World War II casualties

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Dead Soviet soldiers, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war.
Killing of Jews at Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942. A woman tries to shield a child with her body as Einsatzgruppen soldiers aim their rifles.
American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting with around 6,000 dead in total. Over 100,000 American military personnel died in the Pacific War.

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total dead,[1] Over 60 million people were killed, which was about 3% of the 1940 world population (est. 2.3 billion[2]). The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses. World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total dead ranging from 50 million to more than 80 million.[3] The higher figure of over 80 million includes deaths from war-related disease and famine. Civilians killed totaled from 50 to 55 million, including 19 to 28million from war-related disease and famine. Total military dead: from 21 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war.

Recent historical scholarship has shed new light on the topic of Second World War casualties. Research in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union has caused a revision of estimates of Soviet war dead.[4] According to Russian government figures USSR losses within postwar borders now stand at 26.6 million.[5][6] In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated Poland's dead at between 5.6 and 5.8 million.[7] The German Army historian Rüdiger Overmans published a study in 2000 that estimated German military dead and missing at 5.3 million.[8]

Classification of casualties

Polish military officers executed by the Soviet NKVD in the Katyn massacre, exhumation photo taken by the Polish Red Cross delegation in 1943.

Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed during World War II.[9] The authors of the Oxford Companion to World War II maintain that "casualty statistics are notoriously unreliable."[10]

The table below gives data on the number of dead for each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is disputed. Military figures include battle deaths (KIA) and personnel missing in action (MIA), as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, German war crimes, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, other war crimes, and deaths due to war related famine and disease. The losses listed here are actual deaths, hypothetical losses due to a decline in births are not included with the total dead. The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear cut. For nations that suffered huge losses such as the Soviet Union, China, Poland, Germany, and Yugoslavia, sources can give only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown of deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war-related famine. The casualties listed here include 19 to 25 million war-related famine deaths in the USSR, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, India that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties.[11][12] The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their sources, including data on the number of wounded where reliable sources are available.

Human losses by country

Total deaths

Human losses of World War II by country
(when the number of deaths in a country is disputed, a range of war losses is given)
The details of the figures are provided in the footnotes
Country Total population
1/1/1939
Military
deaths from all causes
Civilian deaths due to
military activity and crimes against humanity
Civilian deaths due to
war related famine and disease
Total
deaths
Deaths as % of
1939 population
 Albania A 1,073,000[13] 30,000[14] 30,000 2.80
 Australia B 6,968,000[13] 39,700[15] 700[16] 40,400 .58
 Austria (German-controlled) C 6,653,000[13] Included with German Army Included with Germany (see table below)S3
 Belgium D 8,387,000[13] 12,000[17] 76,000[17] 88,000 1.05
 BrazilE 40,289,000[13] 1,000[18] 1,000[19] 2,000 .00
 BulgariaF 6,458,000[13] 18,500[18] 3,000[20] 21,500 0.33
 Burma (British)G 16,119,000[13] 2,600[21] 250,000[21] 252,600 1.57
 CanadaH 11,267,000[13] 42,000[22] 1,600[23] 43,600 0.38
 China I 517,568,000[13] 3,000,000[24]
to 3,750,000[25]
7,357,000[26]
to 8,191,000[27]
c.5,000,000
to c.10,000,000
c.15,000,000[28]
to c.20,000,000[28][29]
2.90 to 3.86
 CubaJ 4,235,000[13] 100[30] 100 .00
 Czechoslovakia (in postwar 1945-1992 borders)K 14,612,000[31] 46,000[32]
to 35,000[33]
294,000[32] to
320,000[33]
340,000 to 355,000 2.33
2.43
 DenmarkL 3,795,000[13] 6,000[34] 6,000 .16
 Dutch East IndiesM 69,435,000[13] 11,500[35][36] c.300,000[37] c.2,400,000[38]
to c.4,000,000[39]
c.3,000,000
to c.4,000,000
4.3 to 5.76
 Estonia (within 1939 borders)N 1,134,000[13] Included with the Soviet, German, and Finnish Armies 67,000[40] 67,000 5.91
 EthiopiaO 17,700,000[13] 15,000[41] 85,000 100,000[41] 0.56
 FinlandP 3,700,000[13] 83,000[42] 2,000[43] 85,000 2.30
France FranceQincluding colonies 41,680,000[43] 210,000[43] 390,000[43] 600,000 1.44
 French IndochinaR 24,664,000[13] 1,000,000
to 2,000,000[44]
1,000,000
to 2,200,000
4.05 to 8.11
 GermanyS 69,300,000[45] 4,440,00[46] to 5,318,000[47]' c.2,950,00 .S1 to c.1,550,000 S2 c.7,400,000
to c. 6,900,000
(see table below)S3
Greece GreeceT 7,222,000[13] 35,100[48] 171,800[48] 300,000[49]
to 600,000[48]
507,000
to 807,000
7.02 to11.17
Guam GuamTA 22,800[50] 1,000[51]
to 2,000[52]
1,000
to 2,000
4.39 to 8.77
Hungary Hungary U 9,129,000[50] 300,000[53] 264,000[54] 564,000 6.18
 IcelandV 118,900[55] 200[56] 200 .17
 India (British)W 377,800,000[57] 87,000[58] 1,500,000[59]
to 2,500,000[60]
c.1,600,000
to c.2,600,000
0.42 to 0.69
IranX 14,340,000[61] 200[62] 200 .00
Iraq Iraq'Y 3,698,000[63] 500[62] 500 .01
 IrelandZ 2,960,000[64] Irish volunteers included with UK Armed Forces 100[65] 100 0.00
 ItalyAA 44,394,000[66] 291,400[67] 153,200[68] 444,500 1.00
 JapanAB 71,380,000[69] c.2,100,000[70] to
2,566,000[71]
c.550,000[72] to
672,000[71]
>2,500,000[73]
to 3,238,000[71]
3.50 to 4.54
 Korea (Japanese Colony)AC 24,326,000[74] Included with Japanese military 483,000[75]
to 533,000[76]
483,000
to 533,000
1.99to
2.19
 Latvia (within 1939 borders)AD 1,994,500[77] Included with the Soviet and German Armies 220,000[78] 220,000 11.03
 Lithuania (within 1939 borders)AE 2,575,00[79] Included with the Soviet and German Armies 345,000[80] 345,000 13.4
 LuxembourgAF 295,000[81] Included with German & Belgian military 5,000[43] 5,000 1.69
 Malaya &SingaporeAG 5,118,000[82] 100,000[83] 100,000 1.95
Malta Malta (British)AH 269,000[84] Included with U.K.
 MexicoAI 19,320,000[85] 100[86] 100 .00
 MongoliaAJ 819,000[87] 300[88] 300 .04
Australia Nauru (Australian) AK 3,400[89] 500[90] 500 14.7
   Nepal BG 6,087,000[91] Included with British Indian Army
 NetherlandsAL 8,729,000[92] 6,700[93] 187,300[93] 16,000[93] 210,000 2.41
 Newfoundland (British)AM 320,000[94] included with the U.K. & Canada 100[95] 100 .03
 New ZealandAN 1,629,000[96] 11,700[97] 11,700 .72
 NorwayAO 2,945,000[98] 2,000[43] 8,200[99] 10,200 .35
Australia Papua and New Guinea (Australian)AP 1,292,000[100] 15,000[101] 15,000 1.16
 Philippines (U.S. Territory) AQ 16,000,000[13] 27,000[102] 164,000[102] 336,000[102] 527,000 3.29
Poland Poland (within 1939 borders)AR 34,849,000 [103] 240,000[104] 5,620,000[105]
to 5,820,000[106]
c.5,900,000[107]
to c.6,000,000[108]
16.93 to17.22
 Portuguese TimorAS 480,000[109] 40,000[110]
to 70,000[110]
40,000
to 70,000
8.33 to 14.58
Romania Romania (in postwar 1945 borders) AT 15,970,000[43] 300,000[32] 200,000[32] 500,000[32] 3.13
Belgium Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian)AU 3,800,000[111] 300,000[112] 300,000 7.89
South Africa South AfricaAW 10,160,000[113] 11,900[114] 11,900 .12
Empire of Japan South Pacific Mandate (Japanese)AX 127,000[115] 10,000[116] 10,000 7.87
 Soviet Union (within 1946–91 borders) AY 168,525,000[6] 8,668,000[117]
to 10,922,000 [118]
9,584,000 [119]
to 7,420,000[120]
c.8,600,000[121]
[122]
[123]
c.27,000,000[124][125][126] (see table below)
Spain Spain AZ 25,637,000[127] Included with the German Army
 Sweden BA 6,341,00[128] 100.[129] 2,000 [130] 2,100 .03
  Switzerland BB 4,210,000[131] 100 [132] 100 .00
 Thailand BC 15,023,000[133] 5,600[134] 2,000[134] 7,600 .05
Turkey Turkey BD 17,370,000[135] 200[136] 200 .00
 United KingdomBE including British Colonies 47,760,000[137] 383,700[138] 67,200[139] 450,900 .94
 United StatesBF 131,028,000[140] 407,300 BF1 12,100BF2 419,400 .32
 YugoslaviaBG 15,490,000[141] 300,000[142]
to 446,000 [143]
581,000[143]
to 1,400,000[142]
1,027,00[143]
to 1,700,000[142]
6.63 to 10.97
Other Nations c.300,000,000
Approx. Totals c.2,300,000,000 [2] c. 21,000,000
to c.25,500,000
c.29,000,000
to c.30,500,000
c.19,000,000
to c.28,000,000
c.70,000,000
to c.85,000,000
c.3.0 to c.3.7
  • Figures are rounded to the nearest hundredth place.
  • Military casualties include deaths of regular military forces from combat as well as non-combat causes. Partisan and resistance fighter deaths are included with military losses. The deaths of prisoners of war in captivity and personnel missing in action are also included with military deaths. Whenever possible the details are given in the footnotes.
  • The armed forces of the various nations are treated as single entities, for example the deaths of Austrians, French and foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe in the Wehrmacht are included with German military losses.
  • The official casualty statistics published by the governments of the United States, France, and the UK do not give the details of the national origin, race and religion of the losses.

Third Reich

Human losses of the Third Reich in World War II (included in above figures of total war dead) ^S3 A detailed description is given in the footnotes for Germany and Austria.[11] [12]
Country Population
1939
Military
deaths
Civilian deaths due to
Air Raids and military activity
Civilian deaths due to
Nazi persecution
Civilian deaths due Expulsion of Germans Total
deaths
Deaths as
% of 1939
population
Austria 6,653,000[13] 250,000[144] to 261,000[145] 24,000[144][146] 100,000[147] c.370,000[147] 5.56
Germany (within 1937 borders)[148] 69,300,000[45] 3,760,000[144] to 4,456,000[149] 430,000[144][150] to 353,000[151] 300,000[152] to 500,000[153][154] 1,225,000[144] to 400,000[155] c.5,700,000[156] 8.23
Foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe 7,423,000[157] 430,000[158] to 538,000[47] 886,000[159] to 200,000[160] 1,316,000[161] to 738,000[149][160] 9.96 to 17.76
Foreign nationals in western Europe 215,000[162] 63,000[47] 63,000[47] 29.3
Approx. Totals c.83,500,000 4,440,00[163] to 5,318,000[47] 454,000[164] to 353,000[151] 400,000[165][153] to 600,000[153][154][165] 2,111,000[166] to 600,000[167] c.7,400,000 to c.6,900,000 8.26 to 8.86
  • German sources do not provide figures for Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany. Russian historian G.Krivosheev puts the losses of the "Vlasovites, Balts and Muslims etc." in German service at 215,000[168][169]

USSR

Human losses of the USSR in World War II
Country Population
Total
War Dead 1941-45
Deaths as
% of 1939
population
 Soviet Union
(within 1939 borders)[13]
168,525,000[170] c.24,000,000 14.24
Population Shifts 1939–46
 Estonia
(within 1939 borders)
1,122,000[171] 67,000 [172] 5.97
 Latvia
(within 1939 borders)
1,951,000[171] 220,000[78] 11.27
 Lithuania
(within 1939 borders[173][174])
2,442,000[171] 345,000[80] 14.12
 Poland,
Eastern Regions
(figures included with Poland)
11,576,000[175][176] 2,000,000[177] 17.2
 Romania
Bessarabia and Bukovina
3,700,000[171] 300,000 8.1
Less: net population transfers 1940–1946 (523,000)[178]
Subtotal Population Shifts 20,268,000[170]
Growth of population 1939–mid-1941 7,923,000[170]
June 1941 Population in borders of 1946-91 196,716,000[170] c.27,000,000[170] '13.72
  • The source for population of the annexed regions of Poland, Romania, the Baltic States and Czechoslovakia is League of Nations' Yearbook 1942–1944.[171]

The estimated breakdown for each Soviet Republic of total war dead is as follows

Soviet Republic Population 1940 Military dead Civilian deaths due to
military activity and crimes against humanity
Civilian deaths due to
war related famine and disease
Total Deaths as % of 1940 population
Armenia 1,320,000 150,000 30,000 180,000 13.6%
Azerbaijan 3,270,000 210,000 90,000 300,000 9.1%
Belarus 9,050,000 620,000 1,360,000 310,000 2,290,000 25.3%
Estonia 1,050,000 30,000 50,000 80,000 7.6%
Georgia (see note below) 3,610,000 190,000 110,000 300,000 8.3%
Kazakhstan 6,150,000 310,000 350,000 660,000 10.7%
Kyrgyzstan 1,530,000 70,000 50,000 120,000 7.8%
Latvia 1,890,000 30,000 190,000 40,000 260,000 13.7%
Lithuania 2,930,000 25,000 275,000 75,000 375,000 12.7%
Moldova 2,470,000 50,000 75,000 45,000 170,000 6.9%
Russia 110,100,000 6,750,000 4,100,000 3,100,000 13,950,000 12.7%
Tajikistan (See Note Below) 1,530,000 50,000 70,000 120,000 7.8%
Turkmenistan 1,300,000 70,000 30,000 100,000 7.7%
Uzbekistan 6,550,000 330,000 220,000 550,000 8.4%
Ukraine 41,340,000 1,650,000 3,700,000 1,500,000 6,850,000 16.3%
Unidentified 165,000 130,000 295,000
Total USSR 194,090,000 10,600,000 10,000,000 6,000,000 26,600,000 13.7%
  • The source of the figures on the table is: Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow, 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1. pp. 23–35. Erlikman notes that these figures are his estimates.
  • Figures for Belarus and Ukraine include about 2 million civilian dead that are also listed in the total war dead of Poland.
  • The Russian News Agency RIA Novosti puts the military losses of Tajikistan at 90,000 killed.[179]

Holocaust deaths

Further information: The Holocaust

Included in the above figures of total war dead are the victims of the Holocaust.

