World War II casualties of the Soviet Union

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World War II casualties of the Soviet Union from all related causes numbered over 20,000,000, both civilians and military, although the exact figures are disputed. During the Soviet era information on casualties was considered top secret; only later in the Glasnost period was information on Soviet World War II casualties published. In 1993 a study by the Russian Academy of Sciences estimated total Soviet population losses due to the war at 26.6 million,[1][2][3] including military dead of 8.7 million calculated by the Russian Ministry of Defense.[4] These figures have been accepted by most historians outside of Russia. However the official figure of 8.7 million military dead has been disputed by some Russian historians who believe the number of POW dead and missing is understated.[5] Officials at the Russian Central Defense Ministry Archive (CDMA) maintain that their database lists the names of roughly 14 million dead and missing service personnel.[6][7] Some critics in Russia put total losses in the war, both civilians and military, at over 40 million.[8][9]

Kiev, June 23, 1941
Dead Soviet civilians near Minsk, Belarus, 1943

Military losses[edit]

Krivosheev's analysis[edit]

Soviet fighter ace Lydia Litvyak was killed in action on August 1, 1943. 800,000 women served in the Soviet Armed Forces during the war. Some served as pilots, snipers, machine gunners, tank crew members and partisans, as well as in auxiliary roles.

A 1993 Russian Ministry of Defense report authored by a group headed by General G. I. Krivosheev detailed military casualties.[10] Their sources were Soviet reports from the field and other archive documents that were secret during the Soviet era, including a secret Soviet General Staff report from 1966–68. Krivosheev's study puts Soviet military dead and missing at 8.7 million and is often cited by historians. In April 2016 the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation issued a statement that put Soviet military war dead at 8,668,400.[11]

Soviet World War II military casualties 1939–45 by period[12][13]
Dead and missing Wounded and sick
Battle of Khalkhin Gol 1939

[4][14]

9,703 15,952
Invasion of Poland 1939[4][14] 1,475 2,383
Winter War 1939–40[4][14] 126,875 264,908
World War II 1941–45[15][16] 8,668,400 22,326,905
Total 8,806,453 22,610,148

The Schedule below summarizes Soviet casualties from 1941–1945.

Starting attack in Leningrad battlefront
Military dead and missing (1941–45) by cause[17][18]
Cause Estimate
KIA or died of wounds 6,329,600
Noncombat deaths (sickness, accidents,etc.) 555,500
Subtotal KIA, died of wounds and Noncombat deaths 6,885,100
MIA and POW 4,559,000
Total operational losses during war 11,444,100
Less:Missing later Returned to Duty (939,700)
Less:POWs returned to USSR (1,836,000)
Total irrecoverable losses (from listed strength) 8,668,400
Soviet prisoners of war
Reconciliation of missing[19]
Missing and presumed killed in action 500,000
POW losses 1,283,300 A
Missing Later Re-conscripted 939,700
POW returned to USSR 1,836,000
Total Reported Missing 4,559,000

A Including 180,000 POW who emigrated to other countries

His analysis shows that about 4,559,000 were reported missing (including 3,396,400 per field reports and an additional 1,162,600 estimated based on German documents), out of which 500,000 were missing and presumed dead, 939,700 were re-conscripted during the war as territories were liberated, 1,836,000 returned to the U.S.S.R. after the war, while the balance of 1,283,300 died in German captivity as POWs or did not return to the USSR.[20][21] Krivoshhev wrote "According to German sources 673,000 died in captivity. Of the remaining 1,110,300, Soviet sources indicate that over half also died captivity".[22]

In a 1999 article Krivosheev noted that 2,016,000 POW survived the war, of which 1,836,000 POWs are known to have returned to the U.S.S.R. after the war and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely settled in other countries.[23]

Soviet conscripts 1941
Reconciliation of Soviet Forces 1941–1945[18]
Description Balance
Army & Navy strength- June 1941 4,902,000
Drafted during war 29,575,000
Discharged during war (9,693,000)
Army & Navy strength in June 1945 (12,840,000)
Losses of conscripted reservists 1941 not officially inducted (500,000)
Subtotal: Operational losses 11,444,000
Missing later re-conscripted (940,000)
Liberated POW returned to USSR (1,836,000)
Total losses 8,668,000

Discharged during war of 9,693,000 includes 3,798,200 sent on sick leave; 3,614,600 transferred to work in industry, anti-aircraft defense and armed guards; 1,174,600 sent to NKVD troops and organs; 250,400 transferred to Polish, Czechoslovak and Romanian armies; 436,600 imprisoned; 206,000 discharged; and 212,400 missing in rear areas.

