jersey to pay for a project situated entirely in New York.
Originally, the reconstruction was to be funded by the Federal Transit Administration, which gave approximately $1.9 billion to the project. The costs of the hub were still expensive, but it was to be finished at budget in 2009. In 2014 dollars, the cost of the hub was estimated at $4 billion. The hub cost twice as much in 2014 as it should have originally cost in 2004. The West Concourse cost $225 million and was billed as the "world's most expensive hallway". Construction, maintenance, and management alone cost $635 million; the Port Authority awarded several subcontracts, most of them costly. The fees of the main construction team took up almost a billion dollars, and utility installation around the entire World Trade Center site cost another $400 million. Over $500 million in cost savings was overlooked.
The design was costly, with Calatrava netting $80 million in design fees and the overall architectural design being another $405.8 million. Speeding up the pace of construction also contributed to the higher cost, with $100 million dedicated to building the National September 11 Memorial & Museum and another $24 million to speed up delivery of construction materials. The price of the station was further driven up by Calatrava's architectural decisions.[e] He wanted to import custom-made steel from a northern Italian factory, which cost $474 million, and have a columnless, aesthetically based design; skylights in the ground, instead of trees;[f] and large, soaring "wings", or rafters. Another $335 million was added to the cost overrun because the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey had to build around the New York City Subway's IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (carrying the 1 train), since the Metropolitan Transportation Authority refused to close the line for fear of inconveniencing commuters from Staten Island taking the Staten Island Ferry. The line had to be supported on a bridge over the station instead of on columns through the station. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy damaged several hundred million dollars worth of materials. Some of the additional cost and delay was due to additions and modifications to the original plan by the Port Authority. Calatrava's original entry pavilion was scaled back for security reasons, for instance.
The hub's skyrocketing costs also attracted much controversy. An editor at The New York Times wrote that "Mr. Calatrava is amassing an unusually long list of projects marred by cost overruns, delays and litigation", referring to his other projects around the world that were over budget. Especially because the current station has a ridership of only 46,000 daily passengers compared to 250,000 at Grand Central Terminal, the renovation is sometimes depicted as overpriced and overstylized. According to a writer for Esquire magazine, even if the hub's cost were disregarded, operating the PATH was itself a waste of money for the Port Authority.[g]
In late 2015, the opening was delayed to early 2016 by a leaking roof. When the hub opened in March 2016, the director of the Port Authority, Pat Foye, declined to hold an event to celebrate the opening of the Hub, describing it as "symbol of excess" and noting he was "troubled with the huge cost" of the construction project.
On March 3, 2016, the Oculus partially opened to the public, along with new entrances. Only the west end of the Oculus and the Westfield Mall corridor to Four World Trade Center was opened. Two months later, on May 26, 2016, PATH riders received a direct underground link to Fulton Center and the Cortlandt Street–Church Street station through the Oculus. The PATH entrance into 2 World Trade Center opened on June 21, 2016, and the temporary PATH entrance to outside 7 World Trade Center closed five days later. Yet another entrance opened to the public when the Westfield World Trade Center mall was opened on August 16. On September 8, 2016, the restrooms were opened on the south side of the mezzanine. The last two station platforms in the hub, Platforms C and D, were also opened, as was the permanent West Concourse walkway. On December 19, the direct underground link to the New York City Subway's World Trade Center station, at the northeast corner of the complex, reopened.
Following the 17th anniversary of the September 11 attacks in 2018, the rubber seal of the Oculus's skylight broke. As a result, for the 18th anniversary in 2019, the skylight was unable to open as scheduled.
On October 13, 2016, the first birth inside the Oculus occurred. A woman was walking through the station with her husband when she went into labor, eventually giving birth on the floor. Another woman had previously given birth inside the old PATH station in August 2015.
A few months later, on February 11, 2017, the first death inside the Oculus occurred. A woman from New Jersey, Jenny Santos, fell to her death from an escalator. News reports initially said she was trying to retrieve a hat dropped by her sister, but lost her balance and fell; it was later revealed that she "was pretending to be flying" while lying on the escalator's handrail. After her death, there was some focus on the height of the 3-foot-4-inch (1.02 m) handrails, and how they could pose a safety risk.