Jewish deaths

The Holocaust is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II. Martin Gilbert estimates 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German occupied Europe were Holocaust victims.[180] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates Holocaust deaths range between 4.9 to 6.0 million Jews.[181] An early estimate by Gerald Reitlinger in 1953 put the death toll at 4.2 to 4.6 million[182]

Statistical breakdown of Jewish dead:

  • Yad Vashem has identified the names of four million Jewish Holocaust dead.[185]

The figures for the pre-war Jewish population and deaths in the table below are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.[186] The low, high and average percentage figures for deaths of the pre war population have been added.

Country Pre-war Jewish population[186] Low estimate deaths[186] High estimate deaths.[186] Low % High % Average %
Austria 191,000 50,000 65,000 26.2% 34.0% 30.1%
Belgium 60,000 25,000 29,000 41.7% 48.3% 45.0%
Czech Republic[187] 92,000 77,000 78,300 83.7% 85.1% 84.4%
Denmark 8,000 60 116 0.8 % 1.5% 1.1%
Estonia 4,600 1,500 2,000 32.6% 43.5% 38.0%
France 260,000 75,000 77,000 28.8% 29.6% 29.2%
Germany 566,000 135,000 142,000 23.9% 25.1% 24.5%
Greece 73,000 59,000 67,000 80.8% 91.8% 86.3%
Hungary (borders 1940)[188] 725,000 502,000 569,000 69.2% 78.5% 73.9%
Italy 48,000 6,500 9,000 13.5% 18.8% 16.1%
Latvia 95,000 70,000 72,000 73.7% 75.8% 74.7%
Lithuania 155,000 130,000 143,000 83.9% 92.3% 88.1%
Luxembourg 3,500 1,000 2,000 28.6% 57.1% 42.9%
Netherlands 112,000 100,000 105,000 89.3% 93.8% 91.5%
Norway 1,700 800 800 47.1% 47.1% 47.1%
Poland (borders 1939) 3,250,000 2,700,000 3,000,000 83.1% 92.3% 87.7%
Romania (borders 1940) 441,000 121,000 287,000 27.4% 65.1% 46.3%
Slovakia 89,000 60,000 71,000 67.4% 79.8% 73.6%
Soviet Union (borders 1939) 2,825,000 700,000 1,100,000 24.8% 38.9% 31.9%
Yugoslavia 68,000 56,000 65,000 82.4% 95.6% 89.0%
Total 9,067,000 4,869,860 5,894,716 50.4% (avg.) 59.7% (avg.) 55.1% (avg.)
  • Hungarian Jewish Holocaust victims within the 1939 borders were 200,000.[189]

Non-Jews persecuted and killed by the Nazis

Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the other victims persecuted and killed by the Nazis.[191][192] Estimates of the death toll of non-Jewish victims vary by millions, partly because the boundary between death by persecution and death by starvation and other means in a context of total war is unclear. Donald Niewyk maintains that the Holocaust can be defined in four ways: first, that it was the genocide of the Jews alone; second, that there were several parallel Holocausts, one for each of the several groups; third, the Holocaust would include Roma and the handicapped along with the Jews; fourth, it would include all racially motivated German crimes, such as the murder of Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, as well as political prisoners, religious dissenters, and homosexuals. Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people.[193] According to the College of Education of the University of South Florida Approximately 11 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy.[194] R. J. Rummel estimated the death toll due to Nazi Democide at 20.9 million persons.[195] Timothy Snyder put the victims of the Nazis killed only as result of deliberate policies of mass murder such as executions, deliberate famine and in death camps at 10.4 million persons including 5.4 million Jews.[196] The German scholar Hellmuth Auerbach puts the death toll in the Hitler era at 6 million Jews killed in the Holocaust and 7 million other victims of the Nazis.[197] Dieter Pohl puts the total number of victims of the Nazi era at between 12 and 14 million persons, including 5.6–5.7 million Jews.[198]

  • Roma Included in the figures of total war dead are the Roma victims of the Nazi persecution, some scholars include the Roma deaths with the Holocaust. Most estimates of Roma (Gypsies) victims range from 130,000 to 500,000.[193][199][200] Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma dead.[201] Hancock writes that, proportionately, the death toll equaled "and almost certainly exceed[ed], that of Jewish victims".[202] In a 2010 publication, Ian Hancock stated that he agrees with the view that the number of Romanis killed has been underestimated as a result of being grouped with others in Nazi records under headings such as "remainder to be liquidated", "hangers-on" and "partisans".[203]

The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, the authors maintain that "statistics on Gypsy losses are especially unreliable and controversial. These figures (cited below) are based on necessarily rough estimates".[204]

Country Pre-war Roma population Low estimate victims High estimate victims
Austria 11,200 6,800 8,250
Belgium 600 350 500
Czech Republic[187] 13,000 5,000 6,500
Estonia 1,000 500 1,000
France 40,000 15,150 15,150
Germany 20,000 15,000 15,000
Greece ? 50 50
Hungary 100,000 1,000 28,000
Italy 25,000 1,000 1,000
Latvia 5,000 1,500 2,500
Lithuania 1,000 500 1,000
Luxembourg 200 100 200
Netherlands 500 215 500
Poland 50,000 8,000 35,000
Romania 300,000 19,000 36,000
Slovakia 80,000 400 10,000
Soviet Union (borders 1939) 200,000 30,000 35,000
Yugoslavia 100,000 26,000 90,000
Total 947,500 130,565 285,650
  • Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians: According to Nazi ideology, Slavs were useless sub-humans. As such, their leaders, the Soviet elite, were to be killed and the remainder of the population enslaved or expelled further eastward. As a result, millions of civilians in the Soviet Union were deliberately killed, starved, or worked to death.[211] Contemporary Russian sources use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war and wartime-related famine account for a major part of the huge toll.[212] The Cambridge History of Russia puts overall civilian deaths in the Nazi-occupied USSR at 13.7 million persons including 2 million Jews. There were an additional 2.6 million deaths in the interior regions of the Soviet Union. The authors maintain "scope for error in this number is very wide". At least 1 million perished in the wartime GULAG camps or in deportations. Other deaths occurred in the wartime evacuations and due to war related malnutrition and disease in the interior. The authors maintain that both Stalin and Hitler "were both responsible but in different ways for these deaths", and "In short the general picture of Soviet wartime losses suggests a jigsaw puzzle. The general outline is clear: people died in colossal numbers but in many different miserable and terrible circumstances. But individual pieces of the puzzle do not fit well; some overlap and others are yet to be found".[213] Bohdan Wytwycky maintained that civilian losses of 3.0 million Ukrainians and 1.4 million Belarusians "were racially motivated".[214][215] According to Paul Robert Magocsi, between 1941 and 1945, approximately 3,000,000 Ukrainian and other non-Jewish victims were killed as part of Nazi extermination policies in the territory of modern Ukraine.[216] Dieter Pohl puts the total number of victims of the Nazi policies in the USSR at 500,000 civilians killed in the repression of partisans, 1.0 million victims of the Nazi Hunger Plan, c. 3.0 million Soviet POW and 1.0 million Jews (in pre-war borders).[217] Soviet author Georgiy A. Kumanev put the civilian death toll in the Nazi-occupied USSR at 8.2 million (4.0 million Ukrainians, 2.5 million Belarusians, and 1.7 million Russians).[218] A report published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1995 put the death toll due to the German occupation at 13.7 million civilians (including Jews): 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. Sources published in the Soviet Union were cited to support these figures.[219]
  • Homosexuals: 10,000–15,000 gay men perished in Nazi concentration camps.[220]
  • Other victims of Nazi persecution: Between 1,000 to 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy,[221] about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses,[222] and an unknown number of Freemasons[223] perished in Nazi prisons and camps. "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder."[224] During the Nazi era Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders were victims of Nazi persecution.[225]
  • Serbs: (See World War II persecution of Serbs.) The numbers of Serbs persecuted by the Ustaše is the subject of much debate and estimates vary widely. Yad Vashem estimates over 500,000 murdered, 250,000 expelled and 200,000 forcibly converted to Catholicism.[226] The estimate of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is that the Ustaše authorities murdered between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serb residents of Croatia and Bosnia during the period of Ustaše rule, out of which between 45,000 to 52,000 were murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp.[227] According to the Wiesenthal Center at the camps at Jasenovac and Stara Gradiska at least 90,000 Serbs, Jews, Gypsies and anti-fascist Croatians perished at the hands of the Ustashe.[228] According to Yugoslav sources published in the Tito era the estimates of the number of Serb victims range from 200,000 to at least 600,000 persons.[229]

Japanese war crimes

Main article: Japanese war crimes

Included with total war dead are victims of Japanese war crimes.

  • R. J. Rummel estimates the civilian victims of Japanese democide at 5,424,000. Detailed by country: China 3,695,000; Indochina 457,000; Korea 378,000; Indonesia 375,000; Malaya-Singapore 283,000; Philippines 119,000, Burma 60,000 and Pacific Islands 57,000.
Rummel estimates POW deaths in Japanese custody at 539,000 Detailed by country: China 400,000; French Indochina 30,000; Philippines 27,300; Netherlands 25,000; France 14,000; Britain 13,000; British Colonies 11,000; US 10,700; Australia 8,000.[12][230]
  • Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian deaths at 20,365,000. Detailed by country: China 12,392,000; Indochina 1,500,000; Korea 500,000; Dutch East Indies 3,000,000; Malaya and Singapore 100,000; Philippines 500,000; Burma 170,000; Forced laborers in Southeast Asia 70,000, 30,000 interned non-Asian civilians; Timor 60,000; Thailand and Pacific Islands 60,000.[231]
Gruhl estimates POW deaths in Japanese captivity at 331,584. Detailed by country: China 270,000; Netherlands 8,500; Britain 12,433; Canada 273; Philippines 20,000; Australia 7,412; New Zealand 31; and the United States 12,935.[231]
  • Out of 60,000 Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity.[232]

Repression in the Soviet Union

The total war dead in the USSR includes victims of Soviet repression. The number of deaths in the Gulag labor camps increased as a result of wartime overcrowding and food shortages.[235] The Stalin regime deported the entire populations of ethnic minorities considered to be potentially disloyal.[236] Since 1990 Russian scholars have been given access to the Soviet-era archives and have published data on the numbers of people executed and those who died in Gulag labor camps and prisons.[237] The Russian scholar Viktor Zemskov puts the death toll from 1941–1945 at about 1 million based on data from the Soviet archives.[238] The Soviet-era archive figures on the Gulag labor camps has been the subject of a vigorous academic debate outside Russia since their publication in 1991. J. Arch Getty and Stephen G. Wheatcroft maintain that Soviet-era figures more accurately detail the victims of the Gulag labor camp system in the Stalin era.[239][240] Robert Conquest and Steven Rosefielde have disputed the accuracy of the data from the Soviet archives, maintaining that the demographic data and testimonials by survivors of the Gulag labor camps indicate a higher death toll.[241][242] Rosefielde believes that the release of the Soviet Archive figures is disinformation generated by the modern KGB.[243] Rosefielde maintains that the data from the Soviet archives is incomplete; for example, he pointed out that the figures do not include the 22,000 victims of the Katyn massacre.[244] Rosefielde's demographic analysis puts the number of excess deaths due to Soviet repression at 2,183,000 in 1939–1940 and 5,458,000 from 1941–1945.[245] Michael Haynes and Rumy Husun accept the figures from the Soviet archives as being an accurate tally of Stalin's victims, they maintain that the demographic data depicts an underdeveloped Soviet economy and the losses in World War Two rather than indicating a higher death toll in the Gulag labor camps.[246]

In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[177] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[247] In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000.[248]

The Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression put civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 at 33,900 including (7,800 deaths) of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor. After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R., 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45.[249]

The following is a summary of the data from the Soviet archives:
Reported deaths for the years 1939–1945 1,187,783, including: judicial executions 46,350; deaths in Gulag labor camps 718,804; deaths in labor colonies and prisons 422,629.[250]

Deported to special settlements: (figures are for deportations to Special Settlements only, not including those executed, sent to Gulag labor camps or conscripted into the Soviet Army. Nor do the figures include additional deportations after the war).
Deported from annexed territories 1940–41 380,000 to 390,000 persons, including: Poland 309–312,000; Lithuania 17,500; Latvia 17,000; Estonia 6,000; Moldova 22,842.[251] In August 1941, 243,106 Poles living in the Special Settlements were amnestied and released by the Soviets.[252]
Deported during the War 1941–1945 about 2.3 million persons of Soviet ethnic minorities including: Soviet Germans 1,209,000; Finns 9,000; Karachays 69,000; Kalmyks 92,000;Chechens and Ingush 479,000; Balkars 37,000; Crimean Tatars 191,014; Meskhetian Turks 91,000; Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians from Crimea 42,000; Ukrainian OUN members 100,000; Poles 30,000.[253]
A total of 2,230,500[254] persons were living in the settlements in October 1945 and 309,100 deaths were reported in special settlements for the years 1941–1948.[255]

Russian sources list Axis prisoner of war deaths of 580,589 in Soviet captivity based on data in the Soviet archives (Germany 381,067; Hungary 54,755; Romania 54,612; Italy 27,683; Finland 403, and Japan 62,069).[256] However some western scholars estimate the total at between 1.7 and 2.3 million.[257]

Military casualties by branch of service

Casualties of World War II by Branch of Service
Country Branch of service Number served Killed/missing Wounded Prisoners of war Captured Percent killed
Germany Army[258] 13,600,000 4,202,000 30.9
Germany Air Force (including infantry units)[258] 2,500,000 433,000 17.3
Germany Navy[258] 1,200,000 138,000 11.5
Germany Waffen SS[258] 900,000 314,000 34.9
Germany Volkssturm and other Paramilitary Forces[258] 231,000
Germany Soviet citizens in German military service[169][259] 215,000
Germany Unidentified by branch of service (see note below) 6,035,000
[260]
11,100,000
[261]
Germany Total Germany 18,200,000 5,533,000 6,035,000 11,100,000 30.4
Japan[262][263] Army (1937–1945) 6,300,000 1,326,076 85,600 30,000 24.2
Japan Navy (1941–1945) 2,100,000 414,879 8,900 10,000 19.8
Japan POW dead after Surrender.[264][265][266] 381,000
Japan Total Japan 2,121,955
Italy All branches of service 3,430,000
[267]
291,376
[268]
320,000 1,300,000
[269]
8.5
Soviet Union (1939–40) All branches of service[270] 136,945 205,924
Soviet Union (1941–45) All branches of service[271] 34,476,700 8,668,400 14,685,593 4,050,000 25.1
Soviet Union Conscripted Reservists not yet in active service (see note below)[272] 500,000
Soviet Union Civilians in POW camps (see note below)[273] 1,000,000 1,750,000
Soviet Union Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units[274] 400,000
Soviet Union Total USSR 10,725,345 14,915,517 5,750,000
British Empire and Commonwealth[275][276][277] All branches of service 17,843,000 580,497 475,000 318,000 3.3
United States[278] Army[279] 11,260,000 318,274 565,861 2.8
United States Air Force (included with Army)[280] (3,400,000) (88,119) (17,360) 2.5
United States Navy 4,183,446 62,614 37,778 1.5
United States Marine Corps 669,100 24,511 68,207 3.7
United States Coast Guard[281] 241,093 1,917 0.8
United States Unidentified by branch of service[282] 130,000
United States Total U.S. 16,353,639 407,316 671,846 130,000 2.5

Germany

  1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown;[283] 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post-war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity.[284]
  2. Rüdiger Overmans writes "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable,that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) however in fact died in Soviet custody".[285]
  3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the war.[286]

USSR

  1. Estimated total Soviet military war dead from 1941–45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million.[274] There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939–40 during the Winter War with Finland.[287]
  2. The official figures for military war dead and missing from 1941–45 are 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non-combat deaths.[288] 500,000 missing in action and 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries.[289][290][291] Figures include Navy losses of 154,771.[292] Non-combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial.[293]
  3. Casualties in 1939–40 include the following dead and missing, Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931); Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139); Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875).[270]
  4. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled.[294]
  5. The official Russian figure for total POW held by the Germans is 4,059,000; the number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 2,016,000, including 180,000 who most likely emigrated to other countries, and an additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated. This leaves 1,103,000 POW dead. However, western historians put the number of POW held by the Germans at 5.7 million and about 3 million as dead in captivity (in the official Russian figures 1.1 million are military POW and remaining balance of about 2 million are included with civilian war dead).[289][295]
  6. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength. Soviet and Russian sources classify these losses as civilian deaths.[296]

British Commonwealth

  1. Number served: UK and Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India-(British colonial administration) (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000).[297]
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK and Crown Colonies (383,786);India-(British colonial administration) (87,032), Australia (40,464); Canada (45,383); New Zealand (11,929); South Africa (11,903).[275]
  3. Wounded: UK and Crown Colonies (284,049); India-(British colonial administration) (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363).[276][298][299]
  4. Prisoner of war: UK and Crown Colonies (180,488); India-(British colonial administration) (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415).[276][298][299]
  5. The 'Debt of Honour Register' from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars.[300]

U.S.

