World Trade Center (PATH station)
The third entrance, opened in April 2008, of the temporary PATH station
|Location||World Trade Center
New York City, NY, USA
|Owned by||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Platforms||4 island platforms|
|Connections||New York City Subway:
at Park Place
at Chambers Street – World Trade Center
at Cortlandt Street
NYCT Bus: M5
|Opened||1903, 2015 (as WTC transportation hub)|
|Rebuilt||1971, 2003 (temporary station)|
|Electrified||600V (DC) Third Rail|
|Passengers (2006)||12.1 million 9%|
World Trade Center is a terminal station in Lower Manhattan built for PATH service. It was originally opened on July 19, 1909, as the Hudson Terminal, but was torn down and rebuilt as the original World Trade Center station, which opened in 1971. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, a temporary station opened in 2003. This station serves as the terminus for the Newark – World Trade Center and Hoboken – World Trade Center routes. The station is currently undergoing a major reconstruction project and will become the World Trade Center Transportation Hub after its completion, scheduled on December 17, 2015.
- 1 Station layout
- 2 Hudson Terminal
- 3 Old PATH stations
- 4 World Trade Center Transportation Hub
- 5 Adjacent transit connections
- 6 Gallery
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
|G||Street level||Entrance/Exit to Vesey Street and West Broadway/Greenwich Street|
|Entrance/Exit to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum|
|Escalators and elevator to mezzanine, (Shops, ATMs, under construction)|
|At-grade connection to Cortlandt Street subway station ( train, under construction)|
|North mezzanine||Ticket machines, one-way faregates, concourse, ramps and staircases to West and East mezzanines|
|West mezzanine||Elevators and stairs to tracks 4, 5, and 6|
|West Concourse to Brookfield Place|
|East mezzanine||Elevators, escalators, and stairs to tracks 1, 2, and 3|
|Cortlandt Street platforms||Transfer to New York City Subway trains (under construction)|
|Passageways (under construction)||Transfer to New York City Subway ( trains at World Trade Center and trains at Fulton Street; under construction)|
|B3||Mezzanine||Transfer between platforms|
|Track 1||← HOB–WTC toward Hoboken (Exchange Place)|
|Island platform (Platform A), doors will open on the left, right|
|Track 2||← NWK–WTC toward Newark (Exchange Place)|
|Island platform (Platform B), doors will open on the left, right|
|Track 3||← NWK–WTC toward Newark (Exchange Place)|
|Track 4||No regular service|
|Island platform (Platform C), not in service|
|Track 5||No regular service|
|Island platform (Platform D), not in service|
|Track 6||No regular service|
|Rebuilding of the
World Trade Center
|2 – 7 WTC|
The current station is a temporary station that has opened since November 2003. Due to the redevelopment of the World Trade Center site, the entrances and size of the temporary station have changed over time. The most current entrance to the station is located at Vesey Street, facing Greenwich Street and adjacent to 7 World Trade Center. The current entrance is a one story building on the south side of Vesey Street with a Hudson News outlet and escalators extending into a lower level mezzanine. A connection to Brookfield Place was made available since October 27, 2013 through a permanent passageway known as the West Concourse.
The station currently has four island platforms in a basement four stories underground, with two under construction. Tracks 1 2 & 3 are in use. The new Platform A, next to New Tracks 1 and 2, opened as part of the Transportation Hub on February 25, 2014. Track 1 on Platform A only serves HOB-WTC trains on weekdays, while full-time NWK-WTC trains use Platform B and part of Platform A between tracks 2 and 3, which opened on May 7, 2015.
Hudson Terminal was built by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad at the turn of the twentieth century and was located between Greenwich, Cortlandt, Church, and Fulton Streets. The Hudson Terminal included two 22-story office buildings located above the station.
The terminal was an architectural and engineering marvel of its time, designed with ramps to allow pedestrian traffic to flow in and out of the station quickly and easily. The station was served by two single-track tubes connected by a loop to speed train movements. The loop included five tracks and 3 platforms (2 center island and one side) and is somewhat similar to the current arrangement. By 1914, passenger volume at the Hudson Terminal had reached 30,535,500 annually. Volume nearly doubled by 1922; with 59,221,354 passengers that year at the Hudson Terminal.
Overall ridership on New Jersey's Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (H&M) declined substantially from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958, after new automobile tunnels and bridges opened across the Hudson River. The State of New Jersey was interested in getting the Port Authority to take over the railroad, but the Port Authority long viewed it as something unprofitable that they were never interested in. In the late 1950s, the Port Authority proposed to build a "world trade center" in New York City, on the east side of Lower Manhattan along the East River.