Adjacent transit connections
The Transportation Hub is designed to connect the PATH subway system to the New York City Subway system. The 1 service, which runs through the Transportation Hub, was reconstructed under this project to run above the PATH mezzanine. The 1 train's rebuilt WTC Cortlandt station, which opened in September 2018, has direct access into the Hub. There is also a direct access to the Chambers Street–World Trade Center/Park Place/Cortlandt Street station complex. The N, R, and W trains' Cortlandt Street–Church Street station also has direct access into the Hub. In addition, the Dey Street Passageway along Dey Street connects the Transportation Hub east to the Fulton Center, providing access to the 2, 3, 4, 5, A, C, E, J, N, R, W, and Z services. A passageway, known as the West Concourse, connects west to Brookfield Place and the Battery Park City Ferry Terminal.
Between September 2003 and April 2004, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the Port Authority, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation conducted a feasibility study of the Lower Manhattan–Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project. It would use the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Branch to Downtown Brooklyn and a tunnel to Lower Manhattan to provide faster service to John F. Kennedy International Airport. The project was halted in 2008 before an environmental impact statement could be created.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights only|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops rush hours in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
|Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
|↑||Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
in the indicated direction only
|Elevator access to mezzanine only|
|IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line||Park Place||Part of the Chambers–WTC/Park Place/Cortlandt Street complex|
|IND Eighth Avenue Line||Chambers Street|
|E||IND Eighth Avenue Line||World Trade Center|
|BMT Broadway Line||Cortlandt Street|
|1||IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line||WTC Cortlandt|
Lower Manhattan transit
The Fulton Street station complex (where the Fulton Center opened in November 2014) is two blocks away to the east and is fully compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. It features the following services:
|IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line|
|IRT Lexington Avenue Line|
|IND Eighth Avenue Line|
|BMT Nassau Street Line|
At the northeast end of the station is the exit to the World Trade Center station of the New York City Subway. The doors and original ADA-accessible ramp, as well as the structure from the first World Trade Center leading into the station, survived the September 11 attacks. The station itself was not damaged, but it was covered by dust and was subsequently closed. The passageway reopened to provide an ADA-connection from the temporary PATH station to the New York City Subway station, but was closed again when the temporary PATH station closed for a reconstruction. The passageway was then covered in plywood for preservation purposes. The renovated entrance, leading to the New York City Subway station from the Oculus headhouse and the Westfield World Trade Center, opened on December 19, 2016. The newly reopened passageway retained its pre-9/11 design, save for a door on display that has the words "MATF 1 / 9 13" spray-painted on it (a message from Urban Search and Rescue Massachusetts Task Force 1 of Beverly, Massachusetts, who searched the World Trade Center site on September 13, 2001). There is a plaque above the spray-painting, explaining the message on the door. PATH was required to preserve the passageway's original design as per Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as a condition for getting funding to construct the Oculus and new stations. The passageway was not made ADA-accessible again until 2017, as there are twenty-six steps down from the mezzanine to the Oculus headhouse's lobby.
|A 1974 photo of the old station|
- "PATH Ridership Report" (PDF). pathnynj.gov. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- Dunlap, David W. (December 16, 2004). "Blocks; At Site of New Tower, a Game of Inches". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018 (a diagram is available here).CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (2007). Permanent WTC PATH Terminal: Environmental Impact Statement. United States Department of Transportation; Federal Transit Administration.
- Hinds, Kate (February 25, 2014). "Photos That Will Make You Want To Ride The PATH Train". wnyc.org. WNYC. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Port Authority to open first platform for new World Trade Center PATH station | 7online.com". abc7. Abclocal.go.com. February 24, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Port Authority Opens First Platform At New WTC PATH Station " CBS New York". Newyork.cbslocal.com. February 25, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Rivoli, Dan (May 7, 2015). "'Awesome' new PATH station at World Trade Center opens Thursday". AM New York. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Higgs, Larry (May 26, 2016). "New platforms, bathrooms open at $4B WTC transit hub". NJ.com. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Dunlap, David W. (November 24, 2003). "Again, Trains Put the World In Trade Center". The New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- "Media - World Trade Center - Media". Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. June 18, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- Dunlap, David W. (April 1, 2008). "A New Twist at the PATH Station". New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Lorenzetti, Laura (March 3, 2016). "The World's Most Expensive Train Station Opens Today". Fortune. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Verrill, Courtney (March 4, 2016). "New York City's $4 billion World Trade Center Transportation Hub is finally open to the public". Business Insider. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Bindelglass, Evan (August 22, 2016). "Demolition Imminent for Temporary World Trade Center PATH Station". New York YIMBY. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Lynch, Marley (January 27, 2016). "The World Trade Center PATH tunnel opened today (slide show)". Time Out New York. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "Timeline of the Rebuilding Effort". World Trade Center. September 8, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Rogers, Katie (August 17, 2016). "John Legend Performs at Westfield World Trade Center Opening". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- Kirby, Jen (August 16, 2016). "Here's a Look at the World Trade Center Mall That's Reopening Today". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
- Walker, Ameena (December 5, 2018). "World Trade Center's PATH station will close for 45 weekends for repairs". Curbed NY. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Taft, William H. (July 20, 1909). "40,000 Celebrate New Tubes' Opening; Downtown McAdoo Tunnels to Jersey City Begin Business with a Rush". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
- Condit, C.W. (1980). The Port of New York: A history of the rail terminal system from the beginnings to Pennsylvania Station. The Port of New York. University of Chicago Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-226-11460-6. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Droege, John Albert (1916). Passenger Terminals and Trains. McGraw-Hill. pp. 157–159.