The June 1945 force size of 12,840,000 includes 11,390,600 on active service; 1,046,000 in hospital; and 403,200 in civilian departments.

Carrying a wounded soldier on the Leningrad Front
Naked Soviet POWs in Mauthausen concentration camp[24]
Numbers of Wounded & Sick by category
According to Military Medical Service [25]
Wounded Sick Total
Total 14,685,593 7,641,312 22,326,905
Of these:
Discharged (3,050,733) (747,425) (3,798,158)
Returned to Duty (10,530,750) (6,626,493) (17,157,243)
Died (also included in irrecoverable losses) (1,104,110) (267,394) (1,371,504)
Casualties 1941–1945 According to Field Reports[18]
Description Irrecoverable Losses Wounded & Sick Total Losses
1941 3rd Q 2,129,677 687,626 2,817,303
1941 4th Q 1,007,996 648,521 1,656,517
1942 1st Q 675,315 1,179,457 1,854,772
1942 2nd Q 842,898 706,647 1,549,545
1942 3rd Q 1,224,495 1,283,062 2,507,557
1942 4th Q 515,508 941,896 1,457,404
1943 1st Q 726,714 1,425,692 2,152,406
1943 2nd Q 191,904 490,637 682,541
1943 3rd Q 803,856 2,060,805 2,864,661
1943 4th Q 589,955 1,567,940 2,157,895
1944 1st Q 570,761 1,572,742 2,143,503
1944 2nd Q 344,258 965,208 1,309,466
1944 3rd Q 510,790 1,545,442 2,056,232
1944 4th Q 338,082 1,031,358 1,369,440
1945 1st Q 557,521 1,594,635 2,152,156
1945 2nd Q 243,296 618,055 861,351
Campaign in Far East 12,031 24,425 36,456
Subtotal Operational Losses:Army & Navy 11,285,057 18,344,148 29,629,205
Add:Losses Border/Internal Service Troops 159,100
Subtotal:Operational Losses 11,444,100
Less:Missing Later Re-conscripted (939,700)
Less:Liberated POW returned to USSR (1,836,000)
Total Irrecoverable Losses 8,668,400

Krivosheev's group estimated losses for the early part of the war, because from 1941–1942 no surrounded or defeated divisions reported their casualties. Thus field reports from that period are regarded by historians as unreliable.

Total wounded and sick includes 15,205,592 wounded, 3,047,675 sick and 90,881 frostbite cases.

Field reports stated the number of wounded and sick as 18,344,148, while the records of the military medical service show a total of 22,326,905. According to Krivosheev the difference can be explained by the fact that the medical service included sick personnel who did not take part in the fighting.[26]

Monument in Israel to Jewish war dead in the Soviet Army
Soviet military dead and Missing by nationality (1941–45) [27]
Total Percentage
Russians 5,756,000 66.402%
Ukrainians 1,377,400 15.890%
Belarusians 252,900 2.917%
Tatars 187,700 2.165%
Jews 142,500 1.644%
Kazakhs 125,500 1.448%
Uzbeks 117,900 1.360%
Armenians 83,700 0.966%
Georgians 79,500 0.917%
Others 545,300 6.291%
Total 8,668,000 100.0%
Khatyn Memorial, Belarus
Total losses by age group[28]
Age Group Total losses  % of total losses
Under 20 years 1,560,000 18%
21-25 1,907,000 22%
26-30 1,517,000 17.5%
31-35 1,430,200 16.5%
36-40 1,040,200 12%
41-45 693,500 8%
46-50 433,400 5%
over 50 years 86,700 1%
All age groups 8,668,400 100%