As a bi-state agency, Port Authority projects require approval from both the states of New Jersey and New York. Toward the end of 1961, negotiations with outgoing New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner regarding the World Trade Center project reached a stalemate. In December 1961, Port Authority executive director Austin J. Tobin met with newly elected New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, and made a proposal to shift the World Trade Center project to a west side site where the Hudson Terminal was located.
In acquiring the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, the Port Authority would also acquire the Hudson Terminal and other buildings which were deemed obsolete. On January 22, 1962, the two states reached an agreement to allow the Port Authority to take over the railroad and to build the World Trade Center on Manhattan's lower west side. The shift in location for the World Trade Center to a site more convenient to New Jersey, together with Port Authority acquisition of the H&M Railroad, brought New Jersey to agreement in support of the World Trade Center project.
Old PATH stations
Original PATH station
Groundbreaking on the World Trade Center took place in 1966. The site of the World Trade Center was located on landfill, with the bedrock located 65 metres (213 ft) below. A new method was used to construct a slurry wall that would keep water from the Hudson River out. During excavation of the site and construction of the towers, the original Hudson Tubes remained in service as elevated tunnels. The Hudson Terminal was shut down in 1971 when a new PATH station was completed. The new WTC PATH station cost $35 million to build. At the time, the station had a passenger volume of 85,000 daily.
The new PATH station opened on July 6, 1971, and was sited at a different location from the original Hudson Terminal. Larger balloon loops in the PATH station platform allowed 10-car trains to be utilized, as the previous station could handle 6-car trains due to tight loops. While construction of the World Trade Center neared completion, a temporary corridor was provided to take passengers between the station and a temporary entrance on Church Street. When it opened, the station had nine high-speed escalators between the platform level and the mezzanine level. The WTC PATH station was served by Newark – World Trade Center and Hoboken – World Trade Center trains. The PATH station was connected to the World Trade Center towers, via an underground concourse and a shopping center. There were also underground connections to the New York City Subway (A C E trains at World Trade Center, and N R trains at Cortlandt Street). By 2001, the volume of passengers using the WTC PATH station was approximately 25,000 daily.
The station did not sustain significant damage during the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, although a section of ceiling in the station collapsed and trapped dozens. Within a week, the Port Authority was able to resume PATH service to the World Trade Center. On September 11, 2001, the station was shut down by the Port Authority after the first attack. A train from Newark that came into the terminal at 8:55 am stopped only to pick up passengers. A second train, from Hoboken, came through at 9:00 am but did not stop and returned to New Jersey. PATH sent an empty train to the station at 9:10 am to pick up a dozen PATH employees and a homeless individual leaving the PATH station empty.
Temporary PATH station
With the station destroyed, service to Lower Manhattan was suspended for over two years. Exchange Place, the next station on the Newark – World Trade Center line, also had to be closed because it could not operate as a terminal station. Instead, two uptown services (Newark – 33rd Street (red) and Hoboken – 33rd Street (blue)) and one intrastate New Jersey service (Hoboken – Journal Square (green)) were put into operation.
Cleanup of the Exchange Place station was needed after the attacks. As well, the downtown Hudson tubes had been flooded, which destroyed the track infrastructure. Modifications to the tracks were also required since the Exchange Place station was never designed as a terminal station. The Exchange Place station re-opened in June 2003. PATH service to Lower Manhattan was restored when a temporary station opened on November 23, 2003. The inaugural train was the same one that had been used for the evacuation.
The temporary PATH station was designed by Port Authority chief architect Robert I. Davidson and constructed at a cost of $323 million. The station features a canopy entrance along Church Street and a 118-by-12 foot mosaic mural, "Iridescent Lightning," by Giulio Candussio of the Scuola Mosaicisti del Friuli in Spilimbergo, Italy. The station is also adorned with opaque panel walls inscribed with inspirational quotes attesting to the greatness and resilience of New York City. These panels partially shield the World Trade Center site from view.
In the 9/11 attacks, some sections of the station including the floor and the signage on the northeast corner, were only lightly damaged in the collapse of the World Trade Center. These sections of the station were retained in the temporary PATH station, and will remain in the new station, where it connects with the platforms for the A C E 2 3 trains. Following its reopening and the resumption of Newark – World Trade Center and Hoboken – World Trade Center services, the station quickly reclaimed its status as the busiest station in the PATH system.