  1. Battle deaths were 292,131: Army 234,874 (including Army Air Forces 52,173); Navy 36,950; Marine Corps 19,733; and Coast Guard 574 (185,924 deaths occurred in the European/Atlantic theater of operations and 106,207 deaths occurred in Asia/Pacific theater of operations).[301][302]
  2. During World War II, 14,059 American POWs died in enemy captivity throughout the war (12,935 held by Japan and 1,124 held by Germany).[303]
  3. During World War II, 1.2 million African Americans served in the Armed Forces and 708 were killed in action. 350,000 American women served in the Armed Forces during World War II and 16 were killed in action.[304] During World War II, 26,000 Japanese-Americans served in the Armed Forces and over 800 were killed in action.[305]

Commonwealth military casualties

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) Annual Report 2010–2011[275] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated by the CWGC are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former UK Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organizations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of CWGC the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 3 September 1939 to 31 December 1947.

Charts and graphs

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^A Albania
  • No reliable statistics on Albania's wartime losses exist, but the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration reported about 30,000 Albanian war dead. Albanian official statistics claim somewhat higher losses.[14]
  • Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 200, these Jews were Yugoslav citizens resident in Albania. Jews of Albanian origin survived the Holocaust.[189]
  1. ^B Australia
  • The Australian War Memorial[15] reports 39,648 military deaths. This figure includes all personnel who died from war-related causes during 1939–47.
  • According to official statistics Australian battle casualties included 27,073 killed, died of wounds or died as POW; wounded or injured in action were 23,477,these figures exclude non-battle casualties, such as deaths in non operational areas and deaths due to natural causes.[307][308]
  • The Australian government does not regard merchant mariners as military personnel and the 349 Australians killed in action while crewing merchant ships around the world,[309] are included in the total civilian deaths. Other civilian fatalities were due to air raids and attacks on passenger ships.
  • The preliminary data for Australian losses included 23,365 killed, 6,030 missing, 39,803 wounded and 26,363 POWs.[299]
  1. ^C Austria
  • Military war dead reported by Rüdiger Overmans of 261,000 are included with Germany.[310]
  • Austrian civilian casualties were 99,700 victims of Nazi persecution and 24,000 killed in Allied air raids. The Austrian government provides the following information on human losses during the rule of the Nazis. "For Austria the consequences of the Nazi regime and the Second World War were disastrous: During this period 2,700 Austrians had been executed and more than 16,000 citizens murdered in the concentration camps. Some 16,000 Austrians were killed in prison, while over 67,000 Austrian Jews were deported to death camps, only 2,000 of them lived to see the end of the war. In addition, 247,000 Austrians lost their lives serving in the army of the Third Reich or were reported missing, and 24,000 civilians were killed during bombing" raids.[147]
  1. ^D Belgium
  • Belgian government sources reported 12,000 military war dead which included 8,800 killed, 500 missing in action, 200 executed, 800 resistance movement fighters and 1,800 POWs and civilian losses of 73,000 which included deaths due to military operations of 32,200, 3,400 executed, 8,500 political deportees, 5,000 workers in Germany and 27,000 Jewish Holocaust victims.[311]
  • Losses of about 10,000 in the German Armed Forces are not included in these figures, they are included with German military casualties.[312]
  1. ^E Brazil
  1. ^F Bulgaria
  • Total Bulgarian military war dead were 18,500 including 6,671 battle deaths[314]
  • There were 3,000 civilian deaths in Allied air raids including 1,400 in the bombing of Sofia[315]
  • A Russian journalist in a handbook of human losses in the 20th century has provided the following assessment of Bulgarian casualties:Military deaths: 2,000 military Axis occupation forces in in Yugoslavia and Greece; 10,124 dead as allies of the USSR and 10,000 Anti-Fascist Partisan deaths.[316] Regarding partisan and civilian casualties Erlikman notes "According to the official data of the royal government 2,320 were killed and 199 executed. The communists claim that 20–35,000 persons died. In reality deaths were 10,000, including and unknown number of civilians."[316]
  1. ^G Burma
  1. ^H Canada
  • The Canadian War Museum puts military losses at 42,000 plus 1,600 Merchant Navy deaths. An additional 700 military dead from Newfoundland are included with the U.K.[22]
  • The Canadian Virtual War Memorial contains a registry of information about the graves and memorials of Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country.[318]
  • The preliminary data for Canadian losses included killed 37,476, missing 1,843, wounded 53,174 and POW 9,045.[319]
  1. ^I China

Sources for total Chinese war dead are divergent and range from 10 to 20 million as detailed below.

  • John W. Dower has noted "So great was the devastation and suffering in China that in the end it is necessary to speak of uncertain 'millions' of deaths. Certainly, it is reasonable to think in general terms of approximately 10 million Chinese war dead, a total surpassed only by the Soviet Union."[39]
  • An academic study of the Chinese population concluded that "a conservative estimate would put total human casualties directly caused by the war of 1937-1945 at between 15,000,000 and 20,000,000"[28] This study cited a Chinese Nationalist source that put total civilian casualties at 2,144,048 (1,073,496 killed; 237,319 wounded; 71,050 captured by Japanese ; 335,934 killed in Japanese air raids; 426,249 wounded in air raids), miliitary casualties at 6,750,000 (1,500,000 killed; 3,000,000 wounded; 750,000 missing; 1,500,000 deaths caused by sickness,etc.[320] In addition 960,000 collaborator forces and 446,736 Communist were killed or wounded[320]
  • The official Chinese government (communist) statistics for China's civilian and military casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937–1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. The figures for total military casualties, killed and wounded are: Nationalist 3.2 million; Communist 580,000 and collaborator forces 1.18 million; captured: collaborator forces 950,000.[29]
  • Official Nationalist Chinese casualty figures were: killed 1,319,958; wounded 1,716,335 and missing 130,126,[321] An academic study of the Chinese population concluded that these figures are "unreasonably low" and "highly suspect"[322]
  • R. J. Rummel's estimate of total war dead from 1937–45 is 19,605,000.[323] Military dead: 3,400,000 (including 400,000 POW) Nationalist/Communist, and 432,000 collaborator forces.Civilian war deaths: 3,808,000 killed in fighting and 3,549,000 victims of Japanese war crimes (not including an additional 400,000 POWs).Other deaths: Repression by Chinese Nationalists 5,907,000 (3,081,000 military conscripts who died due to mistreatment and 2,826,000 civilian deaths caused by Nationalist government, including the 1938 Yellow River flood); political repression by Chinese Communists 250,000 and by Warlords 110,000. Additional deaths due to famine were 2,250,000.
  • Werner Gruhl estimates China's total war losses at 15,554,000, Civilians :12,392,000 including 8,191,000 due to the Japanese brutality and military dead 3,162,000.[27]
  1. ^J Cuba
  • Cuba lost 5 merchant ships and 79 dead merchant mariners.[19]
  1. ^K Czechoslovakia
  • According to the Czechoslovak State Statistical Office the population at 1/1/1939(within post war 1945-1992 borders )was 14,612,000[31] The population in 1939 included about 3.3 million ethnic Germans that were expelled after the war or were German military casualties during the war.
  • Russian demographer Boris Urlanis estimated Czechoslovak war dead of 340,000 persons, 46,000 military and 294,000 civilians[32]
  • A Russian journalist in a handbook of human losses in the 20th century has provided the following assessment of Czechoslovak casualties:[33]
    35,000 Military deaths: including: killed during 1938 occupation (171); Czechoslovak Forces with the Western Allies (3,220); Czechoslovak military units on Eastern front (4,570); Slovak Republic Axis forces (7,000); Czechs in German forces (5,000), partisan losses 10,000 and (5,000) POWs.
    320,000 Civilian deaths: (10,000) in bombing and shelling; (22,000) executed; (285,000 in camps including 270,000 Jews, 8,000 Roma); and (3,000) forced laborers in Germany.[33]
  1. ^L Denmark
  • The Danish Ministry of Education has detailed Denmark's losses in the war of about 8,000 persons including 2,685 killed in Demmark in bombing raids, resistance fighters and those executed by the Germans and 3,000 who died outside Denmark including (2,000 merchant seamen, 63 serving with Allied forces, 600 in German camps, 400 workers in Germany). In addition 2,000 Danish volunteers were killed serving in the Germany military.[34]
  1. ^M Dutch East Indies
  • The United Nations reported in 1947 that "about 30,000 Europeans and 300,000 Indonesian internees and forced laborers died during the occupation." They reported, "The total number who were killed by the Japanese, or who died from, hunger, disease and lack of medical attention is estimated at 3,000,000 for Java alone, 1,000,000 for the Outer Islands. Altogether 35,000 of the 240,000 Europeans died; most of them were men of working age."[324]
  • Werner Gruhl estimatesd the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 3,000,000 Indonesians and 30,000 interned Europeans.[231]
  • A discussion of the famine in Java during 1944–45, leads Pierre van der Eng to conclude that 2.4 million Indonesians perished.[38]
  • Data from the Netherlands Institute of War Documentation puts the number of Dutch POW captured by the Japanese at 37,000 of whom 8,500 died.[326]
  • The Japanese interned 105,530 Dutch civilians in the East Indies of whom 13,567 died.[326]
  1. ^N Estonia
  • Estonia's human losses due to the Soviet and German occupation of Estonia from 1940 to 1945 were approximately 67,000 persons based on a study by Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression.[40]
  • Soviet occupation 1940-41 dead and missing of 43,900 including (7,800) arrested persons who were murdered or perished in the Soviet Union; (6,000) deported persons who perished in the Soviet Union; (24,000) mobilized persons who perished in the Soviet Union and (1,100) persons who went missing)
  • Losses during the 1941–1944 Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany were 23,040, including (7,800) executed by Nazis and (1,040) killed in prison camps. (200) people died in forced labor in Germany. (800) deaths in Soviet bombing raids against Estonian cities, (1,000) killed in Allied air raids on Germany and (1,000) perished at sea while attempting to flee the country in 1944–45. (10,000) Estonians were war dead in the Germany armed forces and (1,000) surrendered POW were executed by the Soviets.[327] Included in the above figures is the genocide of (243) Roma people and (929)Jews[328]
  • After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R 16,000 Estonians died in Soviet repressions during 1944–53.[329]
  • Total deaths from 1940–53 due the war and the Soviet occupation were approximately 83,000 persons (7.3% of the population).[249]
  1. ^O Ethiopia
  • Total military and civilian dead in the East African Campaign were 100,000 including 15,000 native military with Italian forces.[41]
  • Small and Singer put the military losses at 5,000.[330]
  • The deaths of African soldiers conscripted by Italy are not included with the Italian war dead . The Italian Mimistry of Defense estimated 10,000 deaths of native soldiers in East African Campaign[331]
  • These totals do not include losses in the Italian Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation from 1935–41. The official Ethiopian government report lists 760,000 deaths due to the war and Italian occupation from 1935–41.[332] However, R. J. Rummel estimates 200,000 Ethiopians and Libyans killed by the Italians from the 1920s–41, his estimate is "based on Discovery TV Cable Channel Program 'Timewatch'" 1/17/92.[333]
  1. ^P Finland
  • Military dead include killed and missing from the Winter War and Continuation War with the Soviet Union, as well as action against German forces in 1944–45. Winter War (1939–40) losses were 22,830, military deaths from 1941–44 were 58,715, and 1,036i n 1944–45 in the Lapland War.[42]
  • The Finnish National Archives website lists the names of the 95,000 Finnish war dead. The war dead database 1939-1945 includes all servicemen and women who died during being listed in the Finnish army, navy or the air force. It also includes foreign volunteers who died during their service in Finland and Finnish SS-men who died while serving in the German army.The database contains civilians in case they have been buried at a military cemetery. That was sometimes done if the deceased was, for example, an ammunition worker, air raid victim or a civilian worker who for some other reason died because of the war. Some parishes continued burying in second world war military cemeteries up to the 1980s.[334]
  • Soviet sources list the deaths of 403 of the 2,377 Finnish POW taken in the War.[335]
  1. ^Q France
  • French military war of 210,000 dead include 150,000 regular forces (1939–40 Battle of France 92,000; 1940–45 on Western Front (World War II) 58,000); 20,000 French resistance fighters and 40,000 POWs in Germany.[337] Civilian losses of 390,000 include: 60,000 killed in bombardments, 60,000 in land fighting, 30,000 murdered in executions, 60,000 political deportees, 40,000 workers in Germany and 100,000 victimsof Nazi genocide. There were French deaths in German Army of 40,000, mostly men conscripted in Alsace-Lorraine,[337]
  • The French Ministry of Defense puts French military war dead at 200,000.[338] They note that these losses include combatants from the French colonies as well as metropolitan France; regular soldiers and members of the resistance.[339]
  • R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[195]
  1. ^R French Indochina
  • Sources for total Indochinese civilian war dead range from 1 to 2 million as detailed below.
  • Werner Gruhl estimates the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 1,500,000.[231]
  • Vietnamese sources put the number of deaths during the 1944–45 famine in North Vietnam at between 1 and 2 million.[44]
  1. ^S Germany

The following notes summarize German casualties, the details are presented in German casualties in World War II.