Criticism of Krivosheev[edit]

Krivosheev's analysis has generally been accepted by historians, however his study has been disputed by some independent researchers in Russia. His critics maintain that he understated the number of missing in action and POW deaths [29][30] and deaths of service personnel in rear area hospitals.[7]

POW deaths[edit]

Krivosheev's analysis put Soviet military POW losses at 1.283 million,[31] while most estimates by Western historians is about 3 million out of 5.7 million total.[32][33]

A Russian historian Vadim Erlikman put Soviet military dead at 10.6 million including 2.6 million POW; he included the deaths of an estimated 1,500,000 conscripted reservists who were captured before they were listed on troop registers as well as draft age men treated as military POWs by Germany, along with 150,000 militia and 250,000 Soviet partisans.[30]

Krivosheev maintained that the figure of 3.0 million POW dead reported in western sources included partisans, militia and civilian men of military age taken as POWs in the early stages of the war in 1941.[34] According to S. A. Il'Enkov, the Russian Military Archives database of individual war dead (which lists over 7 million missing soldiers and sergeants).[7] This is in conflict with Krivosheev's analysis.

Reconciliation of conscripts[edit]

In 2000 S. N. Mikhalev[35] published a study of Soviet casualties. From 1989 to 1996 he was an associate of the Institute of Military History of the Ministry of Defence. Mikhalev disputed Krivosheev's figure of 8.7 million military war dead, he estimated Soviet military dead at more than 10.9 million persons. He maintained that the official figures cannot be reconciled to the total men drafted and that POW deaths were understated. Mikhalev believed that the official figure of 26.6 million war dead was not definitive. In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published his analysis that indicated total population losses, including civilians and military, range from 21.240 million to 25.854 million. Mikhalev pointed out that his figures were based on a range of possible estimates for the pre-war population in 1939 and the population of the annexed territories that remained uncertain.[36]

Reconciliation of losses of the field reports to the actual number of mobilized persons[37][38]
Description Kirvosheev Mikhalev Difference
Army & Navy - June 1941 4,902,000 4,704,000[KMDiff 1] (198,000)
Drafted during war[39] 29,575,000 29,575,000 0
Discharged during war[KMDiff 2] (9,693,000) (9,693,000) 0
Army & Navy – June 1945 (12,840,000) (11,999,000)[KMDiff 3] 841,000
Conscripted reservists (500,000) 0[KMDiff 4] 500,000
Subtotal: Operational Losses 11,444,000 12,587,000 1,143,000
MIA Re-conscripted[KMDiff 5] (940,000) 0 940,000
Liberated POW returned to USSR (1,836,000) (1,836,000) 0
Losses of NKVD & Border Troops[KMDiff 6] 0 159,000 159,000
Losses in the Far East August 1945 0 12,000[KMDiff 7] 12,000
Total Irrecoverable Losses 8,668,000 10,922,000 2,254,000

Notes:

  1. ^ Mikhalev excludes Construction troops whose casualties were not included in the field reports.
  2. ^ Includes those sent on sick leave, those sent to industry, NKVD or foreign units and 437,000 imprisoned after sentencing
  3. ^ Mikhalev excludes 403,000 Construction troops whose casualties were not included in the field reports and 437,000 imprisoned after sentencing already deducted in number of discharged
  4. ^ Mikhalev maintains that they were military operational losses that should be included with total casualties
  5. ^ MIA Re-conscripted were men conscripted back into the Soviet army during the war as territories were being liberated. Mikhalev maintains that they should not be deducted because were included in the Red Army strength in June 1945 and that the number conscripted excludes those drafted twice.
  6. ^ NKVD & Border Troops -Mikhalev adds these losses to the total because they were not part of the Red Army balance in June 1945.
  7. ^ Mikhalev adds these losses to the total because they were not part of the Red Army balance in June 1945

Russian Military Archives database[edit]