The World Trade Center PATH station was also home to a Storycorps booth which opened in 2005. Through this program, visitors could arrange to give oral recorded histories of the disaster. The booth closed in Spring 2007 to make way for construction at the World Trade Center site. In June 2007, the street entrance to the temporary station was closed and demolished as part of the ongoing site construction. A set of new staircases was constructed several feet to the south, and a "tent" structure was added to provide cover from the elements. The tent structure, by Voorsanger Architects and installed at a cost of $275,000, was designed to have an "aspiring quality" according to architect Bartholomew Voorsanger. That entrance on Church Street was closed in April 2008 when the entrance was relocated once again. On April 1, 2008, the third new temporary entrance to the PATH station opened for commuters. The entrance is located on Vesey Street, adjacent to 7 World Trade Center. It will serve as the entrance until the opening of the permanent station, designed by Calatrava, and also to make way for a Performing Arts Center (Manhattan) if the proposed building finds approval.
World Trade Center Transportation Hub
The World Trade Center Transportation Hub is a transit and retail complex currently under construction by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to replace the temporary World Trade Center PATH station. Designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, the Transportation Hub is composed of a train station with a large and open mezzanine under the National September 11 Memorial plaza. This mezzanine is connected to an aboveground head house structure, called the Oculus, located between 2 World Trade Center and 3 World Trade Center, as well as public concourses under the various towers in the World Trade Center complex.
In addition, the station is designed to connect the PATH to the New York City Subway system, and to facilitate a below ground east-west passageway that connects to the various modes of transportation in Lower Manhattan, from the Fulton Center to the Battery Park City Ferry Terminal. Furthermore, to replace the lost retail space from the original Mall at the World Trade Center, significant portions of the Hub will be devoted to the new 365,000 square foot Westfield World Trade Center mall.
A large transit station was not part of the 2003 Memory Foundations master plan for the site by Daniel Libeskind, which called for a smaller station along the lines of the original subterranean station that existed beneath the World Trade Center. Libeskind's design called for the Oculus space to be left open, forming a "Wedge of Light" so that sun rays around the autumnal equinox would hit the World Trade Center footprints each September. In early 2004, the Port Authority, which owns the land, modified the Libeskind plan to include a large transportation station downtown, intended to rival Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal. In a nod to the Libeskind concept, the Oculus will be at an angle to maximize the effect of the autumnal equinox rays.
Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, designer of the station, said the Oculus resembles a bird being released from a child's hand. The roof was originally designed to mechanically open to increase light and ventilation to the enclosed space. Herbert Muschamp, architecture critic of The New York Times, wrote:
|“||Santiago Calatrava's design for the World Trade Center PATH station should satisfy those who believe that buildings planned for ground zero must aspire to a spiritual dimension. Over the years, many people have discerned a metaphysical element in Mr. Calatrava's work. I hope New Yorkers will detect its presence, too. With deep appreciation, I congratulate the Port Authority for commissioning Mr. Calatrava, the great Spanish architect and engineer, to design a building with the power to shape the future of New York. It is a pleasure to report, for once, that public officials are not overstating the case when they describe a design as breathtaking.||”|
Another critic wrote:
|“||The World Trade Center PATH Terminal by Santiago Calatrava, the renowned Spanish architect and engineer, is what we should have at ground zero. Not modified suburban malls with water fountains, but a major cultural contribution to our city.||”|
However, Calatrava's original soaring spike design has been scaled back because of security issues. The Times observed:
|“||In the name of security, Santiago Calatrava's bird has grown a beak. Its ribs have doubled in number and its wings have lost their interstices of glass.... [T]he main transit hall, between Church and Greenwich Streets, will almost certainly lose some of its delicate quality, while gaining structural expressiveness. It may now evoke a slender stegosaurus more than it does a bird.||”|
The design was further modified to eliminate the opening and closing roof mechanism because of budget and space constraints.
The station has also stirred problems with developer Larry Silverstein, who owns the lease for the World Trade Center site, since it took away available space for his proposed buildings.
The new West Street pedestrian underpass (the West Concourse, formerly the "east-west connector") links the WTC station mezzanine with a new transit pavilion at Battery Park City's Brookfield Place (formerly World Financial Center) on the west side of the World Trade Center site just south of 1 WTC and across West Street. It opened on the afternoon of October 23, 2013. Access to 1 World Trade Center from the West Concourse was also possible for employees when the tower opened on November 3, 2014. On May 29, the same day the tower's observatory opened, the entrance to the observation deck opened.
- Construction of the station called for relocation of the landmark World Trade Center cross in 2006.