German population

  • Foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe were subject to conscription by Nazi Germany during the war. According to a 1958 report by the West German Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office) the pre war ethnic German population in eastern Europe was 7,423,300 persons ( 249,500 Baltic states & Memel; 380,000 Danzig; 1,371,000 Poland (1939 Borders) [14]; 3,477,000 Czechoslovakia; 623,000 Hungary; 536,800 Yugoslavia; and 786,000 Romania).[342][343] These German estimates are disputed. A recent analysis by a Polish scholar found that "Generally speaking, the German estimates... are not only highly arbitrary, but also clearly tendentious in presentation of the German losses". He maintains that the German government figures from 1958 overstated the total number of the ethnic Germans living in Poland prior to war as well as the total civilian deaths due to the post war expulsions.[344]

Total German war dead

  • The estimates for the overall population losses of Germany due to the war vary to a great degree. The following is a list of the estimates of total war dead published in Germany.
  • (1949)The West German Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office)estimated total war dead of 5,483,000; (3,250,000)military; (500,000) civilians killed in bombing raids and the land campaign; (1,533,000) deaths in the expulsions from Poland and ( 200,000) victims of Nazi racial, religious or political persecution. These figures are for Germany in 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png and do not include Austria or foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe[345]
  • (1953) The German economist de:Bruno Gleitze from the German Institute for Economic Research estimated total war dead of 6,000,000; (3,100,000)military; (600,000) civilians killed in bombing raids and the land campaign; (800,000) deaths to expulsion from Poland ( 300,000) victims of Nazi racial, religious or political persecution, (1,200,000) increase in natural deaths due to the war. These figures are for Germany in 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png and do not include Austria or foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe.[346]
  • (1956) The West German Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office)estimated total war dead of 5,650,000; (3,760,000)military; (430,000)civilians killed in bombing raids and the land campaign; (1,260,000) deaths to expulsion from Poland and ( 200,000) victims of Nazi racial, religious or political persecution. These figures are for Germany in 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png and do not include Austria or foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe.[347]
  • (1961) The West German government issued a statement listing a total of 7,032,800 war dead: (military dead 3,760,000 in prewar 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png and 432,000 foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe); (430,000 civilians killed in bombing raids and the land campaign in prewar 1937 borders); (300,000 victims of Nazi racial, religious or political persecution including 170,000 Jews); (expulsion dead 1,224,900 in prewar 1937 borders and 885,900 foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe) These figures do not include Austria.[348] The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, listed Austrian casualties as 250,000 military dead and 24,000 civilians killed in bombing raids[144]
  • (1984) A German demographic study estimated 6,900,000 deaths caused by the war in prewar 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png. (3,800,000)military and (3,100,000) civilians.[45]
  • (1991) A German demographic study estimated 5,450,000 to 5,600,000 war dead (4,300,000 military dead; 430,000 civilians killed in bombing raids and the land campaign and 882,000 deaths due to expulsions from Poland). These figures are for Germany in 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png and do not include Austria or foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe[349]
  • (1998) A German demographic study estimated 5,500,000 to 6,900,000 war dead. These figures vary because of the shift of borders between 1937 File:DR1937.1.png and 1940.[350]
  • (2005) The German government issued a report listing total war dead of 7,375,800: (3,100,000 soldiers killed; 1,200,000 soldiers missing; 500,000 civilians killed in bombing raids; 2,251,500 civilian victims of expulsions and deportations; 24,300 Austrian civilians killed and 300,000 victims of Nazi racial, religious or political persecution. These figures include Austria and foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe.[351]

German military casualties

  • (1945)The casualty figures compiled by the German High Command (OKW) as of January 31, 1945 put total military losses at 2,001,399 dead, 1,902,704 missing and POW held by Allies and 4,429,875 wounded.[352]
  • (1947)The combined staff of the U.K., Canada and the U.S. prepared " A study of the employment of German manpower from 1933-1945". They estimated German casualties up until April 30, 1945 at 2,230,324 dead, 2,870,404 missing and POW held by Allies.[354][355]
  • (1960) The West German government issued figures of the war losses. Total military dead were put at 4,440,000 (3,760,000 in prewar 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png; 430,000 foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe and 250,000 Austria.)[144]
  • (1974) The Maschke Commission found that about 1.2 million German military personnel reported as missing more than likely died as POWs, including 1.1 million in the USSR.[356]
  • (1985) The Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) has been responsible for providing information for the families of those military personnel who were killed or went missing in the war, they do not compile figures of the total war dead. By 1985 they had identified 3.1 million confirmed dead and 1.2 million missing and presumed dead.[355] The Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) reported the same figures in 2005[351]
  • (1993) The Russian historian G.Krivosheev puts the losses of the "Vlasovites, Balts and Muslims etc." in German service at 215,000[168] According to Krivosheev 450,600 German POWs died in Soviet captivity (356,700 in camps and 93,900 in tranist)[357]
  • (2000) Rüdiger Overmans, an associate of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office[358] provided a reassessment of German military war dead based on a statistical survey of German military personnel records at the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). The Overmans research project was financed by a private foundation and published with the endorsement of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office of the Federal Ministry of Defense (Germany). The study found that the statistics compiled by German military during the war were incomplete and did not provide an accurate accounting of casualties. The research by Overmans concluded that German military dead and missing were 5,318,000 (4,456,000 in prewar 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png and 539,000 foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe, 261,000 Austria and 63,000 foreign nationals from western European nations). The Overmans study did not include Soviet citizens in German service[145] The details of the Overmans study are presented in German casualties in World War II. In a separate study Overmans concluded that the actual death toll of German POWs was about 1.1 million men including (1.0 million)in the USSR[359]

Civilian Casualties

  1. ^S1 Official German and Austrian sources from the 1950s reported about 2,950,000 civilian war dead : 434,000 air raid dead (410,000 Germany,24,000 Austria[360] 300,00 deaths due to Nazi racial, religious and political persecution not including victims of the Nazi euthanasia program.[361] Austrian sources put the number of victims of the Nazis at at 100,000.;[362] 2,111,000 Deaths due to expulsion of the Germans from east-central Europe.[363] The German government still maintains that 2.0 million civilians perished during the flight and expulsions from Eastern Europe.[364]
  1. ^S2 Recent research indicates about 1,550,000 civilian war dead: 353,000 000 air raid dead[365] 300,000 00 deaths due to Nazi racial, religious and political persecution in Germany[366] and 100,000 in Austria;.[362] German government sources reported 200,000 victims of the Nazi euthanasia program[367] Deaths due to expulsion of the Germans from east-central Europe were 600,000 according to a report by the German Federal Archive[368]

Civilian casualties in air raids

    1-The summary report of September 30, 1945 put total casualties for the entire period of the war at 305,000 killed and 780,000
       wounded.[369]
    2- The section Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy of October 31, 1945 put the losses at 375,000 killed
        and 625,000 wounded[370]
    3-The section The Effect of Bombing on Health and Medical Care in Germany of January 1947 made a preliminary calculated estimate of
       air raid dead at 422,000. Regarding overall losses they concluded that "It was further estimated that an additional number, approximately
       25% of known deaths in 1944 and 1945,were still unrecovered and unrecorded. With an addition of this estimate of 1944 and 1945
       unrecorded deaths, the final estimation gave in round numbers a half a million German civilians killed by Allied aerial attacks"[371]

  • (1956) A German government study put German air war dead at 635,000; 500,000 killed by allied strategic bombing and 135,000 refugees killed during the evacuations from eastern Europe in 1945. These figures include 593,000 Germany in 1937 borders File:DR1937.1.png (410,000 civilians, 32,000 foreigners and POW and 23,000 military and Police killed in strategic bombing and 127,000 civilians and 1,000 military and Police refugees fleeing on the eastern front). There were an additional 42,000 dead in Austria and the annexed territories( 26,000 civilians, 7,000 foreigners and POW and 1,000 military and Police were killed in strategic bombing and 7,000 refugees fleeing on the eastern front)[372][373][374]
  • Historian Richard Overy in 2014 published a study of the air war The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe 1940-1945 in which he disputed the official German figures of air war dead. He estimated total air raid deaths at 353,000. Overy maintains that the German estimates are based on incorrect speculations for losses during the last three months of the war when there was a gap in the record keeping system. He points out that the figures for air raid dead in the last three months of the war were estimated in the West German figures from 1956 at 300,000 people which he believes is not plausible. The official figures include an inflated total of 60,000 in the Bombing of Dresden and the inclusion of refugees fleeing westward.[151]

Civilians killed in 1945 military campaign

  • The West German government in made a rough estimate in 1956 of 20,000 civilians killed during the 1945 military campaign in current post war German borders, not including the former German territories in Poland.[144] However, there is a more recent estimate of 22,000 civilians killed during the fighting in Berlin only.[375]

Deaths due to Nazi political, racial and religious persecution

  • The West German government put the number of Germans killed by the Nazi political, racial and religious persecution at 300,000 (including 170,000 German Jews)[376]

Expulsion and flight of the Germans

The following notes summarize German expulsion casualties, the details are presented in the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) , the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union' and the Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans. The figures for these losses are currently disputed, estimates of the total deaths range from 500,000 to 2,000,000. The death toll attributable to the flight and expulsions was estimated at 2.2 million by the West German government in 1958 .[378] German government reports which were released to the public in 1987 and 1989 have caused some historians in Germany to put the actual total at 500,000 to 600,000.[379] English language sources put the death toll at 2 to 3 million based on the West German government statistical analysis of the 1950s.[380][381][382][383][384][385][386][387][388][389]

  • (1950) The West German government made a preliminary estimate of 3.0 million civilian deaths in the expulsions.(1.5 million in prewar 1937 Germany Oder–Neisse line#/media/File:Oder-neisse.gif and 1.5 million foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe)[390]
  • (1954-1961) The Schieder commission made preliminary estimates the civilian death toll in the expulsions of about 2.3 million persons, broken out as follows: 2,000,000 Poland (in post war brders) and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia; 225,600 Czechoslovakia; 69,000 Yugoslavia; 40,000 Romania; 6,000 Hungary.[391]
  • (1965), The search service of the German churches and Red Cross was able to confirm 473,013 civilian deaths in eastern Europe due to the expulsions, broken out as follows: 367,392 Poland(in post war borders); 18,889 Sudetenland; 64,779 Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia; 9,064 Baltic States ; and 12,889 Germans resettled in Poland. There were an additional 1,905,991 unsolved cases of persons reported missing. The results of this survey were kept secret until 1987.[393][394][395][396][397]
  • (1966)The West German Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims issued a statement that put the number of expulsion dead at 2,111,000 (1,225,000 Germany in 1937 borders Oder–Neisse line#/media/File:Oder-neisse.gif and 886,000 foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe)[398][399]
  • (1974)A study by the German Federal Archive estimated a death toll of 600,000 of civilians in the expulsions and deportations to the USSR. (400,000 in Poland (in post war brders) and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia; 130,000 in Czechoslovakia and 80,000 in Yugoslavia.) The authors of the report maintain that these figures cover only those deaths caused violent acts and inhumanities and do not include deaths due to malnutrition and disease. This report was kept secret and not published until 1989.[400]
  • (1985) A demographic analysis which has the support of the German government, estimated 2,020,000 civilians died during the post war expulsions and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union broken out as follows: Germany in 1937 borders Oder–Neisse line#/media/File:Oder-neisse.gif 870,000; Germans resettled in Poland during the war 108,000; Poland in 1939 borders [16] 174,000; Danzig 40,000; Czechoslovakia 220,000; Yugoslavia 106,000; Romania 75,000; Hungary 84,000; Baltic States 33,000; USSR 310,000[401]
  • The German government maintains that 2.0 to 2.5 million civilians perished in the flight and expulsion from Eastern Europe. They believe that the figure is correct because it includes additional deaths from malnutrition and disease of those civilians subject to the expulsions.[364][402][403][404]

The German government figures of 2.0 to 2.5 million civilian deaths due to the expulsions have been disputed by scholars since the publication of the results of the German church search service survey and the report by the German Federal Archive.

  • German historian Rüdiger Overmans published a study of German military casualties, this project did not investigate civilian expulsion deaths.[405] Overmans did however provide a critical analysis of the previous studies by German government of the human losses in the expulsions. Overmans maintains that these studies lack adequate support, he maintains that a figure of 500,000 expulsion dead is credible and that there are more arguments for the lower figures rather than the higher figures, he believes that new research is needed to determine the correct balance of the human losses in the expulsions. According to Overmans the figure of 1.9 million missing persons reported by the search service is unreliable because it includes military dead and persons of dubious German ancestry who were not expelled after the war but remanined in eastern Europe, also the figures for expellees living in the GDR was understated.[406][407][408]
  • German historian Ingo Haar called into question the validity of the official government figure of 2.0 million expulsion deaths in a 2006 article in the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung.[409] Since then Haar has published three articles in academic journals that covered the background of the research by the West German government on the expulsions. According to Haar the numbers were set too high for decades, for postwar political reasons. Haar's research indicates that all reasonable estimates of deaths from expulsions lie between around 500,000 and 600,000, he maintains that deaths due to disease, hunger and other conditions are already included in these numbers.[410][411][412][413]
  • The German Historical Museum puts the number of deaths due to the expulsions at 600,000, they maintain that the figure of 2 million deaths in the previous government studies cannot be supported.[414]
  • A joint Czech–German Historical Commission determined that between 15,000 and 30,000 Germans perished in the expulsions. The commission found that the demographic estimates by the German government of 220,000 to 270,000 civilian deaths due to expulsions from Czechoslovakia were based on faulty data. The Commission determined that the demographic estimates by the German government counted as missing 90,000 ethnic Germans assimilated into the Czech population; military deaths were understated and that the 1950 census data used to compute the demographic losses was unreliable.[415]
  • Polish historian Bernadetta Nitschke has provided a summary of the research in Poland on German losses due to the flight and resettlement of the Germans from Poland, not including other eastern European countries. Nitschke contrasted the estimate of 1.6 million deaths in Poland reported by the West German government in the 1950s with the figure of 400,000 that was disclosed only recently. According to Nitschke most of the civilian deaths occurred during the flight and evacuation during the war, the deportation to the U.S.S.R. for forced labor, and after the resettlement in the Soviet occupation zone in post war Germany.[416]
  • Polish historians Witold Sienkiewicz and Grzegorz Hryciuk believe that between 600,000 and 1.2 million German civilians perished during the wartime evacuations. The main causes of death were cold, stress, and bombing .[417] According to Sienkiewicz and Hryciuk between 200,000-250,000 persons were held in postwar Polish internment camps and between 15,000-60,000 perished.[418]