An alternative method is to exploit the Russian Military Archives database of individual war dead. S. A. Il'Enkov, an official at the Russian Military Archives, maintained that the "complex military situation at the front did not always allow for the conduct of a full accounting of losses, especially in the first years of the war" He pointed out that in the reports from the field units did not include deaths in rear area hospitals of wounded personnel. Il'Enkov maintained that the information in the Russian Military Archives alphabetical card-indexes "is a priceless treasure of history, which can assist in resolving the problems of the price of Soviet victory"[7] Il'Enkov maintained it could provide an accurate accounting of war losses. Il'Enkov concluded by stating "We established the number of irreplaceable losses of our Armed Forces at the time of the Great Patriotic War of about 13,850,000.[6] A more recent compilation made in March 2008 of the individuals listed in the card files put total dead and missing at 14,241,000 (13,271,269 enlisted men and 970,000 officers)[40] This database does not include all men killed in the war; graves registration teams continue to identify war dead who are not currently included.[41]

Critics[edit]

Critics in Russia of the official figures base their arguments analyses of documents in the Soviet archives and on alternative demographic models of the Soviet population during the Stalin era. They requested that the Russian government reinvestigate the subject. Critics and their arguments:

  • Mark Solonin–Solonin maintains that Krivoshev covered up casualties that were three to four times greater than Germany's. Solonin claimed that Russian official sources that list deaths of 13.7 million civilians due to the German occupation include victims of Stalinist repression. He points out that the current figures for civilian war dead are taken from Soviet era sources. Solonin estimates total losses as somewhat under 20 million. Military dead numbered at least 10.7 million,[42] excluding 2.18 million soldiers who are unaccounted for, half of whom he assumed died. He asserted that some deserted or emigrated and that a higher death toll is possible. Solonin's estimate is that 5–6 million civilians were killed by the invaders (including 2.83 million Jews) and over 1 million civilians perished in the Siege of Leningrad and in Stalingrad. He claimed that 6–9 million Soviets fell to Stalin's repressions, although in contemporary Russian official sources they are included with civilian war dead.[43]
  • Viktor ZemskovZemskov maintained that the population loss due to the war was 20 million, including 16 million direct losses and 4 million deaths due to the deterioration in living conditions. He maintains that the Russian Academy of Science figure of 26.6 million total war dead includes about 7 million deaths due to natural causes based on the mortality rate that prevailed before the war. Zemskov maintains that military dead numbered 11.5 million, including nearly 4 million POWs. He maintains that the figure of 6.8 million civilian deaths in occupied regions was overstated because it included persons who were evacuated to the rear areas. He submitted an estimate of 4.5 million civilians who were Nazi victims or were killed in the occupied zone. Zemskov maintains that the government figure of 2.1 million civilian deaths due to forced labor in Germany was inflated compared to German wartime records that put the deaths of forced workers at 200,000.[5]
  • "Washed in Blood"This study claimed that actual losses were 2–2.5 times more than 8.7 million. Igor Ivlev put losses at 38.5 million, including military dead of 20.58 million and 18 million civilians. He too requested that the Russian government conduct a new investigation. The study's data was based on death or MIA notifications, unclaimed personal bank deposits, front and rear hospital reports, Communist Party and Young Communist League membership files, the 1946 Soviet electorate and the changing gap between men and women before and after the War.[44]
  • Lev Lopukhovsky/Boris Kavalerchik–Lopukhovsky and Kavalerchik label Krivosheev's transfer of military casualties to civilian losses as "ingratitude and blasphemy over their cherished memory". They demanded that the Russian government reinvestigate the matter.[45] They state that Krivosheev's group understated loses in the crucial period of 1941–1942. [46][47][48][unreliable source?]
  • Boris Sokolov – In 1996 Sokolov published a study that estimated total war dead at 43.3 million including 26.4 million in the military. Sokolov's calculations claimed that official population figures in 1941 were understated by 12.7 million and the population in 1946 overstated by 4.0 million, yielding 16.7 million additional war dead, bringing the total to 43.3 million.[9] Russian demographer Rybakovsky dismissed these calculations as being not being based on sound judgment.[49]
  • V. E. Korol–Korol estimated overall Soviet war dead at 46 million including military dead of 23 million. He claimed that the official figure of 8.7 million military dead was "groundless", based on battle accounts from across the Eastern Front. Korol held that the official figures of Krivosheev were an attempt to cover up the disregard for human life by the military leaders under Stalin. Korol cited Soviet authors writing during the Glasnost era that put wartime losses much higher than the official figures; In 1990 General I. A. Gerasimov published information from the Russian Military Archives database that put losses at 16.2 million enlisted men and 1.2 million officers. Korol also cited historian-archivist Iu. Geller who put losses at 46 million, including military dead of 23 million.[50] and A.N. Mertsalov's estimate of 14 million military dead based on documents in the Russian Military Archives.[8][51]
  • Hypothetical population loss for children unborn due to the war – Some Russian writers have argued that war losses should also include the hypothetical population loss for children unborn due to the war; using this methodology total losses would be about 46 million.[52]

