World War III (film)
|World War III|
|Directed by||Robert Stone|
|Produced by||Ulrich Lenze|
|Written by||Ingo Helm
|Starring||Boris Leskin, Klaus Schleif, Christopher Wynkoop|
|Narrated by||David McCallum|
|Music by||John Kusiak
World War III (Der Dritte Weltkrieg) is a 1998 German television mockumentary, directed by Robert Stone and distributed by ZDF. An English version, in collaboration with The Learning Channel, was made as well. It depicts what might have transpired if, following the overthrow of Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet troops, under orders from a new hard-line regime, had opened fire on demonstrators in Berlin in the fall of 1989 and precipitated World War III. The film mixes real footage of world leaders and archive footage of (for example) combat exercises and news events, with newly shot footage of citizens, soldiers and political staff.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Characters
- 3 Differences between German and English versions
- 4 Parallels and references to real life events
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The movie opens with clips of the US military scrambling to respond to a Soviet nuclear attack. Daniel Schorr, reporting in front of the White House, is vaporized when a nuclear weapon detonates.
Berlin in Crisis
In the summer of 1989, East Germany is in turmoil. Many citizens are dissatisfied with their nation’s communist leadership and demand pro-Western reforms. They also seek unification with West Germany. On October 7, Mikhail Gorbachev, a supporter of those reforms, visits East Berlin. During his return flight, the hard-line communist leadership stages a coup that deposes Gorbachev and installs (fictional) General Vladimir Soshkin as the new Soviet leader; Gorbachev's eventual fate is "lost in the darkness of history".
Soshkin and the hard-liners fiercely resist the rise of glasnost and perestroika. They are determined to end the uprisings in East Germany and the rest of the Eastern Bloc (even Poland, where the Communists had peacefully ceded power by the time of the coup) with a swift Chinese-style military crackdown in late October. (In East Germany at least, the crackdown is not limited to demonstrators: numerous moderate Communists such as Egon Krenz and Günter Schabowski are "disappeared", never to be heard from again.) The crackdown inflames popular opposition to communism. In late November, a demonstration in Leipzig is brutally repressed by the Red Army at great loss of life. Two days later, a demonstration at the Brandenburg Gate ends with East German soldiers killing many East Berlin residents trying to scale the Berlin Wall and a West German cameraman filming the events. Those soldiers also fire shots over the wall into West Berlin. Soon after, the East German government responds to the international condemnation of their conduct by ordering all foreign journalists out of the country.
The buildup to war
In mid-December, the Western Allies airlift military reinforcements to West Berlin. Soon after, US Secretary of State James Baker arrives in West Berlin to secretly meet with General Dmitry Leonov, the Soviet commander in East Germany, who strongly opposes Soshkin's crackdown. However, on the way to the meeting, Leonov is killed by a car bomb, for which a West German neo-Nazi group claims responsibility. After an interview with West German TV in which Soshkin implicitly threatens West Berlin, an American colonel orders that tactical nuclear weapons in West Germany be placed on high alert. Soshkin responds with new threats, a massive deployment of the Soviet submarine fleet, and incursions of Soviet Bear bombers into Alaskan airspace.
On January 25, 1990, Soshkin implements Operation Thunderbolt. Eastern troops cut off transportation and supply links between West Germany and West Berlin, and the Soviet Air Force mobilizes to close off East Germany's airspace. Soshkin hopes the plan will prevent the West from entering into the Eastern sphere of influence and cut Berlin off from the West. NATO forces start a full-scale deployment into West Germany, and many citizens in West Germany are preparing shelters should the worst come.
As the United States prepares their first military convoy across the North Atlantic, the Soviets announce their intention to blockade the US Navy transports. Soshkin desires to cut off Western Europe and weaken the NATO buildup. The UN and NATO condemn the blockade and declare it to be an act of hostility. On February 18, the United States Navy violates the blockade, and US ships are attacked by Soviet forces. Nearly a quarter of the convoy is lost in the ensuing battle before American and British forces clear the sea lanes. World War III has begun.