Post war increase in natural deaths

  • German government figures of war losses do not include the increase in natural deaths with war casualties. The German economist Bruno Gleitze from the German Institute for Economic Research estimated that there were 1,200,000 excess deaths caused by the harsh conditions in Germany during and after the war. Gleitze estimated 400,000 excess deaths during the war and 800,000 in post war Germany[346] The West German Statistisches Bundesamt put the actual deaths from 1939-1946 due to natural causes at 7,130,000 persons, the demographic study by Peter Marschalck estimated the expected deaths in peacetime due to natural causes of 5,900,000 persons, a difference of 1,230,000 excess deaths.[45] In Allied-occupied Germany the shortage of food was an acute problem in 1946–47. The average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,600 to 1,800, an amount insufficient for long-term health.[419]
  1. ^T Greece
  • The Greek government is planning to claim reparations from Germany for war damages.[420][421]
  • A study published by Cambridge University Press in 2010 estimated that Greece suffered approximately 300,000 deaths during the Axis occupation as a result of famine and malnutrition[49]
  • Gregory Frumkin, who was throughout its existence editor of the Statistical Year-Book of the League of Nations gave the following assessment of Greek losses in the war. He points out that that "the data on Greek war losses are frequently divergent and even inconsistent". His estimates for Greek losses are as follows: the war dead included 20,000 military deaths in the Greco-Italian War of 1940–41, 60,000 non-Jewish civilians, 20,000 non-Jewish deportees, 60,000 Jews and 140,000 famine deaths during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.[422]
  • In campaigns against the Greek Resistance the German occupiers engaged in a policy of reprisals against civilians, the most notorious were the Distomo massacre and the Massacre of Kalavryta. According to the German historian Dieter Pohl at least 25,000 but perhaps even more civilians were killed in mass executions. Pohl maintains that about 1 million persons (14% of the population) were displaced in the campaigns against the Greek Resistance because their homes were destroyed or were expelled and became refugees[423]
  1. ^TA Guam
  • According to an official U.S. report during the Battle of Guam on December 8–10, 4 Guam local military personnel and 3 Guam residents were killed in the battle.[424] However, Japanese sources reported 40–50 of the local population killed.[425]
  • Between 1,000[51] to 2,000[52] Chamorro people were killed or otherwise died of abuse and mistreatment during the Japanese occupation of Guam from December 10, 1941, to August 10, 1944 including an estimated 600 civilians who were massacred by the Japanese during the Battle of Guam (1944).[52]
  1. ^U Hungary
  • Tamás Stark of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has provided the following assessment of Hungarian losses.
    Military losses were 300,000 to 310,000 including 110–120,000 killed in action and 200,000 in Soviet POW and labor camps and 20-25,000 Jews in Hungarian military labor service.[53] About 210,000 were from Hungary in the 1939 borders and about 100,000 men who were conscripted from the annexed territories of Greater Hungary in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia.[54]
    Civilian dead within the borders of present day Hungary included 220,000 Hungarian Jews killed in the Holocaust and 44,000 deaths from military operations[54]
  1. ^V Iceland
  • Confirmed losses of civilian sailors due to German attacks and mines.[56]
  1. ^W India
  • India which was a British Colony during World War II included the present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. India under British administration is sometimes referred to as the British Raj.
  • Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Indian Army during the Second World War. Gurkha casualties with the British Indian Army can be broken down as: 8,985 killed or missing and 23,655 wounded.[427]
  • The preliminary 1945 data for Indian losses was, killed 24,338, missing 11,754, wounded 64,354 and POW 79,489.[299] Out of 60,000 Indian Army POWs taken at the Fall of Singapore, 11,000 died in captivity.[232]

Bengal famine of 1943

  • Amartya Sen currently the Lamont University Professor at Harvard University has recently estimated that a figure of 2.0 to 2.5 million fatalities may be more accurate.[60]
  1. ^X Iran
  • Losses during allied occupation in 1941.[62]
  1. ^Y Iraq
  1. ^Z Ireland
  • Despite being neutral, Ireland suffered casualties serving as volunteers in the UK Armed Forces as well as civilians killed by accidental bombings and U-boat attacks by Germany.
  • In April 1995 Taoiseach John Bruton spoke at Islandbridge and paid tribute to the 150,000 Irish people North and South who "volunteered to fight against Nazi tyranny in Europe, at least 10,000 of whom were killed while serving in British uniforms ... In recalling their bravery, we are recalling a shared experience of Irish and British people ... We remember a British part of the inheritance of all who live in Ireland".[428]
  1. ^AA Italy
  • The Italian government issued an accounting of the war dead in 1957, they broke out the losses before and after the Armistice with Italy: military dead and missing 291,376 ( 204,376 pre armistice and 87,030 post armistice).Civilian dead and missing at 153,147 (123,119 post armistice) including in air raids 61,432 (42,613 post armistice).[429] A brief summary of data from this report can be found online.[430]

          Military war dead
           Confirmed dead were 159,957 (92,767 pre armistice, 67,090 post armistice)[431]
           Missing and presumed dead were 131,419 (111,579 pre armistice, 19,840 post armistice)[432]
           Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia
           10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078.[433]
           Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice);
           Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice);
           USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice);
           other and unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice).[434]

  • Included in the losses are 64,000 victims of Nazi reprisals and genocide including 30,000 POWs and 8,500 Jews.[195]
  1. ^AB Japan
  • Estimates for total Japanese war dead from 1937-1945 range from at least 2.5 million[436] to 3.237 million[71]

Military Dead

  • According to John W. Dower the Japanese government put military losses from 1937-45 at 1,740,955. The details are as follows: 185,647 in China from 1937 to 1941, and 1,555,308 from 1941 to 1945 in the Pacific War. Army: against US 485,717; against UK/Netherlands 208,026; in China 202,958; against Australia 199,511; French Indochina 2,803; against USSR 7,483; other overseas 23,388; Japan proper 10,543. Navy: 1941–45 414,879. "Only one third of the military deaths occurred in actual combat, the majority being caused by illness and starvation."[437] Dower noted that in addition to the war dead the Japanese government reported 300,000 surrendered Japanese personnel in Soviet occupied territories who were unaccounted for in the post war era and presumed dead.[438] According to Dower "Known deaths of Japanese troops awaiting repatriation in Allied(non-Soviet) hands were listed as 81,090 by U.S. authorities.[439]
  • The Yasukuni Shrine in Japan lists a total of 2,325,128 military deaths from 1937 to 1945 including civilians who participated in combat, Chinese(Taiwan) and Koreans in the Japanese Armed Forces.
  • According to Werner Gruhl Japanese military war dead were 2,565,878 (250,000 from 1931–41 and 2,315,878 from 1942-45)[71]
  • The Japanese Ministry of Welfare and Foreign Office reported that 347,000 military personnel and civilians were dead or missing in Soviet hands after the war. The Japanese list the losses of 199,000 in Manchurian transit camps, 36,000 in North Korea, 9,000 from Sakhalin and 103,000 in the USSR.[440]
  • The Japanese government figures were disputed by the Soviet Union. Russian sources report the POW deaths of 62,105(61,855 Japanese and 214 collaborator forces) out of the 640,105 captured(609,448 Japanese and 30,657 collaborator forces).[441]

Civilian Dead

  • According to the World Nuclear Association, "In Hiroshima, of a resident civilian population of 250,000 it was estimated that 45,000 died on the first day and a further 19,000 during the subsequent four months. In Nagasaki, out of a population of 174,000, 22,000 died on the first day and another 17,000 within four months. Unrecorded deaths of military personnel and foreign workers may have added considerably to these figures. About 15 square kilometres (over 50%) of the two cities was destroyed. It is impossible to estimate the proportion of these 103,000 deaths, or of the further deaths in military personnel, which were due to radiation exposure rather than to the very high temperatures and blast pressures caused by the explosions." They also noted that "To the 103,000 deaths from the blast or acute radiation exposure at Hiroshima and Nagasaki have since been added those due to radiation-induced cancers and leukemia, which amounted to some 400 within 30 years, and which may ultimately reach about 550. (Some 93,000 exposed survivors were still being monitored 50 years later.)"[443]
  • The Radiation Effects Research Foundation puts the number of deaths (within two to four months), in Hiroshima at 90,000 to 166,000 persons and in Nagasaki at 60,000 to 80,000 persons. They noted that deaths caused by the atomic bombings include those that occurred on the days of the bombings due to the overwhelming force and heat of the blasts, as well as later deaths attributable to radiation exposure. The total number of deaths is not known precisely because military personnel records in each city were destroyed; entire families perished, leaving no one to report deaths; and unknown numbers of forced laborers were present in both cities[444]
  • The U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey published four different estimates of Japanese casualties due to U.S. strategic bombing.

1-Summary Reprt (July 1946)Total civilian casualties in Japan, as a result of 9 months of air attack, including those from the atomic bombs, were approximately 806,000. Of these, approximately 330,000 were fatalities.[445]

2-The effects of air attack on Japanese urban economy. Summary report (1947) Estimated that 252,769 Japanese were killed and 298,650 injured in the air war.[446]

3-The Effects of strategic bombing on Japanese morale Based on a survey of Japanese households the death toll was put at 900,000 dead and 1.3 million injured, the SBS noted that this figure was subject to a maximum sampling error of 30%. They also reported that the report of the Medical Division put the casualties at 332,931 dead and 472,974 injured.[447]

4-Strategic Bombing Survey The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki The most striking result of the atomic bombs was the great number of casualties. The exact number of dead and injured will never be known because of the confusion after the explosions. Persons unaccounted for might have been burned beyond recognition in the falling buildings, disposed of in one of the mass cremations of the first week of recovery, or driven out of the city to die or recover without any record remaining. No sure count of even the prepaid populations existed. Because of the decline in activity in the two port cities, the constant threat of incendiary raids, and the formal evacuation programs of the Government, an unknown number of the inhabitants had either drifter away from the cities or been removed according to plan. In this uncertain situation, estimates of casualties have generally ranged between 100,000 and 180,000 for Hiroshima, and between 50,000 and 100,000 for Nagasaki. The Survey believes the dead at Hiroshima to have been between 70,000 and 80,000, with an equal number injured; at Nagasaki over 35,000 dead and somewhat more than that injured seems the most plausible estimate. [448]

  1. ^AC Korea
  • American researcher R. J. Rummel estimated 378,000 Korean dead due to forced labor in Japan and Manchuria. According to Rummel, "Information on Korean deaths under Japanese occupation is difficult to uncover. We do know that 5,400,000 Koreans were conscripted for labor beginning in 1939, but how many died can only be roughly estimated."[450]
  • Werner Gruhl estimated the civilian death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 533,000[451]
  • John W. Dower has noted "Between 1939 and 1945, close to 670,000 Koreans were brought to Japan for fixed terms of work, mostly in mines and heavy industry, and it has been estimated that 60,000 or more of them died under harsh conditions of their work places. Over 10,000 others were probably killed in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki".[452]
  1. ^AD Latvia
  • Independent Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman estimated Latvian civilian war dead from 1941-45 at 220,000[78]
  1. ^AE Lithuania
  • Independent Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman estimated Lithuanian civilian war dead from 1941-45 at 345,000[80]
  1. ^AF Luxembourg
  • Total war dead were 5,000[453] which included military losses of about 3,000 with the German Armed Forces and 200 in a separate unit attached to the Belgian Army.
  1. ^AG Malaya and Singapore
  • According to John W. Dower "Malayan officials after the war claimed, possibly with exaggeration, that as many as 100,000 residents, mostly Chinese, may have been killed by the Japanese; of 73,000 Malayans transported to work on the Burma-Siam railway, 25,000 were reported to have died.[454]
  • According to Werner Gruhl in Singapore the Japanese murdered 5,000 to 10,000 Chinese in 1942. In Malaya and Singapore an estimated 50,000 Chinese were killed in this genocide by the end of the war[455]
  1. ^AH Malta
  1. ^AI Mexico
  • Mexico lost 7 merchant ships and 63 dead merchant mariners.[86] A Mexican Air Force unit Escuadrón 201 served in the Pacific and suffered 5 combat deaths.
  1. ^AJ Mongolia
  1. ^AK Nauru
  • During World War II Japan occupied Nauru in August 1942 and deported 1,200 Nauruans to work as laborers in the Caroline Islands, where 463 died. The survivors returned to Nauru in January 1946.[90]
  1. ^BG Nepal
  • Gurkha casualties can be broken down as: 8,985 killed or missing and 23,655 wounded.[427]
  1. ^AL Netherlands
  • In 1948 the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) issued a report of war losses. They listed 210,000 direct war casualties in the Netherlands ,not including the Dutch East Indies.

      Military deaths 6,750 which included 3,900 regular Army, 2,600 Navy forces, and 250 POW in Germany.
      Civilian deaths of 203,250 which included 1,350 Merchant seaman, 2,800 executed, 2,500 dead in Dutch concentration camps,
       20,400 killed by acts of war, 104,000 Jewish Holocaust dead, 18,000 political prisoners in Germany, 27,000 workers in Germany,
       3,700 Dutch nationals in the German armed forces and 7,500 missing and presumed dead in Germany,
       16,000 deaths in the Dutch famine of 1944. Not Included in the figure of 210,000 war dead are 70,000 "indirect war casualties",
        which are attributed to an increase in natural deaths from 1940-1945 and 1,650 foreign nationals killed while serving in the
        Dutch Merchant Marine[93]

  • The Netherlands War Graves Foundation maintains a registry of the names of Dutch war dead.[458]
  1. ^AM Newfoundland
  • Newfoundland's losses are not listed separately since they served with U.K. and Canadian Forces during the war. According to the Canadian War Museum " Over 700 Newfoundlanders also died during the war.[22]
  • The losses of the Newfoundland Merchant Navy are commemorated at the Allied Merchant Navy Memorial in Newfoundland,[459]
  • Civilian losses were due to the sinking of the SS Caribou in October 1942.[95]
  1. ^AN New Zealand
  • The Auckland War Museum puts the number of World War II dead at 11,671[97]
  • The preliminary data for New Zealand losses was killed 10,033, missing 2,129, wounded 19,314 and POW 8,453.[299]
  1. ^AO Norway
  • According to Norwegian government sources the war dead were 10,200[99]

          Military(Norwegian & Allied Forces)2,000 (800 Army, 900 Navy and 100 Air).
          Civilians 7,500 (3,600 Merchant seaman, 1,500 resistance fighters, 1,800 civilians killed and 600 Jews killed)
           In German Armed Forces700

  1. ^AP Papua New Guinea
  • Civilian deaths were caused by Allied bombing and shellfire and Japanese atrocities. Both the Allies and Japanese also conscripted civilians to work as laborers and porters.[101]
  1. ^AQ Philippines
  • According to Werner Gruhl the death toll due to the war and Japanese occupation at 527,000 (27,000 military dead, 141,000 massacred, 22,500 forced labor deaths and 336,500 deaths due war related famine). Civilian losses included victims of Japanese war crimes, such as the Manila massacre which claimed the lives of 100,000 Filipinos[102]
  • Between 5,000 to 10,000 Filipinos serving with the Filipino troops,Scouts, Constabulary and Philippine Army units lost their lives on the Bataan Death March.[460]
  1. ^AR Poland