- Cudahy, Brian J. (2002), Rails Under the Mighty Hudson (2nd ed.), New York: Fordham University Press, ISBN 978-0-82890-257-1, OCLC 911046235
- "315,724,808 Came or Left City in 1922" (PDF). New York Times. April 15, 1923. p. E1. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- "Hudson Tubes File Bankruptcy Plea; H. & M. Line, Unable to Meet Debts, Acts to Reorganize -- Losses Since '52 Cited". The New York Times. November 20, 1954. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8135-2742-0.
- Levinson, Leonard Louis (1961). Wall Street. New York: Ziff Davis Publishing. p. 346.
- Grutzner, Charles (January 27, 1960). "A World Center of Trade Mapped Off Wall Street" (PDF). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Grutzner, Charles (December 29, 1961). "Port Unit Backs Linking of H&M and Other Lines" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- Wright, George Cable (January 23, 1962). "2 States Agree on Hudson Tubes and Trade Center" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- Iglauer, Edith (November 4, 1972). "The Biggest Foundation". The New Yorker.
- Carroll, Maurice (December 30, 1968). "A Section of the Hudson Tubes Is Turned Into Elevated Tunnel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- "Air-Cooled PATH Terminal in World Trade Center Opens Tuesday" (PDF). The New York Times. July 1, 1971. p. 94. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- "PATH Station Will Close Friday for 3-Day Changeover". Wall Street Journal. June 28, 1971. p. 3. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 133597796. Retrieved October 2, 2020 – via ProQuest.
- Burks, Edward C. (July 7, 1971). "New PATH Station Opens Downtown" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 74. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- Wyckoff, P.L. and Rudy Larini (September 13, 2001). "Next Stop, Semi-Normalcy". The Star-Ledger. Newark.
- McFadden, Robert D. (February 27, 1993). "Blast Hits Trade Center, Bomb Suspected; 5 Killed, Thousands Flee Smoke In Towers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Newkirk, Pamela (February 28, 1993). "Now, the Cleanup, Work begins assessing the damage". Newsday. New York.
- Marks, Peter (March 1, 1993). "PATH and Subway Service Is Being Restored". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- The Associated Press (August 20, 2011). "Decisive action by PATH employees kept 9/11 riders from danger". NJ.com. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "PATH Service Restoration". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2008.
- "Temporary World Trade Center PATH Station". New York Construction. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2008.
- Weiser, Benjamin (June 29, 2003). "Closed Since 9/11, a PATH Station Is Set to Reopen Today". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Train station at WTC site reopens - Nov. 23, 2003". CNN.com. November 23, 2003. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Dunlap, David W. (May 15, 2003). "At Ground Zero, a Conduit of People and Memory". New York Times. p. B3. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- Dunlap, David W. (February 27, 2004). "Ground Zero's Ephemeral Elegance". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- *Higgs, Larry (December 13, 2016). "When will the E Train be connected to WTC hub?". NJ.com. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "WTC Oculus E train access opens Monday". am New York. December 18, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Tirella, Talia (December 18, 2016). "Long-closed passageway from original WTC to reopen on Monday". New York's PIX11 / WPIX-TV. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "Press Releases: BACK ON TOP: WORLD TRADE CENTER PATH STATION RECLAIMS SPOT AS RAIL SYSTEM'S BUSIEST ON WEEKDAYS". Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. February 12, 2004. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- "GOVERNOR PATAKI ANNOUCES [sic] START OF CONSTRUCTION ON TWO NEW INTERIM MEMORIAL PROJECTS FOR FAMILIES AND VISITORS TO THE WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE". Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. June 16, 2005. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- "About the World Trade Center". Silverstein Properties. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- Dunlap, David W. (April 10, 2008). "Folding a Large and Symbolic Tent Downtown". New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- *"WTC Arts Center Snagged". The Wall Street Journal. March 9, 2014. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- "Future of Gehry's World Trade Center Performing Arts Center Still Uncertain". Architect's Newspaper. March 27, 2013. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- Dailey, Jessica (March 10, 2014). "Things Are Not Looking Good For The WTC Arts Center". Curbed. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- "Project Updates: World Trade Center Transportation Hub". lowermanhattan.info. Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center. Archived from the original on September 28, 2010. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (February 24, 2011). "Trade Center Transit Hub's Cost Now Over $3.4 Billion". New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