The United States dispatches Martin Jacobs to the Soviet Union for talks with Soshkin. Figuring that Soshkin knows that the Soviets were losing power in Eastern Europe, Jacobs offers Soshkin an extended timetable for the Soviet withdraw from Eastern Europe in exchange for a de-escalation of the military buildup. Soshkin refuses him utterly: "Nyet".
The battle for Germany
|World War Three (fictional)|
Polish resistance movement
Royal Netherlands Army units
|Commanders and leaders|
George H. W. Bush
Gen. Vladimir Soshkin
On March 12, Soshkin orders a full-scale amphibious landing near Kiel on the Baltic coast. The landings catch NATO off-guard, and they scramble forces northward to push back the beachhead. The next day, Warsaw Pact ground forces drive through the Fulda Gap, with orders to push to the Rhine to divide the stretched out NATO force. Meanwhile, the Soviet Air Force bombards Ramstein Air Base and other NATO bases in Germany. The goal is to cripple the NATO buildup with a swift strike and then press for a new round of diplomatic bargaining from a stronger strategic position. NATO forces, faced with superior numbers and surprise, are pushed back, though they are able to inflict significant losses on the Warsaw Pact forces. By March 17, Eastern forces have advanced 50 miles into West Germany.
While preparing to launch a tactical nuclear counter-assault, NATO authorizes a last-ditch conventional air campaign, Operation Bloody Nose, launched 24 hours before the nuclear strikes were to begin. It is an overwhelming success: the initial strikes cripple Warsaw Pact command and control posts, throwing their armies in the field into chaos, and in the ensuing air battle, NATO inflicts devastating losses on the Soviet Air Force (which had already lost 20% of the aircraft supporting the initial offensives), gaining unchallenged control of Eastern European airspace. Combined with assistance from the Polish underground that cuts off Soviet supply lines, the tide of the war turns. With their numerical superiority negated by the Western technological superiority, the East German and Soviet armies melt under NATO airfire, and Western forces enter East Germany on March 23.
Global thermonuclear war
NATO forces reach and liberate West Berlin on March 27. As the Soviets withdraw to Poland, Germans begin to hope that reunification is at hand. The US leadership tries to reassure Soshkin that NATO had no intention to press their advance beyond East Germany. However, unrest erupts across the Eastern Bloc as citizens of communist nations, and ethnic minorities within the Soviet Union, press for the overthrow of their leaders. Soshkin becomes paranoid that NATO will exploit the situation to fight all the way to Moscow or to launch a nuclear first strike against him.
As a show of force, on March 31 Soshkin orders a symbolic nuclear strike above the North Sea. The United States responds by going to full nuclear alert and preparing to execute the Single Integrated Operational Plan. On April 1, a Soviet radar post suffers an equipment malfunction. Falsely believing that the USSR is under nuclear attack, Soshkin orders an all-out nuclear strike against the West. NATO responds in kind. Thousands of nuclear devices are launched across the Northern Hemisphere. "There is no further historical record of what happens next".
The movie rewinds to Gorbachev’s visit to East Germany. We then see the real celebrations of the fall of the Berlin Wall and the peaceful reunification of Germany: "History...took a different course.".
Actors playing fictional characters
|Boris Sichkin||General Vladimir Soshkin||General Secretary of the Soviet Union|
|Boris Leskin||Yuri Rubanov||Soviet Foreign Minister|
|Christopher Wynkoop||Martin Jacobs||US National Security Advisor|
|Sigrid Braun-Umbach||Franziska Bruckner||West Berlin doctor|
|Gunter Walch||Gen. Karl Frohm||West German Army|
|Klaus Schleif||Col. Wolfgang Heckler||East German Army|
|Oliver Hohlfeld||Markus Lehmann||East German citizen|
|Daniel Schorr||himself||Reporter in Washington, DC|
|John Ydstie||himself||Reporter in Lower Saxony|
Clips of real life political leaders
Differences between German and English versions
- The German version is preceded by a disclaimer clarifying that the events of the film are based on actual contingency plans of various governments (the filmmakers consulted numerous military experts on both sides, and received access to previously classified NATO and Warsaw Pact war plans), but that, "Thankfully for us all", the situations they were created for never happened.