Total Polish war dead

  • Czesław Łuczak in 1993 estimated Poland's war dead to be 5.9 to 6.0 million, including 2.9 to 3.0 million Jews killed in the Holocaust and 2.0 million ethnic Polish victims of the German and Soviet occupations, (1.5 million under German occupation and the balance of 500,000 in the former eastern Polish regions under Soviet occupation).[461] Łuczak also included in his figures an estimated 1,000,000 war dead of Polish citizens from the ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnic groups who comprised 20% of Poland's pre-war population.[462][463]
  • In 2009, the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) put the figure of Poland's dead at between 5,620,000 and 5,820,000; including an estimated 150,000 Polish citizens who died due to Soviet repression. The IPN's figures include 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews who died in the Holocaust and 2,770,000 ethnic Poles.[464] including ("Direct War Losses" −543,000; "Murdered in Camps and in Pacification" −506,000; "Deaths in prisons and Camps" 1,146,000; "Deaths outside of prisons and Camps" 473,000; "Murdered in Eastern Regions" 100,000; "Deaths in other countries" 2,000.)[465] Polish researchers have determined that the Nazis murdered 2,830,000 Jews (including 1,860,000 Polish Jews) in the extermination camps in Poland, in addition over 1.0 million Polish Jews were murdered by the Einsatzgruppen in the eastern regions or died of starvation and disease while in ghettos.[464]
  • The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum maintains that in addition to 3 million Polish Jews killed in the Holocaust. "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war."[467]
  • The official Polish government report on war damages prepared in 1947 listed 6,028,000 war victims during the German occupation (including 123,178 military deaths, 2.8 million Poles and 3.2 million Jews), out of a population of 27,007,000 ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses. Losses were calculated for the territory of Poland in 1939, including the territories annexed by the USSR.[471] The figure of 6.0 million war dead has been disputed by Polish scholars since the fall of communism who now put the total actual losses at about 3.0 million Jews and 2.0 million ethnic Poles, not including other ethnic groups (Ukrainians and Belarussians). They maintain that the official statistics include those persons who were missing and presumed dead, but actually remained abroad in the West and the USSR after the war.[463][472]

Polish losses during the Soviet occupation (1939–1941)

  • In August 2009, the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation.[177]
  • Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets.[247]
  • An earlier estimate made in 1987 by Franciszek Proch of the Polish Association of Former Political Prisoners of Nazi and Soviet Concentration Camps estimated the total dead due to the Soviet occupation at 1,050,000.[474]

Polish military casualties

  • During the war, 2,762,000[478] Polish citizens of German descent declared their loyalty to Germany by signing the Deutsche Volksliste. A West German government report estimated the deaths of 108,000 Polish citizens serving in the German armed forces,[479] these men were conscripted in violation of international law.[480] The Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) estimates 200,000–210,000 Polish citizens, including 76,000 ethnic Poles were conscripted into the Soviet armed forces in 1940–1941 during the occupation of the eastern regions. The (IPN) also reported that the Germans conscripted 250,000 Polish nationals into the Wehrmacht, 89,300 later deserted and joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West.[465]
  1. ^AS Timor
  • Officially neutral, East Timor was occupied by Japan during 1942–45. Allied commandos initiated a guerilla resistance campaign and most deaths were caused by Japanese reprisals against the civilian population. The Australian Dept. of Defence estimated the civilian death toll at 40,000 to 70,000.[110] However, another source puts the death toll at 40,000 to 50,000.[481]
    1. ^AT Romania
  • Demographer Boris Urlanis estimated Romanian war dead at 300,000 military and 200,000 civilians [482]
  • Total Romanian military war dead were approximately 300,000. Total killed were 93,326 (72,291 with Axis and 21,035 with Allies). Total missing and POW were 341,765 (283,322 with Axis and 58,443 with Allies), only about 80,000 survived Soviet captivity.[483]
  • Civilian losses included 160,000 Jewish Holocaust dead,[189] the genocide of Roma people 36,000 and 7,693 civilians killed in Allied air raids on Romania[484]
  1. ^AU Ruanda Urundi
  • The 1943 famine in Ruanda which took 300,000 lives was due to a local drought and the harsh wartime policies of the Belgian colonial administration to increase food production for the war effort in the Congo.[112][485]
  • Since Rwanda was not occupied nor the supply of food cut off, these deaths are not usually included with World War II casualties. However, at least one historian has compared the 1943 famine in Ruanda to the Bengal famine of 1943 which is attributed to the war.[486]
  1. ^AW South Africa
  • The preliminary 1945 data for South African losses was killed 6,840, missing 1,841 wounded 14,363 and POW 14,589.[299]
  1. ^AX South Pacific Mandate
  • Micronesian war related civilian deaths were caused by American bombing and shellfire; and malnutrition caused by the U.S. blockade of the islands. In addition the civilian population was conscripted by the Japanese as forced laborers and were subjected to numerous mindless atrocities.[488]
  1. ^AY Soviet Union

The following notes summarize Soviet casualties, the details are presented in World War II casualties of the Soviet Union

  • A 1993 report published by the Russian Academy of Science estimated the total Soviet losses in World War II at 26.6 million.[6][170][489] The Russian Ministry of Defense in 1993 put total military dead and missing from 1941 to 1945 at 8,668,400[289][290] These figures have generally been accepted by historians in the west.[490][491][492]

Total population losses

  • Russian demographers E.M. Andreev, L.E. Darski and T. L. Kharkova (ADK) authored a study of the Soviet population from 1922–1991 which was published by the Russian Academy of Science, they put total losses from 1941–1945 at 26.6 million[6][493] which is the figure accepted by the Russian government for total losses in the war.
  • According to the Russian demographer Dr. L. L. Rybakovsky there are a wide range of estimates for total war dead by Russian scholars. He cites figures of total war dead that range from 21.8 million up to 28.0 million. Rybakovsky points out that the variables that are used to compute losses are by no means certain and are currently disputed by historians in Russia. Some Russian historians put the figure as high as 46.0 million by counting the population deficit due to children not born during the war. Based on the birth rate prior to the war there is a population shortfall of about 20 million births in 1946, some would have been born but died during the war and the balance were never born. The figures for the number of children born during the war who did not survive as well as those unborn are rough estimates.[494]

Military Casualties

  • The official Russian Ministry of Defense figure for military total dead and missing from 1941 to 1945 is 8,668,400; including 6,330,000 killed in action or died of wounds and 556,000 dead from non-combat causes; 500,000 MIA and 1,283,000 dead and missing POW. Official Russian figures indicate 4,559,000 POWs and missing, out of which about 500,000 missing were killed in battle, 939,700 were conscripted back into the Soviet army during the war as territories were being liberated, 1,836,000 liberated POWs are known to have returned to the USSR after the war, this leaves 1,103,300 POW presumed dead and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries after the war.[289][290]
  • Richard Overy has noted that "The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted".[495]
  • The official Russian statistics issued in 1993 for military dead do not include an additional estimated 500,000 conscripted reservists missing or killed before being listed on active strength, 1,000,000 civilians treated as POW by Germany; and an estimated 150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisan dead, who are considered civilian war losses in the official figures.[496] The estimate by most western historians of Soviet military POW deaths is about 3 million out of 5.7 million total POWs in German hands.[195]
  • In 2000, the late S. N. Mikhalev of the History department of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University[497] published a critical analysis of the official Russian wartime casualty statistics, he estimated actual Soviet military war dead at more than 10.9 million persons. He maintained that the official figures cannot be reconciled to the total men drafted and that POW deaths were understated[498]
  • The figure of 8.7 million war dead is based on the field reports of the Red Army and the reconciliation of the balance for persons conscripted. An alternative method to determine Soviet war losses is the Russian Military Archives data base listing the names of the individual war dead and missing. S. A. Il’enkov an official of the Central Archives of the Russian Ministry of Defense maintains "We established the number of irreplaceable losses of our Armed Forces at the time of the Great Patriotic War of about 13,850,000".[499]
  • The names of many Soviet war dead are presented in the OBD Memorial database online.[500]

Civilian war dead

  • In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published a report that analyized Soviet losses in the war. They estimated civilian deaths in the German occupied USSR at 13.7 million persons, which included 7.4 million deaths caused by direct, intentional actions of violence, 2.2 million deaths of civilians deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. The authors cited sources published in the Soviet era to support these figures.[501]
  • Russian demographers E.M. Andreev, L.E. Darski and T. L. Kharkova (ADK) study of the Soviet population from 1922–1991 estimated that there was an increase of 1.3 million in Infant mortality caused by the war.[490][493]
  • The Russian Academy of Science report estimated an additional 2.5 to 3.2 million civilian dead due to famine in Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans.[502]
  1. ^AZ Spain
  • There were 4,500 military deaths with the all Spanish Blue Division serving with the German Army in the U.S.S.R. The unit was withdrawn by Spain in 1943.[503]
  • R. J. Rummel estimates the deaths of 20,000 anti-Fascist Spanish refugees resident in France who were deported to Nazi camps, these deaths are included with French civilian casualties.[195]
  1. ^BA Sweden
  • 33 Swedish sailors were killed when submarine HMS Ulven was sunk by a German mine on April 16, 1943.
  • During the war, Swedish merchant shipping was attacked by German and Soviet submarines and 2,000 merchant seamen were killed.[504]
  1. ^BB Switzerland
  • The Americans accidentally bombed Switzerland during the war causing civilian casualties.[505][506]
  1. ^BC Thailand
  • Unlike other parts of South East Asia, Thailand did not suffer from famine during the war.[510]
  1. ^BD Turkey
  • The Refah tragedy (Turkish: Refah faciası) refers to a maritime disaster during World War II, when the cargo steamer Refah of neutral Turkey, carrying Turkish military personnel from Mersin in Turkey to Port Said, Egypt was sunk in eastern Mediterranean waters by a torpedo fired from an unidentified submarine. Of the 200 passengers and crew aboard, only 32 survived.[136]
  1. ^BE United Kingdom and Colonies
  • The Commonwealth War Graves Commission reported a total of 383,718 military dead from all causes for both the UK and non-dominion British colonies, figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.These figures include deaths that occurred after the war up until 31 December 1947 [511]
  • The Commonwealth War Graves Commission also maintains a Roll of Honour of those civilians under Crown Protection (including foreign nationals) who died as a result of enemy actions in the Second World War. The names of 67,170 are commemorated in the Civilian War Dead Roll of Honour.[512]
  • The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a summary of the U.K. war losses. This report (HMSO 6832) listed:[276][513]

         Total war dead of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624);
         Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard (1,206) and Civilians (60,595).
         The total still missing on 2/28/1946 were 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18);
         Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0).
         These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia.
          Colonial forces are not included in these figures.
         There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures.
         Deaths due to air and V-rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard.

  • The preliminary 1945 data for colonial forces was killed 6,877, missing 14,208, wounded 6,972 and POW 8,115.[299]
  • UK casualties include losses of the colonial forces.[514] UK colonial forces included units from East Africa, West Africa, Ghana, the Caribbean, Malaya, Burma, Hong Kong, Jordan, Sudan, Malta and the Jewish Brigade. The Cyprus Regiment made up of volunteers that fought with the UK Army, and suffered about 358 killed and 250 missing.[515] Gurkhas recruited from Nepal fought with the British Army during the Second World War. Included with U.K. casualties are citizens of the various European countries occupied by Germany. There were separate RAF squadrons with citizens from Poland (17); Czechoslovakia (5); Netherlands (1); Free French (7); Yugoslavia (2); Belgium (3); Greece (3); Norway (2). Volunteers from the United States served in 3 R.A.F. squadrons known as the Eagle Squadrons. Many foreign nationals served in the U.K. Merchant Navy.
  1. ^BF United States

American military dead#^BF1

  • Total U.S. military deaths in battle and from other causes were 407,316. The breakout by service is as follows: Army 318,274,[278] Navy 62,614,[278] Marine Corps 24,511,[278] and the Coast Guard 1,917.[516][517]
  • Deaths in battle were 292,131. The breakout by service is as follows: Army 234,874,[278] Navy 36,950,[278] Marine Corps 19,733,[278] and Coast Guard 574.[456][516] These losses were incurred during the period 12/1/41 until 12/31/46 including an additional 126 men in October 1941 when the USS Kearny and the USS Reuben James were attacked by U-Boats.
  • U.S. Combat Dead by Theater of war: Europe–Atlantic 183,588 (Army ground forces 141,088, Army Air Forces 36,461, and Navy/Coast Guard 6,039); Asia–Pacific 108,504 (Army ground forces 41,592, Army Air Forces 15,694, Navy/Coast Guard 31,485, Marine Corps 19,733); unidentified theaters 39 (Army).[280][302] Included with combat deaths are 14,059 POWs (1,124 in Europe and 12,935 in Asia).[302] The details of U.S. military casualties are listed online: the U.S. Army,[280] the U.S. Army Air Forces,[518] the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Marine Corps.[519]
  • U.S. Army figures include the deaths of 5,337 Filipinos serving in the Philippine Scouts, of whom 5,135 died in battle (see p. 118).[280]
  • The names of individual U.S. military personnel killed in World War II can be found at the U.S. National Archives.[520]
  • The names of U.S. Merchant Mariners killed in World War II are listed by USMM.org.[521][522]

American civilian dead #^BF2

  • According to the United States Merchant Marine, 9,521 merchant mariners lost their lives in the war (8,421 killed and 1,100 who later died of wounds). In 1950, the United States Coast Guard put Merchant Marine losses at 5,662 (845 due to enemy action, 37 in prison camps, and 4,780 missing). The report excluded U.S. Army transports and foreign flagged ships and did not break out losses between the Atlantic and Pacific theaters.[522][524][525]
  • During World War II the Civil Air Patrol assumed many missions including anti-submarine patrol and warfare, border patrols, and courier services. During World War II CAP's coastal patrol had flown 24 million miles, found 173 enemy U-boats, attacked 57, hit 10 and sank two, dropping a total of 83 bombs and depth charges throughout the conflict.[526] By the end of the war, 64 CAP members had lost their lives in the line of duty.[527]
  • According to U.S. War Department figures, 18,745 American civilians were interned in the war (13,996 in the Far East and 4,749 in Europe). A total of 2,419 American civilian internees were listed as dead and missing. Under Japanese internment, 992 died and another 544 were listed as "unknown"; under German internment, 168 died and a further 715 were listed as "unknown".[528][529][530]
  • The official U.S report listed 1 U.S. civilian killed during the Battle of Guam on December 8–10.[424] However, another source reported 13 "civilians" killed during in the battle[532] and 70 U.S. civilians were killed during the Battle of Wake Island on December 8–23, 1941.[533] 98 U.S. civilian POWs were massacred by the Japanese on Wake Island in October 1943.
  1. ^BG Yugoslavia
  • The official Yugoslav figure for total war dead is 1.7 million (300,000 military and 1,400,000 civilians). This figure is cited in reference works dealing with World War II[142][535][536] However, the official Yugoslav figure has been disputed by academic studies that put actual losses at about 1.0 million persons.[143][537][538][539]
  • The U.S. Bureau of the Census published a report in 1954 that concluded that Yugoslav war-related deaths were 1,067,000. The U.S. Bureau of the Census noted that the official Yugoslav government figure of 1.7 million war dead was overstated because it "was released soon after the war and was estimated without the benefit of a postwar census".[537]
  • A recent study by Vladimir Žerjavić estimates total war related deaths at 1,027,000 which included military losses of 237,000 Yugoslav partisans, Chetniks, and 209,000 Ustaše. Civilian dead of 581,000, including 57,000 Jews. Losses of the Yugoslav Republics were: Bosnia 316,000; Serbia 273,000; Croatia 271,000; Slovenia 33,000; Montenegro 27,000; Macedonia 17,000; and killed abroad 80,000.[143]
  • Bogoljub Kočović a Yugoslav statistician,calculated that the actual war losses were 1,014,000.[539] The late Jozo Tomasevich, Professor Emeritus of Economics at San Francisco State University, believes that the calculations of Kočović and Žerjavić "seem to be free of bias, we can accept them as reliable".[540]