- Hampson, Rick (August 24, 2014). "NYC transit hub: Bold statement or boondoggle?". USA TODAY. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- D'Innocenzio, Anne (August 16, 2016). "After 15 years, shopping returns to World Trade Center". ABC7 New York. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Wyatt, Edward; Kennedy, Randy (April 20, 2002). "$7.3 Billion Vision To Rebuild Transit Near Ground Zero". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (August 10, 2002). "U.s. Agrees to Give $4.5 Billion to Link Subway and Path". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Libeskind, Daniel (July 17, 2012). "World Trade Center Master Plan". Studio Libeskind. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Srinivasan, Ragini Tharoor (August 28, 2013). "Daniel Libeskind's World Trade Center Change of Heart". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Rogers, Josh (January 29, 2004). "W.T.C. train station unveiled". Downtown Express. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Dunlap, David W. (January 22, 2004). "Design for Trade Center PATH Station Is to Be Unveiled". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Rice, Andrew (March 12, 2015). "The Glorious Boondoggle". New York. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Rosenberg, Zoe (July 20, 2015). "Skylight of World Trade Center Oculus Will Open Each Sept. 11". Curbed NY. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Kim, Elizabeth (September 11, 2019). "The Oculus Skylight Did Not Open In Tribute To 9/11 Victims, As It Was Designed To Do". Gothamist. Retrieved September 12, 2019.
- Raab, Scott (October 11, 2017). "World Trade Center Rebuild - The Truth About the World Trade Center". Esquire. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Muschamp, Herbert (January 23, 2004). "An Appraisal; PATH Station Becomes A Procession of Flight". New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Kimmelman, Michael (February 1, 2004). "Architecture - Ground Zero Finally Grows Up". New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Keohane, Ellen (September 16, 2005). "C.B. 1 committee praises transportation hub". www.downtownexpress.com. Community Media LLC. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- "Calatrava's World Trade Center Oculus photographed by Hufton + Crow". Dezeen. August 29, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 28, 2005). "Approval Expected Today for Trade Center Rail Hub". New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 2, 2008). "Design of Ground Zero Transit Hub Is Trimmed". New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Dailey, Jessica (June 19, 2015). "New Looks Inside Calatrava's $4B World Trade Center Oculus". Curbed NY. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Kabak, Benjamin (October 7, 2014). "Why Can't Transportation Mega-Projects Be Both Beautiful and Practical?". CityLab. The Atlantic. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Cuozzo, Steve (August 2, 2014). "New York's $4B Shrine to Government Waste and Idiocy". New York Post. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Kimmelman, Michael (December 2, 2014). "Michael Kimmelman on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- New York Post Editorial Board (February 23, 2016). "$4 Billion Buys the World's Ugliest Commuter Rail Stop". New York Post. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- Chaban, Matt (October 24, 2013). "Portion of $4B Santiago Calatrava-designed PATH station is completed". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "Westfield Westfield World Trade Center Center Map". Westfield. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- Gould, Jessica (October 21, 2013). "New World Trade Center PATH Pedestrian Tunnel Opens This Week". WNYC. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- "Lower Manhattan : World Trade Center Transportation Hub". Lowermanhattan.info. October 24, 2013. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Moore, Jack (November 3, 2014). "World Trade Center Re-opens as Tallest Building in America". International Business Times. One World Trade Center. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
- Garger, Kenneth; O'Neill, Natalie; Roberts, Georgett (May 30, 2015). "'Out of this world': Trade Center observation deck opens". New York Post. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Smith, Stephen J. (November 6, 2013). "World's Most Expensive Hallway Even More Expensive Than We Thought – Next City". Nextcity.org. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Baird-Remba, Rebecca; Grossman, Matt; LaBarbera, Gary (November 7, 2013). "Trade Center Concourse Cost $225 M." Commercial Observer. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- "New York Desk". The New York Sun. April 14, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 11, 2008). "Among the Hard Angles, a Few New Curves". New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- "PANYNJ continues to post progress on WTC Transportation Hub". Progressive Railroading. October 25, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "World Trade Center Transportation Hub". Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- "World Trade Center Image Gallery". Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- "Port Authority Awards Largest Contract Yet For WTC Transit Hub". ENR. February 25, 2010. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "Transportation Hub - World Trade Center". Panynj.gov. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Barron, James (November 2, 2014). "1 World Trade Center, a Pillar of Resilience, Is Open for Business". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Yee, Vivian (November 9, 2014). "Fulton Center, a Subway Complex, Reopens in Lower Manhattan". The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Martinez, Jose (November 25, 2014). "Final Steel Rafter Installed On World Trade Center Transportation Hub" (PDF). panynj.gov (Press release). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