Male war dead[edit]

Andreev, Darski and Karkova (ADK) put total losses at 26.6 million. The authors did not dispute Krivoshev's report of 8.7 million military dead. Their demographic study estimated the total war dead of 26.6 million included 20.0 million males and 6.6 million females. In mid-1941 the USSR hosted 8.3 million more females; by 1946 this gap had grown to 22.8 million, an increase of 13.5 million.[53]:78

Krivosheev's rebuttal[edit]

In 2002 Krivosheev defended his report. He maintained that it was derived in a scientific manner by a team of professional researchers who had access to the military archives and that it reflected a realistic view of casualties based on the operational situation during the war. He maintained that the database of individual war dead is unreliable, because some personnel records are duplicated and others omitted.[54]

Civilian losses[edit]

Executed partisan, Minsk

A 1995 paper published by the M.V. Philimoshin, an associate of the Russian Defense Ministry, put the civilian death toll in the regions occupied by Germany at 13.7 million. Philimoshin cited sources from Soviet era to support his figures and used the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to deaths of 7.4 million civilians caused by direct, intentional violence. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war account for a major portion.[55] Philimoshin estimated that civilian forced laborer deaths in Germany totaled 2,164,313. Germany had a policy of forced confiscation of food that resulted in famine deaths of an estimated 6% of the population or 4.1 million.[56] Russian government sources currently cite these civilian casualty figures in their official statements.[57]

Russian Academy of Science estimate
Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence 7,420,379[58]
Deaths of forced laborers in Germany 2,164,313[59]
Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions 4,100,000[60]
Total 13,684,692
  • Russian sources generally include Jewish Holocaust deaths among total civilian dead. Gilbert put Jewish losses at one million within 1939 borders; Holocaust deaths in the annexed territories numbered an additional 1.5 million, bringing total Jewish losses to 2.5 million.[61]
  • Civilian losses include deaths in the siege of Leningrad. According to David Glantz the 1945 Soviet estimate presented at the Nurnberg trials was 642,000 civilian deaths. He noted that Soviet era source from 1965 put the number of dead in the Siege of Leningrad at "greater than 800,000" and that a Russian source from 2000 put the number of dead at 1,000,000.[62] Other Russian historians put the Leningrad death toll at between 1.4 and 2.0 million.[63]
  • These figures are for the regions occupied by Germany, with a population of about 70 million.[55]
  • These casualties are for 1941–1945 within the 1946–1991 borders of the USSR.[1] Included with civilian losses are deaths in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939–1940 including 600,000 in the Baltic states[30] and 1,500,000 in Eastern Poland.[64]
  • In addition to the losses listed above an estimated 2.5 to 3.2 million Soviet civilians died due to famine and disease in non-occupied territory of the USSR, which was caused by wartime shortages in the rear areas.[65]
  • Documents from the Soviet archives number the total deaths of prisoners in the Gulag from 1941 to 1945 at 621,637. In a 1995 report Viktor Zemskov noted "due to general difficulties in 1941–1945 in the camps, the GULAG and prisons about 1.0 million prisoners died.[66]
  • Mark Solonin claimed that the figures of civilian casualties were deliberately inflated in order to hide the number of Stalin's own victims. Solonin's estimates of civilian casualties are 5–6 million killed by Germans (including Holocaust victims) and over a million who died during the sieges of Leningrad and Stalingrad. The attitude of the Germans toward the non-Jewish Soviet population, as he states, while cruel, was pragmatical and thus not genocidal (exceptions happened, but not as a general policy). Also, he claims that the Soviet documents for civilian casualties per republic are inconsistent with the populations of said republics, unless one assumes the soldiers who died while held in camps upon that territory are included.[67]