The reasons for the high human toll in Yugoslavia were as follows

A. Military operations between the occupying military forces and their quisling collaborators against the Yugoslav resistance.[541]
B. German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch.[541] One of the worst massacres during the German military occupation of Serbia was the Kragujevac massacre.
C. Deliberate acts of reprisal against target populations were perpetrated by all combatants. All sides practiced the shooting of hostages on a large scale. At the end of the war many Ustaše collaborators were killed during the Bleiburg tragedy.[541]
D. The systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs.[541] The USHMM reports between 77,000 and 99,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp.[542] The genocide of Roma was 40,000 persons.[543] Jewish Holocaust victims totaled 67,122.[544]
E. The reduced food supply caused famine and disease.[541]
F. Allied bombing of German supply lines caused civilian casualties. The hardest hit localities were Podgorica, Leskovac, Zadar and Belgrade.[541]
G. The demographic losses due to the reduction of 335,000 births and emigration of about 660,000 are not included with war casualties.[541]

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  81. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  82. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  83. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 296
  84. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  85. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  86. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 'ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p.540
  87. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  88. ^ a b Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 p. 74
  89. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  90. ^ a b "United States State Department Background notes Nauru". State.gov. 2011-01-26. Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  91. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  92. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  93. ^ a b c d "Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Netherlands" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  94. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24.  1945 population
  95. ^ a b Sinking of the SS Caribou
  96. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  97. ^ a b "Auckland War Museum, World War Two Hall of Memories". Retrieved 2015-06-27. 
  98. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  99. ^ a b Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 112-114
  100. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  101. ^ a b Bjij, V. Lal and Kate Fortune. The Pacific Islands – An Encyclopedia p. 244
  102. ^ a b c d Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 143-144
  103. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington, D.C., 1954 p. 103(population on 1/1/1939
  104. ^ Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, (140,000 Regular forces and 100,000 resistance fighters)
  105. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p.9
  106. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 9
  107. ^ Czesław Łuczak Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie światowej (Poland and Poles in the Second World War).Styczeń 1993 ISBN 83-232-0511-6 p.683
  108. ^ Czesław Łuczak Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie światowej (Poland and Poles in the Second World War).Styczeń 1993 ISBN 83-232-0511-6 p.683
  109. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  110. ^ a b c Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor" at the Wayback Machine (archived January 3, 2006) (Access date: October 13, 2010.)
  111. ^ League of Nations Yearbook 1942 p.14
  112. ^ a b Catharine Newbury The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda: 1860–1960 Columbia University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-231-06257-5 pp. 157–158
  113. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  114. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 48. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  115. ^ League of Nations Yearbook 1942 p.22
  116. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 29 (10,000 civilian dead on Saipan)
  117. ^ Krivosheev, G.F., ed. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-280-7. page 85
  118. ^ S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6. Pages 18-21. S. N Mikhalev Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 A Statistical Investigation Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University (In Russian)
  119. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей -Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles. Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page 127 (7,420,000 killed by intentional acts of violence and 2,164,000 as forced labor in Germnay)
  120. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей -Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles. Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page 127 (7,420,000 killed by intentional acts of violence)
  121. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей -Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles. Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page 127 (4,100,000 deaths due to famine and disease in German occupied USSR)
  122. ^ Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей -Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles. Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Page 158 (2.5-3.2 million deaths due to famine and disease in area not occupied by Germany)
  123. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993. ISBN 0415101948(1,300,000 increase in infant mortality)
  124. ^ Andreev EM; Darsky LE; Kharkova TL, Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes. in Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. 1993. ISBN 0415101948 (26.6 million war dead)
  125. ^ Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309
  126. ^ "Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  127. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  128. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  129. ^ a b "Swedish Volunteer Corps". Svenskafrivilliga.com. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  130. ^ Lennart Lundberg Handelsflottan under andra världskriget p.9
  131. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  132. ^ Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Diplomacy of Apology: U.S. Bombings of Switzerland during World War II by Jonathan E. Helmreich
  133. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  134. ^ a b Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n:
  135. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  136. ^ a b "SS_Refah, Graces Guid". Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  137. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  138. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 48. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  139. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 48. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  140. ^ "Population Statistics". Library.uu.nl. Retrieved 2015-06-24. 
  141. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. 156
  142. ^ a b c d I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot Oxford Companion to World War II Oxford, 2005 ISBN 0-19-280670-X p. 290
  143. ^ a b c d e Danijela Nadj, dnadj@hic.hr (1993). Yugoslavia manipulations with the number Second World War victims. Zagreb: Croatian Information center. ISBN 0-919817-32-7. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  144. ^ a b c d e f g h i Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p.78 (available online at http://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  145. ^ a b Rüdiger Overmans, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 pp. 228-232
  146. ^ "Austria facts and Figures Page 44">Austria facts and Figures p. 44
  147. ^ a b c Austria facts and Figures p. 44
  148. ^ File:DR1937.1.png
  149. ^ a b Rüdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 pp.228-232
  150. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956
  151. ^ a b c Richard Overy, The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe 1940-1945 (2013) pp 304-7
  152. ^ Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961] pp.31-33 (figure includes 170,000 German Jews). The West German government did not list euthanasia victims along with the war dead.
  153. ^ a b c Germany reports. With an introd. by Konrad Adenauer. Germany (West). Presse- und Informationsamt. Wiesbaden, Distribution: F. Steiner, 1961] pp.31-33 (they give figure of 300,00 German deaths due to racial, religious and political persecution including 170,000 Jews. Figure does not include the Nazi euthanasia program
  154. ^ a b Bundesarchiv Euthanasie" im Nationalsozialismus 2003 report by German Federal Archive puts the dead toll in the Nazi euthanasia program at over 200,000
  155. ^ German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 P.41
  156. ^ Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, Journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. (German government Statistical Office)
  157. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p.79 (available online at http://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  158. ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  159. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960 Bonn 1961 p.79 (available online at http://www.digizeitschriften.de/de/openaccess)
  160. ^ a b German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 P.53
  161. ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, pp. 78-79
  162. ^ Rüdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1 Page 333
  163. ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  164. ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78
  165. ^ a b "Austria facts and Figures Page 44">Austria facts and Figures p. 44 The Austrian government estimates 100,000 victims of Nazi persecution including 65,000 Jews.
  166. ^ The Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, pp 78-79
  167. ^ German Federal Archive, Siegel, Silke Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1948. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28. Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewählte Erlebnisberichte. Bonn 1989 pp. 53-54
  168. ^ a b Krivosheev, G.F., ed. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-280-7. page 278
  169. ^ a b "Russian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII-by Lt. Gen Wladyslaw Anders and Antonio Munoz". Feldgrau.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  170. ^ a b c d e f Andreev, E. M., et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02-013479-1
  171. ^ a b c d e "League of Nations Yearbook 1942–1944". 
  172. ^ Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression;The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991 Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X Page 38 Table 2
  173. ^ Lithuanian Population does not include a portion of the Vilnius Region which was turned over to Lithuania by the USSR in 1939, the population of this region was 483,000, which increased the Lithuanian population to 2,925,000
  174. ^ Lithuanian Population does not include 140,000 from the Klaipėda Region which was annexed by Germany in March 1939.
  175. ^ "League of Nations Yearbook 1942–1944". Digital.library.northwestern.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-15.  See Sec 12–33. Population annexed in 1939 had a population of 12,983,000 which was reduced by (1,407,000) in regions returned to Poland in 1945
  176. ^ Figures issued by the Polish government in exile put the population of the annexed territory at 13,299,000. Maly Rocznik Statystyczny Polski – London 1941(this figure includes areas returned to Poland in 1945 of 1.4 million persons)
  177. ^ a b c d e Krystyna Kersten, Szacunek strat osobowych w Polsce Wschodniej. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI, 1994 p. 46
  178. ^ S. Maksudov Losses Suffered by the Population of the USSR 1918-1958 The Samizdat register II / edited by Roy Medvedev New York : Norton, 1981. Pages 238-240. Balance of (523,000) includes additions of 725,000 Carpathian Ruthenia, 86,000 Tuva, 29,000 remaining on South Sakhalin Island and 518,000 Ukrainians deported from Poland. Subtractions of (1,526,000) Poles transferred to Poland and the transfer to Germany of (350,000) ethnic Germans in 1940-41.
  179. ^ Таджикистан выступает против фальсификации итогов ВОВ | Политика | Лента новостей "РИА Новости"
  180. ^ Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 pp. 242–244
  181. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. "How many Jews were killed during the Holocaust?"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  182. ^ Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution New York (1953) p.501
  183. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami.Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 p. 32
  184. ^ a b c Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews New Viewpoints 1973 p. 767.
  185. ^ Yad Vashem The Shoah Victims' Names Recovery Project
  186. ^ a b c d Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9, p. 421.
  187. ^ a b Since the Czech Republic as political entity exists only since 1969/1993, this political name stands for Czech part (Czech lands – during the war divided into so-called Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia and Sudetenland) of then-occupied Czechoslovakia.
  188. ^ "File:Hungary 1938–1947.png – Wikimedia Commons". Commons.wikimedia.org. 2010-12-04. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  189. ^ a b c d Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 p. 244
  190. ^ Post-war map of Romania
  191. ^ A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. Ed. by Michael Berenbaum New York University Press 1990 ISBN 1-85043-251-1
  192. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Mosaic of Victims: Overview"". Ushmm.org. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  193. ^ a b Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 Google Books
  194. ^ "Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida, A Teachers Guide to the Holocaust". Fcit.usf.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  195. ^ a b c d e R. J. Rummel. Democide Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder. Transaction 1992 ISBN 1-56000-004-X p. 13
  196. ^ Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands, Basic Books 2010 Pages 411–412
  197. ^ Hellmuth Auerbach: Opfer der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft. In: Wolfgang Benz (Hg.): Legenden, Lügen, Vorurteile. Ein Wörterbuch zur Zeitgeschichte. Dtv, Neuauflage 1992, ISBN 3-423-04666-X, Page. 161.
  198. ^ Dieter Pohl, Verfolgung und Massenmord in der NS-Zeit 1933–1945, WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), 2003, ISBN 3534151585, p. 153
  199. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Genocide of European Roma, 1939–1945"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  200. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  201. ^ Hanock, Ian. "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview" Stone, D. (ed.) (2004) The Historiography of the Holocaust. Palgrave, Basingstoke and New York.
  202. ^ Hancock, Ian. Jewish Responses to the Porajmos – The Romani Holocaust, Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota.
  203. ^ Danger! Educated Gypsy, p. 243, University of Hertfordshire Press, 2010
  204. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. and Francis Nicosia. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 p. 422.
  205. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Mentally and Physically Handicapped: Victims of the Nazi Era
  206. ^ Bundesarchiv: Euthanasie-Verbrechen 1939–1945 (Quellen zur Geschichte der "Euthanasie"-Verbrechen 1939–1945 in deutschen und österreichischen Archiven. Ein Inventar. Einführung von Harald Jenner)
  207. ^ Quellen zur Geschichte der "Euthanasie"-Verbrechen 1939–1945 in deutschen und österreichischen Archiven. Ein Inventar [1]
  208. ^ R. J. Rummel. Democide Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder. Transaction 1992 ISBN 1-56000-004-X. Table A
  209. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Nazi Persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  210. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "Poles as Victims of the Nazi Era"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  211. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. "The German Army and the Racial Nature of the War Against the Soviet Union"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  212. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6. M. V. Philimoshin of the War Ministry of the Russian Federation About the results of calculation of losses among the civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 1941–1945 Pages 124–131. In Russian. (These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including Polish territories annexed in 1939–40.)
  213. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press(2006), pp. 225–227, ISBN 0-521-81144-9
  214. ^ Bohdan Wytwycky,The Other Holocaust: Many Circles of Hell The Novak Report, 1980
  215. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. (2000) The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11200-9 p. 49
  216. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. p. 633. ISBN 9780802078209. 
  217. ^ Dieter Pohl, Verfolgung und Massenmord in der NS-Zeit 1933–1945, WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), 2003, ISBN 3534151585, Pages 109, 128, 153
  218. ^ A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. Ed. by Michael Berenbaum, New York University Press, 1990. ISBN 1-85043-251-1
  219. ^ Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles (In Russian). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 5-86789-023-6. M. V. Philimoshin of the War Ministry of the Russian Federation About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 1941–1945 Pages 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M. V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.
  220. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Persecution of Homosexuals in the Third Reich"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  221. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "How many Catholics were killed during the Holocaust?"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  222. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Jehovah's Witnesses"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  223. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Freemasonry Under the Nazi Regime"
  224. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia "Blacks During the Holocaust"". Ushmm.org. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  225. ^ ""Non-Jewish Resistance" Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C". Ushmm.org. 2011-01-06. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  226. ^ – Croatia, Yad Vashem, Shoah Resource Center
  227. ^ "Jasenovac". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 7 April 2012. 
  228. ^ http://www.wiesenthal.com/site/apps/nlnet/content2.aspx?c=lsKWLbPJLnF&b=4442245&ct=5851813#.VKbzIvldUXs
  229. ^ Vladimir Dedijer, History of Yugoslavia McGraw-Hill Inc.,US, 1975 ISBN 0-07-016235-2 Page 582
  230. ^ R. J. Rummel. Statistics of democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900 Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7 [2]
  231. ^ a b c d Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 (Werner Gruhl is former chief of NASA's Cost and Economic Analysis Branch with a lifetime interest in the study of the First and Second World Wars.)
  232. ^ a b Ian Dear & MRD Foot, The Oxford Companion to World War II (2001) p. 443
  233. ^ Van Waterford, Prisoners of the Japanese in World War II, McFarland & Co., 1994 ISBN 0-89950-893-6 pp. 141–146 (figures taken from De Japanse Burgenkampen by D. Van Velden