- On July 8, 2008, the first prefabricated "ribs" for the pedestrian walkway under Fulton Street were installed on the site. The mezzanine level of the station is undergoing major construction and work on the foundation is still underway.
- By March 2011, over 225 of the 300 steel pieces which make up the roof of the station were installed. Later that month installation of the Vierendeel Truss, one of the hub's key components, began with the installation of a 50-ton section of the truss. When fully installed the combined weight of the truss will weigh 271 tons. The truss will serve as the mezzanine roof and also act as a support for the northeast corner of the WTC Memorial.
- By July 6, 2012, the following events were occurring:
- Steel erection for oculus substructure
- Construction connecting to Vehicle Security Center complex
- Greenwich Street corridor (1 train subway box): steel and concrete placing under 1 train subway box
- Preparations for installation of east arch truss
- Hub construction contract awarded to Skanska in summer 2010
- By June 2013, 10 pieces of exterior arches were installed for the Oculus. The initial construction is expected to conclude in the end of 2014 or beginning of 2015, and the internal construction including paint, turnstiles, ticket booths, etc. is expected to complete in the end of 2015, with an official opening scheduled on December 17, 2015.
- On October 23, 2013, the West Concourse opened with access to the World Financial Center, now renamed the Brookfield Place. The storefronts were covered and not yet opened, and the second floor had still not opened due to the construction of One World Trade Center. The escalators in the West Concourse were still out of service.
- By November 2013, about 110 arches, and the beginning of the wings, were installed, and 20 more arches were installed by January 2014.
- On February 25, 2014, half of the first platform of the new station, Platform A, was opened to the public with service to Hoboken. The new platform, an island platform, is fully modernized and contains new lighting, speakers, illuminated signs, escalators and elevators. The west side of the platform was walled off, giving Platform A the appearance of a side platform.
- By March 10, 2014, 106 out of 114 ribs were installed for the Oculus, as well as one rafter, or wing; by June 1, 2014, nine wings were installed, as well as the remaining 8 ribs.
- By May 2014, all the ribs out of 114 ribs were all installed, and the construction of the white rafters, or tips started, with the first 3. In late May, 2 more rafters were added, making the number of rafters added 5.
- By June 2014, 14 more rafters were added, and the construction of the rafters continued.
- By the end of July 2014, a total of 36 rafters were installed.
- By August 2014, 53 of 114 rafters were installed.
- By September 2014, the people posters on the storefronts inside the West Concourse were removed and the storefronts were visible.
- By mid-October 2014, 99 out of 114 rafters were installed. Painting of the Oculus also began.
- On November 3, 2014, the same day One World Trade Center opened, the West Concourse's escalators, which had been closed off since October 23, 2013, opened with access to the second floor and to One World Trade Center.
- On November 11, 2014, the Fulton Center and Dey Street Concourse opened to the public. The Dey Street Concourse entrance into the Transportation Hub is closed until the Hub opens.
- On November 22, 2014, the 114th and final rafter was installed. Also by this date, one crane had been disassembled and painting of the hub continued.
- By early December 2014, the final crane had been disassembled and painting of the hub continued.
- On May 7, 2015, Platform B and the remaining half of Platform A opened, and Platform C closed.
- On May 29, 2015, the same day One World Observatory opened, the entrance to the observation deck in the West Concourse opened.
- On June 25, 2015, the Oculus opened to some pedestrian traffic.
The permanent station is scheduled to be completed and open on December 17, 2015.
Cost and delays
The Transportation Hub has been dubbed "the world's most expensive transportation hub" due to its massive cost for reconstruction—$3.74 billion dollars. By contrast, the proposed two-mile PATH extension connecting Newark Liberty International Airport to the NWK-WTC service is projected to cost $1.5 billion. The hub has also been criticized for being delayed almost 10 years.
Originally, the reconstruction was to be funded by the Federal Transit Administration, which gave approximately $1.9 billion to the project. The costs of the hub were still expensive, but it was to be finished at budget in 2009. In 2014 dollars, the cost of the hub and the adjacent Fulton Center, combined, is $5.1 billion. The hub cost twice as much in 2014 as it should have originally cost in 2004. A single hallway in the elegantly constructed hub cost $225 million and was billed as the "world's most expensive hallway", while construction, maintenance, and management alone cost $635 million; the Port Authority awarded several subcontracts, most of them costly. In addition, over $500 million in cost savings was overlooked. The price of the station was further driven up by Calatrava's architectural decisions.[a 1] He wanted to import custom-made steel from a northern Italian factory, and have a columnless, aesthetically based design; skylights in the ground, instead of trees;[a 2] and large, soaring "wings", or rafters. Another $335 million was added to the cost overrun due to the fact that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey had to build around the New York City Subway's IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line (carrying the 1 train), since the Metropolitan Transportation Authority had refused to close the line due to fears of inconveniencing commuters from Staten Island taking the Staten Island Ferry. The line had to be supported on a bridge over the station instead of on columns through the station. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy damaged several hundred million dollars worth of materials.