- "Inside the Oculus: Touring the new WTC PATH hub (PHOTOS)". NJ.com. September 25, 2015. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Dunlap, David W. (December 3, 2014). "How Cost of Train Station at World Trade Center Swelled to $4 Billion". New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- Vinnitskaya, Irina (June 3, 2013). "Calatrava to Build World's Most Expensive Transportation Hub". ArchDaily. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Geiger, Daniel (September 11, 2013). "Sources: Christie to back $1B PATH extension in Newark | Crain's New York Business". Crainsnewyork.com. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Haller, Vera (March 3, 2016). "World Trade Center transit hub over budget, past schedule -- and odd-looking, many say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Brenzel, Kathryn (April 1, 2016). "The 'Path' to $4 billion". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Walker, Alissa. "Can You Guess How Much NYC Paid The Architect Of The Most Expensive Train Station On Earth?". Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- Daley, Suzanne (September 24, 2013). "A Star Architect Leaves Some Clients Fuming". New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Braun, Martin Z. (August 22, 2014). "PATH Train Less Efficient Than Subways as Cars Cover Loss". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Rosenberg, Zoe (November 5, 2015). "World Trade Center Transportation Hub Plagued By Leaky Roof". Curbed NY. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Rubinstein, Dana (February 22, 2016). "Port Authority declines to celebrate Calatrava-designed transportation hub". Capital New York. Albany, N.Y. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- "World Trade Center transportation hub, dubbed Oculus, opens to public". ABC7 New York. March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- "Port Authority Announces Opening of World Trade Center Transportation Hub". Port Authority of New York, New Jersey. January 19, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "WTC Oculus link to Fulton Center officially opens". am New York. May 26, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "New PATH entrance at World Trade Center transit hub to open Tuesday". NJ.com. June 20, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Dunlap, David W. (December 18, 2016). "A Vestige of the Original World Trade Center Returns to Duty". The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- Berger, Paul (May 12, 2019). "The World Trade Center's $3.9 Billion Oculus Has Rip in Its Skylight". WSJ. Retrieved September 12, 2019.
- Meyer, David (September 10, 2019). "Leaky Oculus skylight won't be open for 9/11 tribute". New York Post. Retrieved September 12, 2019.
- "Woman Gives Birth At World Trade Center's New Transit Hub". CBS New York. October 13, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
- Plagianos, Irene (October 14, 2016). "Woman Gives Birth to Baby Girl on Floor of WTC Oculus, Officials Say". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on February 14, 2017. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
- Musumeci, Nichole (August 4, 2015). "Police officer helps deliver baby girl at World Trade Center PATH station". New York's PIX11 / WPIX-TV. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
- "Woman dies after she falls off escalator inside World Trade Center Oculus while reaching to grab hat". NY Daily News. February 11, 2017.
- "Woman falls to her death inside World Trade Center Oculus". Fox News. February 13, 2017.
- "N.J. woman played superhero on Oculus escalator before fall". NY Daily News. February 14, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- Yee, Vivian (November 9, 2014). "Out of Dust and Debris, a New Jewel Rises". New York Times.
- "Cortlandt Street Station, Damaged on Sept. 11, Reopens 17 Years Later". The New York Times. September 8, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "World Trade Center Station - PATH". The Port Authority of NY & NJ. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
- Gosling, Geoffrey D.; Freeman, Dennis (May 2012). "Case Study Report: John F. Kennedy International Airport AirTrain" (PDF). sjsu.edu. Mineta Transportation Institute. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Brown, Eliot (March 24, 2009). "The Tunnel From Nowhere". New York Observer. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- "Lower Manhattan-Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project, Summary Report, Prepared for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, and PANYNJ". Scribd. Parsons/SYSTRA Engineering, Inc. December 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
- "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 21, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Yee, Vivian (November 9, 2014). "Out of Dust and Debris, a New Jewel Rises". The New York Times.
- "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to |
|Google Maps Street View|
|Vesey Street entrance|
|Temporary station lobby|
|Temporary station turnstiles|
|New station lobby|
|New station island platform|
|WTC Transportation Hub|
|WTC Transportation Hub inside|