Total population losses[edit]

Volkovo cemetery, Leningrad 1942
Men hanged as partisans somewhere in the Soviet Union

Studies by E.M. Andreev, L.E. Darski and T. L. Kharkova (ADK)[edit]

Population of the Soviet Union 1922–91[edit]

Andreev, Darski and Kharkova (ADK) authored The Population of the Soviet Union 1922–1991, which was published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993. Andreev worked in the Department of Demography Research Institute of the Central Statistical Bureau (now the Research Institute of Statistics of Federal State Statistical Service of Russia). The study estimated total Soviet war losses of 26.6 million. As of 2015 this was the official Russian government figure for total losses.[1] These losses are a demographic estimate rather than an exact accounting. The main areas of uncertainty were the estimated figures for the population in the territories annexed from 1939–1945 and the loss of population due to emigration during and after the war. The figures include victims of Soviet repression and the deaths of Soviet citizens in German military service.[68] Michael Haynes noted, "We do not know the total number of deaths as a result of the war and related policies". We do know that the demographic estimate of excess deaths was 26.6 million plus an additional 11.9 million natural deaths of persons born before the war and 4.2 million children born during the war that would have occurred in peacetime, bringing the total dead to 42.7 million. At this time the actual total number of deaths caused by the war is unknown since among the 16.1 million "natural deaths" some would have died peacefully and others as a result of the war.[3]

Total Soviet losses by demographic balance (1941–45) per (ADK)[1]
Population in June 1941 196,700,000
Births during war 12,300,000
Death by natural causes during war of those alive before war (11,900,000)
War related deaths of those alive before war (25,300,000)
War related deaths of those born during war (1,300,000)
Total population Jan. 1, 1946 170,500,000

Notes:

  • Total population loss 26,616,000 [69] Total Includes :Civilian deaths by intentional actions of violence 7,420,000 [56] Deaths of forced laborers 2,164,000 [56] Deaths due to famine and disease 4,100,000;[56] Increase in deaths of children born during the war 1,280,000 [70] Military Dead 8,668,000 [71] Prisoner of War deaths according to Soviet figures 2,530,000[72] (4,550,000 POW [71] less 2,015,000 freed from captivity)[73] Soviet citizens remaining abroad after the war 452,000 (272,000 civilians and 180,000 military) [73]
  • Births and natural deaths during war are rough estimates since vital statistics were inaccurate.
  • Figures do not include an estimated 20 million children not born because the war depressed fertility/birth rates.
  • Haynes maintained that the number of deaths caused by the war is unknown since among the deaths by natural causes some would have died peacefully.[3]
  • ADK pointed out that the beginning population in 1941 and the ending population at 1/1/1946 are rough estimates since figures for the territories annexed in 1939–1940 and emigration from the USSR during the war are based on fragmentary information.
Total War Deaths by Age Group and Gender[1][74]
Age Group Mid 1941–Males (millions) 1941–45 Male War Deaths (millions)  % Age Group Mid 1941–Females (millions) 1941–45 Female War Deaths (millions)  % Age Group Mid 1941–Total Population (millions) 1941–45 Total War Deaths (millions)  % Age Group Excess Male Deaths(Millions)
0–14 27.879 1.425 5.1% 27.984 1.398 5.0% 55.863 2.823 5.1% .027
15–19 11.092 1.064 9.6% 11.220 0.340 3.0% 22.312 1.404 6.3% .723
20–34 24.948 9.005 36.1% 26.330 2.663 10.1% 51.278 11.668 22.8% 6.342
35–49 18.497 6.139 33.2% 20.236 781 3.9% 38.733 6.920 17.9% 5.358
Over 49 11.999 2.418 20.2% 16.976 1.380 8.1% 28.975 3.798 13.1% 1.038
All Age Groups 94.415 20.051 21.2% 102.746 6.562 6.4% 197.161 26.613 13.5% 13.489