The hub's skyrocketing costs also attracted much controversy, with an editor at The New York Times saying that "Mr. Calatrava is amassing an unusually long list of projects marred by cost overruns, delays and litigation", referring to other projects around the world designed by Calatrava that have been over-budgeted. Especially given the fact that the current station has a ridership of only 46,000 daily passengers (compared to 250,000 at Grand Central Terminal), some think that the renovation is overpriced and overstylized.
Steve Cuozzo of the New York Post described the station as "a self-indulgent monstrosity" and "a hideous waste of public money". Michael Kimmelman, architecture critic for The New York Times, referred to the structure as "a kitsch stegosaurus". New York magazine referred to it as a "Glorious Boondoggle" and, while withholding final judgement on the unfinished structure, did note the "Jurassic" appearance.
CityLab criticized the emphasis placed on form over function, citing design flaws driven by aesthetic choices that detract from the station's usability as a transit hub:
...the Port Authority's new hub fails its customers, the PATH-riding public. One platform is already completed, and its design flaws are obvious. Staircases are too narrow to accommodate the morning crowds who come streaming out of the trains from Hoboken, Jersey City, and beyond, while the narrow platforms quickly fill with irate commuters. Anyone trying to catch a train back to the Garden State risks a stampede. The marble, bright and sterile, picks up any spill, and a drop of water creates dangerously slippery conditions until a Port Authority janitor scurries out of some unseen door, mop in hand. Passenger flow and comfort, two of the most important elements of terminal design, seem to be an afterthought. The PATH Hub is shaping up to be an example of design divorced from purpose.
Adjacent transit connections
The current temporary PATH station does not have a direct connection to any adjacent subway stations, unlike previous incarnations of the terminal. Vesey Street has been pedestrianized to allow as a passageway between the World Trade Center subway station and the PATH station entrance. The PATH station was previously connected to the Cortlandt Street IRT station, but that station was severely damaged by the September 11 attacks and is being rebuilt as part of the Transportation Hub.
Since the Hudson Terminal was demolished, Lower Manhattan has not had an ambitious transit or railroad center, as the former complex at the World Trade Center was built beneath the buildings. The new station is designed to connect the PATH to the New York City Subway system. The 1 service, which runs through the Transportation Hub, was reconstructed under this project to run above the PATH mezzanine, and the rebuilt Cortlandt Street IRT station will have direct access into the Hub. There will also be direct access to the Chambers Street – World Trade Center / Park Place station complex, the Cortlandt Street IRT station, and the Cortlandt Street BMT station. In addition, the Dey Street Passageway along Dey Street connects the Transportation Hub east to the Fulton Center, providing access to the 2 3 4 5 A C J N R Z services. A passageway, known as the West Concourse, connects west to Brookfield Place and the Battery Park City Ferry Terminal. A proposal for a connection to the Long Island Rail Road and John F. Kennedy International Airport via a new tunnel under the East River, the Lower Manhattan-Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project, was studied starting in 2004, but as of 2009 was a lower priority than other projects competing for funding.
Current services include:
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights only|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops rush hours in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
|IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line||Park Place|
|IND Eighth Avenue Line||Chambers Street|
|E||IND Eighth Avenue Line||World Trade Center|
|BMT Broadway Line||Cortlandt Street (currently not connected to the complex)|
|IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line|
|IRT Lexington Avenue Line|
|IND Eighth Avenue Line|
|BMT Nassau Street Line|
Hoboken-bound train at the World Trade Center PATH station (2005)
Newark-bound PA-5 train at the World Trade Center PATH station (2009)
- According to The New York Times:
Suggestions from independent engineers and architects that the Oculus be even smaller [were rebuffed.] … Calatrava and his partners said that the impact and utility of the Oculus would be diminished if it were shrunken further, that the temporary station did not meet requirements for circulation of air and pedestrians, and that columns would interrupt visitors’ movement and provide a potential target for bombers.
- The Bloomberg administration later chose to add trees instead of skylights, since the station was close to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. This required the mezzanine's roof to be rebuilt to hold a heavier weight, which was also costly.
- Kabak, a transportation critic, usually writes on the blog Second Avenue Sagas.
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