  234. ^ Bernice Archer, The internment of Western civilians under the Japanese, 1941–1945: a patchwork of internment / Bernice Archer. London, New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004. ISBN 962-209-910-6 p. 5
  235. ^ Edwin Bacon, Glasnost and the Gulag: New information on Soviet forced labour around World War II. Soviet Studies Vol 44. 1992-6
  236. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will
  237. ^ J. Arch Getty, "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Prewar Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence," (with Gаbor T. Rittersporn, and V. N. Zemskov), American Historical Review, 98:4, Oct. 1993
  238. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 175
  239. ^ J. Arch Getty, Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Prewar Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence, (with Gаbor T. Rittersporn, and V. N. Zemskov), American Historical Review, 98:4, Oct. 1993
  240. ^ Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data-Not the Last Word Europe-Asia Studies Volume 51, Issue 2, 1999
  241. ^ Robert Conquest, "Excess deaths and camp numbers: Some comments", Soviet Studies Volume 43, Issue 5, 1991
  242. ^ Steven Rosefielde, Red Holocaust, Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7
  243. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 Pages 76 and 77
  244. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 p. 59
  245. ^ Steven Rosefielde Red Holocaust Routledge, 2009 ISBN 0-415-77757-7 p. 179 (Rosefielde's figures were derived by estimating the population from 1939–1945 using hypothetical birth and death rates; he then compares this 1945 estimated population to the actual ending population in 1945. The difference is 31.0 million excess deaths of which 23.4 million are attributed to the war and 7.6 million to Soviet repression)
  246. ^ Michael Haynes A Century Of State Murder?: Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia, Pluto Press, 2003. ISBN 0745319300. Pages 62–89.
  247. ^ a b Stephane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-674-07608-7 p. 372
  248. ^ Poland World War II casualties (in thousands)
  249. ^ a b "Estonian State Commission on Examination of Policies of Repression. ''The White Book: Losses inflicted on the Estonian nation by occupation regimes. 1940–1991''. Tallinn 2005. ISBN 9985-70-195-X Table 2" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  250. ^ Michael Haynes A Century Of State Murder?: Death and Policy in Twentieth Century Russia, Pluto Press, 2003. ISBN 0745319300. Pages 214–215.
  251. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, p. 123
  252. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, Page 119
  253. ^ Pavel Polian, Against Their Will, Pages 123–157
  254. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930–1953 McFarland & Company, 1997 ISBN 0-7864-0336-5 p. 133
  255. ^ J. Otto Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System: A History of Soviet Repression and Terror, 1930–1953 McFarland & Company, 1997. ISBN 0-7864-0336-5. p. 148. The Soviet Archives did not provide the details by year of the figure of 309,100 deaths in the settlements.
  256. ^ G. I. Krivosheev (2001). Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil; statisticheskoe issledovanie. OLMA-Press. pp. Tables 200–203. ISBN 5-224-01515-4. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  257. ^ Elliott, Mark, Pawns of Yalta: Soviet Refugees and America's Role in Their Repatriation, University of Illinois Press, 1982. ISBN 0-252-00897-9
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  419. ^ Alan S. Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe
  420. ^ "Does Germany owe Greece wartime reparations money?". BBC News. 2005-06-14. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  421. ^ Vast Greek war claims against Germany explode like a 'time-bomb', The Telegraph March 22, 2014
  422. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. pp. 89–91
  423. ^ Dieter Pohl, Verfolgung und Massenmord in der NS-Zeit 1933–1945, WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), 2003, ISBN 3534151585, pp. 123-124 1
  424. ^ a b George J. McMillin, Captain, USN Surrender of Guam to the Japanese
  425. ^ Thomas Wilds, "The Japanese Seizure of Guam", Marine Corps Gazette, July, 1955
  426. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 48. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  427. ^ a b Parker, John. (2005). The Gurkhas: The Inside Story of the World's Most Feared Soldiers. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7553-1415-7 p. 250
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  429. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45 Rome 1957
  430. ^ "The effects of war losses on mortality estimates for Italy: A first attempt. Demographic Research, Vol. 13, No. 15". Demographic-research.org. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  431. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45 Rome 1957 pp.4-5
  432. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45 Rome 1957 pp. 6-7
  433. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45 Rome 1957 p.20
  434. ^ Roma:Instituto Centrale Statistica' Morti E Dispersi Per Cause Belliche Negli Anni 1940–45 Rome 1957 pp.10-11
  435. ^ Ufficio Storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito. Commissariato generale C.G.V. Ministero della Difesa – Edizioni 1986
  436. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 296
  437. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 296
  438. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 296
  439. ^ a b c John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 363
  440. ^ Nimmo, William. Behind a curtain of silence: Japanese in Soviet custody, 1945–1956, Greenwood 1989 ISBN 978-0-313-25762-9 pp. 116–118
  441. ^ "G. I. Krivosheev Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil; statisticheskoe issledovanie OLMA-Press, 2001 ISBN 5-224-01515-4". Lib.ru. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  442. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 pp. 297–299
  443. ^ "Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Subsequent Weapons Testing". Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  444. ^ Radiation Effects Research Foundation How many people died as a result of the atomic bombings?
  445. ^ "United States Strategic Bombing Survey Summary Report United States Government Printing Office Washington: 1946 p. 20". Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  446. ^ "United States Strategic Bombing Survey Report # 55 The effects of air attack on Japanese urban economy.United States Government Printing Office Washington: 1947 p. 7". Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  447. ^ "United States Strategic Bombing Survey The Effects of strategic bombing on Japanese morale.United States Government Printing Office Washington: 1947 p. 194". Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  448. ^ "United States Strategic Bombing Survey The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki United States Government Printing Office Washington: 1946 p. 15". Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  449. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 578
  450. ^ "R. J. Rummel "Statistics of democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900" Transaction 1998 ISBN 3-8258-4010-7 Chapter 3". Hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  451. ^ Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 143
  452. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 47
  453. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. p. 107
  454. ^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy 1986 ISBN 0-394-75172-8 p. 296
  455. ^ Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 91
  456. ^ a b Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 'ISBN 0-7864-1204-6.
  457. ^ "History Of The Nepalese Army". Nepalarmy.mil.np. Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  458. ^ "The Netherlands War Graves Foundation". Ogs.nl. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  459. ^ "Allied Merchant Navy Memorial in Newfoundland". Cdli.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  460. ^ Gordon, Maj. Richard M., (U.S. Army, retired) (28 October 2002). "Bataan, Corregidor, and the Death March: In Retrospect"
  461. ^ [10] Meeting line between the German and the Soviet Army after their joint invasion of Poland in September 1939
  462. ^ Czesław Łuczak Polska i Polacy w drugiej wojnie światowej (Poland and Poles in the Second World War).Styczeń 1993 ISBN 83-232-0511-6 p.683
  463. ^ a b c d Gniazdowski, Mateusz. Losses Inflicted on Poland by Germany during World War II. Assessments and Estimates—an Outline The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, 2007, no. 1.This article is available from the Central and Eastern European Online Library at http://www.ceeol.com
  464. ^ a b Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 32
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  466. ^ [Poland World War II casualties (in thousands)http://projectinposterum.org/docs/poland_WWII_casualties.htm]
  467. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.Poles Victims of the Nazi Era". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  468. ^ Gregory Frumkin. Population Changes in Europe Since 1939, Geneva 1951. p. 119
  469. ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Poland Ed. W. Parker Mauldin, Washington, D.C., 1954 p.187
  470. ^ Andreev, E. M., et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02-013479-1 p. 78. Total Soviet losses of 26.6 million are computed for the population in mid-1941 in the territory of the Soviet Union of 1946–1991
  471. ^ Poland. Bureau odszkodowan wojennych, Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939–1945. Warsaw 1947.(the figures of 2.8 miilion Jews and 3.2 miilion Poles are based on language spoken, not religion)
  472. ^ Czesław Łuczak, Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI, 1994
  473. ^ "go to note on Polish Casualties by Tadeusz Piotrowski at the bottom of the page". Project In Posterum. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  474. ^ Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987
  475. ^ a b T. Panecki, Wsiłek zbrojny Polski w II wojnie światowej pl:Wojskowy Przegląd Historyczny,1995, no. 1–2, pp. 13–18
  476. ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6, p. 20
  477. ^ "Victims of the Nazi Regime-Database of Polish citizens repressed under the German Occupation". Straty.pl. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  478. ^ Nürnberg Document No. 3568. Data from this document is listed in Martin Brozat, Nationalsozialistische Polenpolitik Fischer Bücheri 1961. p. 125
  479. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. – Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958
  480. ^ Schimitzek, Stanislaw, Truth or Conjecture? Warsaw 1966
  481. ^ Ruas, Óscar Vasconcelos, "Relatório 1946-47", AHU
  482. ^ Urlanis, Boris (1971). Wars and Population. Moscow 1971 Page 294
  483. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7 pp. 216–217
  484. ^ Mark Axworthy. Third Axis Fourth Ally. Arms and Armour 1995 ISBN 1-85409-267-7 p. 314
  485. ^ Linden, Jan Church and revolution in Rwanda, Manchester University Press 1977 ISBN 0-8419-0305-0 p. 207
  486. ^ Alexander De Waal, Famine crimes: politics & the disaster relief industry in Africa Indiana Univ Pr, 1999 ISBN 0-253-21158-1 p. 30
  487. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 48. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  488. ^ Poyer, Lin; Falgout, Suzanne; Carucci, Laurence Marshall. The Typhoon of War: Micronesian Experiences of the Pacific War Univ of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 2001. ISBN 0-8248-2168-8
  489. ^ Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note – World War II – Europe Asia Studies, July 1994
  490. ^ a b Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note, Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309
  491. ^ "Michael Ellman and S. Maksudov, Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War:a note-World War II- Europe Asia Studies, July 1994" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-28. 
  492. ^ Perrie, Maureen (2006), The Cambridge History of Russia: The twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, pp. 225-227
  493. ^ a b Andreev, EM, et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 978-5-02-013479-9 p. 78
  494. ^ L L Rybakovsky Casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (In Russian) Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya, 2000. № 6.
  495. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941–1945, Penguin Books, 1998, ISBN 0-14-027169-4 p. XV
  496. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 20-21
  497. ^ "Obituary of S. N. Mkhalev who passed away in 2005". Andjusev.narod.ru. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  498. ^ S. N Mikhalev Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941- 1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet • 2000 ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6. Pages 18-21. S. N Mikhalev Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 A Statistical Investigation Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University (In Russian)
  499. ^ S. A. Il’enkov Pamyat O Millionach Pavshik Zaschitnikov Otechestva Nelzya Predavat Zabveniu Voennno-Istoricheskii Arkhiv No. 7(22), Central Military Archives of the Russian Federation 2001, pp. 73-80 ISBN 978-5-89710-005-7, (The Memory of those who Fell Defending the Fatherland Cannot be Condemned to Oblivion In Russian – available at the New York Public Library
  500. ^ "OBD Memorial". Obd-memorial.ru. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  501. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 pp. 124–131(These losses are for the territory of the USSR in the borders of 1946-1991, including territories annexed in 1939–40).
  502. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 p. 158
  503. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 515
  504. ^ Lennart Lundberg Handelsflottan under andra världskriget p.9
  505. ^ "Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Diplomacy of Apology: U.S. Bombings of Switzerland during World War II by Jonathan E. Helmreich". Airpower.maxwell.af.mil. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  506. ^ "Aerospace Power Journal. Summer 2000. The Bombing of Zurich by Jonathan E. Helmreich". Airpower.maxwell.af.mil. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  507. ^ Sorasanya Phaengspha (2002) The Indochina War: Thailand Fights France. Sarakadee Press.
  508. ^ Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n: "Deaths in the Thai military forces from 8 December 1941 through the end of the war included 143 officers, 474 non-commissioned officers, and 4,942 soldiers. (Defense Ministry of Thailand, In Memory of Victims who Fell in Battle [in Thai], Bangkok: Krom phaenthi Thahanbok, 1947). With the exception of about 180 who died in the 8 December [1941] battles and another 150 who died in battles in the Shan states [Burma], almost all of the war dead died of malaria and other diseases."
  509. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled 'The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain' and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids."
  510. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp66-87. Thailand exported rice to neighboring Japanese-occupied countries during 1942–45 (p72n) and did not experience the notorious famines that occurred in India and French Indochina (see above), during 1943–1944.
  511. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 48.
  512. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 48. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.These figures include deaths that occurred after the war up until 31 December 1947
  513. ^ UK Central Statistical Office Statistical Digest of the War HMSO 1951
  514. ^ Marika Sherwood (2011-03-30). "Colonies, Colonials and World War Two". BBC. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  515. ^ "Cyprus Veterans Association World War II". Cyprusveterans.com.cy. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  516. ^ a b "U.S. Coast Guard History". Uscg.mil. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  517. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6 pp. 584–591
  518. ^ U.S. Army Air Force in World War Two
  519. ^ "US Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Casualties in World WarII". History.navy.mil. Retrieved 2015-06-29. 
  520. ^ U.S. National Archives Casualties from World War II
  521. ^ "U.S. Merchant Marine Casualties during World War II". Usmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  522. ^ a b "Mariners in "ocean-going service" during World War II have Veteran Status. They may be entitled to a gravestone, flag for their coffin, and burial in a National Cemetery". Usmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  523. ^ "American Battle Monuments Commission". Abmc.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  524. ^ "American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org". Usmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  525. ^ Summary of Merchant Marine Personnel Casualties in World War II, US Coast Guard, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1 July 1950, p. VII
  526. ^ "Civil Air Patrol". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 4 April 2008. With the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, the decision was made in 2002 for the United States Air Force to move CAP "operational" mission activities from the Air Force's operations directorate (HAF/A3) to the Air Force's newly created homeland security directorate... 
  527. ^ "CAP History and Organization" (PDF). Civil Air Patrol. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  528. ^ CRS Report for Congress U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan Updated December 17, 2002, p. CRS-11
  529. ^ Center for Internee Rights, Civilian prisoners of the Japanese in the Philippine Islands Turner Press 2002, ISBN 1-56311-838-6
  530. ^ The annual death rate from 1942–1945 of Americans interned by Japan was about 3.5%. There were 1,536 deaths among the 13,996 interned civilians from 1942–1945.
    The United States interned about 100,000 Japanese Americans from 1942–1945. The 1946 report by the U.S. Dept. of The Interior "The Evacuated People a Quantitative Description" gave the annual death rate from 1942–1945 of Japanese detained in the U.S. at about 0.7%. There were 1,862 deaths among the 100,000 to 110,000 American civilians of Japanese ancestry interned in the U.S. from 1942–1945. The annual death rate among the U.S. population as a whole from 1942–1945 was about 1.1% per annum.
  531. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 552
  532. ^ Roger Mansell Captured: The Forgotten Men of Guam
  533. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p.552
  534. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 580
  535. ^ Robert Goralski, World War II almanac, 193–1945 : a political and military record New York p. 428
  536. ^ John Keegan Atlas of the Second World War , HarperCollins 1997 Pages 204-205
  537. ^ a b U.S. Bureau of the Census The Population of Yugoslavia Ed. Paul F. Meyers and Arthur A. Campbell, Washington p. 23
  538. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses
  539. ^ a b Kočović, Bogoljub Žrtve Drugog svetskog rata u Jugoslaviji, 1990. ISBN 86-01-01928-5. pp. 172–189
  540. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses. p. 737
  541. ^ a b c d e f g Tomasevich, Jozo. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4 In Cap.17 Alleged and True Population Losses there is a detailed account of the controversies related to Yugoslav war losses. p. 744–750
  542. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Jasenovac"". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  543. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books, 1972, ISBN 0-465-01611-1, p. 184
  544. ^ Martin Gilbert Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3 p. 244

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