Remarks:

  • 0–14–The deaths of 2.8 million children was due primarily to famine and disease caused by the war.
  • 15–19–The excess deaths of 724,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses. The wartime draft age was 18.
  • 20–34–The excess deaths of 6,342,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses. The deaths of 2,663,000 women is an indication that they were involved in the partisan war and became victims of Nazi reprisals.
  • 35–49–The excess deaths of 5,358,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses.
  • Over 49–The excess deaths of 1,038,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses. Some served in the Armed Forces. Others were involved in the partisan war and became victims of Nazi reprisals.
  • All Ages–The excess deaths of 13,489,000 males compared to females was due primarily to military losses with regular forces as well partisan forces. The figures are a clear indication that many Soviet civilians died in the war from reprisals, famine and disease.

Voters lists in 1946 election[edit]

Another study, The Demographic History of Russia 1927–1959, analyzed voters in the February 1946 Soviet election to estimate the surviving population over the age of 18 at the end of the war. The population under 18 was estimated based on the 1959 census. Official records listed 101.7 million registered voters and 94.0 million actual voters, 7.7 million less than the expected figure. ADK maintained that the official results of the 1946 election are not a good source for estimating the population. They claimed that the total of expected voters should be increased by 10.5 million because the roll of voters excluded those deprived of their rights, in prison or in exile. ADK maintained that many young military men did not participate in the election, and an overestimation of women in rural areas without internal passports who sought to avoid compulsory heavy labor. Included in the voter total were 29.9 million "excess" women. However number of expected voters estimated by ADK the gap between males and females was 21.4 million, which approximates the 20.7 million gap revealed by the 1959 census. The prewar population of 1939 (including the annexed territories) had an excess of 7.9 million females. The ADK analysis found that the gap had increased by about 13.5 million.[75][76]

Alternative sources of demographic losses[edit]

Russian demographer Rybakovsky found a wide range of estimates for total war dead. He estimated the actual population in 1941 at 196.7 million and losses at 27–28 million. He cited figures that range from 21.7–46 million. Rybakovsky acknowledged that the components that are used to compute losses are uncertain and are disputed.

Population estimates for mid-1941 range from 191.8–200.1 million, while the population at the end of 1945 range from 167.0 million up to 170.6 million. Based on the pre-war birth rate, the population shortfall was about 20 million births in 1946. Some were born and died during the war, while the balance was never born. Only rough estimates are available for each group. Estimates for the population of the territories annexed from 1939–45 range from 17 to 23 million persons.[77]

Rybakovsky provided a list of the various estimates of Soviet war losses by Russian scholars since 1988.[77]

Casualty estimates
Analyst Deaths (in millions)
A. Kvasha (1988) 26–27
A. Samsonov (1988) 26–27
Yu. Polyakov (1989) 26–27
L.L. Rybakovsky (1989) 27–28
I. Kurganov (1990) 44
S. Ivanov (1990) 46
E. M. Andreev (1990) 26.6[78]
A. Samsonov (1991) 26–27
A. Shevyakov (1991) 27.7
A. Shevyakov (1992) 29.5
V. Eliseev, S. Mikhalev (1992) 21.8
A. Sokolov (1995) 21.7–23.7
Boris Sokolov (1998) 43.3

Estimates of losses by individual Republic[edit]