- The news broadcasts which make up a significant part of the film are different: the German version, as a ZDF production, uses that network and its on-air personalities for the segments, while the English version shows various reporters working for an unnamed American network (for the opening scene, the English version shows Daniel Schorr's full report, while the German one has a ZDF report before switching to Schorr for the nuclear explosion).
- Similarly, in the German version, Senator Gramm's statements on the coup are replaced by those of Schleswig-Holstein Governor Björn Engholm, leader of the opposition SPD at that time.
- In the English version, other languages are subtitled (except for a Gorbachev speech about perestroika); in the German version, other languages are translated (except for field interviews with US Army officers once the shooting starts).
- The two West German characters, Gen. Frohm and Dr. Bruckner, speak in German in the ZDF version and English for TLC.
- The English version contains two scenes not included in the German one: an interview with two East German soldiers who escaped west during the Brandenburg Gate massacre, and a pair of "man on the street" interviews (one bellicose, delivered with the accent and demeanor of a stereotypical New Yorker, the other nervous but optimistic) in Times Square.
- The English version mentions West German, British, Dutch, and American soldiers meeting the initial Baltic attack; in the German version, Belgian forces take part as well.
- In the German version, the decisive NATO air assault is named "Operation Bloody Nose"; in English it is never given a name.
- The rewound montages between the missile-launch "ending" and the celebratory images of the actual events are slightly different.
- While the German version concludes with scenes from both the events of November 1989 and reunification (along with the "different course" line), the English narration has no such coda, and the montage is entirely from the fall of the Wall.
Parallels and references to real life events
- Prague Spring/Invasion of Czechoslovakia—General Soshkin had participated in the 1968 crackdown; the brutality of the forces under his command was so notorious that he appeared on the cover of Life magazine.
- Stanislav Petrov prevented the start of a nuclear war during a time of increased US/Soviet tension when a Soviet radar computer malfunctioned in 1983.
- Black Monday of 1987—Images of the alarming headlines it generated for the New York Post ("CRASH!") and Daily News ("PANIC!") were used to illustrate a Wall Street crash caused by uncertainty over the future.
- Tiananmen Square protests of 1989—Chinese students hold a pro-democracy protest near the seat of Chinese government. After weeks of demonstrations, the military forcibly ended the protest. This is likely the "Chinese solution" alluded to by Soshkin. The events of the movie are set four months after the crackdown. In reality, Honecker openly desired to deal with the unrest in this manner (to the point of trying to talk Gorbachev into such crackdowns in Poland and Hungary), even issuing a written order to do so in Leipzig, and was ousted in mid-October largely to prevent them from being carried out.
- The fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany—Clips from both also appeared out of context: footage of the reunification was used to show celebrations following the liberation of West Berlin, to suggest it happened after the November massacre.
- The Soviet coup attempt of 1991 against Mikhail Gorbachev—Clips of US officials and "West German" Chancellor Helmut Kohl discussing this event were used in this movie; since the coup occurred after 1990, Kohl was actually speaking as the leader of a unified Germany when he made these statements.
- The Persian Gulf War of 1990–91—Clips of US officials discussing this war were used in this movie. FLIR video of Coalition air attacks on Iraq is used to illustrate the attack on Warsaw Pact headquarters. News footage of the Allied airstrikes on Baghdad at the start of Operation Desert Storm is used to illustrate the bombing of Hamburg by Soviet and East German air forces.
- The Falklands War of 1982. Footage from the Battle of San Carlos and the Bluff Cove Air Attacks is used to illustrate the sea battle.
- The Bosnian War of 1992-95. Shots from aircraft cameras were used to illustrate NATO bombing of Legnica.
- The Vietnam War. Footage of the US Marines at Khe Sanh under attack from North Vietnamese Army artillery is used to illustrate the Soviet and East German airstrikes on Ramstein Air Base in West Germany.
- The First Chechen War. Footage of Russian troops in Grozny is used to illustrate Soviet forces retreating from West Germany back into East Germany. Footage of Chechen rebels fighting Russian troops is also used to illustrate the collapse of the East German government as well as to illustrate the growing armed resistance inside the Soviet Union to Soshkin's regime.
- The Soviet-Afghan War. Footage of Soviet troops is used to illustrate Soviet forces retreating to Poland.