Former Soviet republics

The contemporary nations that were formerly Soviet Republics dispute Krivosheev's analysis. In a live broadcast of December 16, 2010 "A Conversation with Vladimir Putin", he maintained that the Russian Federation had suffered the greatest proportional losses in World War II — 70 per cent of the total.[79] Official estimates by the former republics of the USSR claim military casualties exceeding those of Krivosheev's report by 3.5 times. It is claimed by the website sovsekretno.ru that there are no Memory Books published in the USSR, Russia and the other contemporary republics in the 80s and 90s listing casualties of 25 per cent of the draft or less, but there are many Memory Books with 50 per cent and more with some telling us of a 70, 75, 76 and up to 79 per cent mortality rate among the conscripted.[80]

(A) The Ukrainian authorities and historians ardently dispute these figures. They put the military casualties alone may be estimated as exceeding 7 million, according to the final volume of the Ukrainian book "In the memory of posterity" and research of V. E. Korol, writes an American (former Soviet) Doctor of History Vilen Lyulechnik.[81] Former President of Ukraine Victor Yanukovych maintains that Ukraine has lost more than 10 million lives during the Second World War.[82] The military casualties alone may be estimated as exceeding 7 million, according to the final volume of the Ukrainian Book "In the memory of posterity" and research of V. E. Korol, writes an American (former Soviet) Doctor of History Vilen Lyulechnik.[81]

(B) According to a Belorussian military historian, Doctor of History, professor V.Lemeshonok, the Belorussian military casualties, including partisans and underground group members, exceed 682,291.[83]

(C) The Memory Book of Tatarstan Government contains names of about 350,000 inhabitants of the republic, mostly tatars.[84]

(D) An Israeli historian Itskhak Arad maintains that about 200,000 Soviet Jews or 40 per cent of all draft were killed in battles or captivity — the highest percentage of all nations of the USSR.[85]

(E) Kazakhstan estimates its military casualties at 601,029.[84]

(F) Armenians estimate their military casualties at over 300,000.[86]

(G) Georgians also estimate their military casualties at over 300,000.[87]

(I) Among the others Azerbaidzhans claim military casualties of 300,000,[88] Bashkirs of about 300,000,[89] Mordvas of 130,000 and Chuvashes of 106,470.[90] But one of the most tragic figures comes from a Far Eastern republic of Yakutia and its small nation. 37,965 citizens, mostly Yakuts, or 60.74 per cent of 62,509 drafted have not returned home with 7,000 regarded missing. About 69,000 died of severe famine in the republic. This nation could not restore its population even under 1959 census.[91][92][93] The record breaking estimates of 700,000 military casualties out of a total 1,25 million Turkmenian citizens (with slightly less than 60 per cent being Turkmens) are attributed to the late President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov. Historians do not regard them trustworthy.[94]

Erlikman[edit]

Russian historian Vadim Erlikman pegs total war deaths at 10.7 million, exceeding Krivosheev's 8.7 million by an extra two million. This extra two million would presumably include Soviet POWs that died in Nazi captivity, partisans, and milita.

Deaths by Province
Soviet Republic Population 1940 Military Dead Civilian Dead Total Deaths as % 1940 Pop.
Armenia 1,320,000 150,000 30,000 180,000 13.6%
Azerbaijan 3,270,000 210,000 90,000 300,000 9.1%
Belarus 9,050,000 620,000 1,670,000 2,290,000 25.3%
Estonia 1,050,000 30,000 50,000 80,000 7.6%
Georgia 3,610,000 190,000 110,000 300,000 8.3%
Kazakhstan 6,150,000 310,000 350,000 660,000 10.7%
Kyrgyzstan 1,530,000 70,000 50,000 120,000 7.8%
Latvia 1,890,000 30,000 230,000 260,000 13.7%
Lithuania 2,930,000 25,000 350,000 375,000 12.7%
Moldova 2,470,000 50,000 120,000 170,000 6.9%
Russia 110,100,000 6,750,000 7,200,000 13,950,000 12.7% (A)
Tajikistan 1,530,000 50,000 70,000 120,000 7.8%
Turkmenistan 1,300,000 70,000 30,000 100,000 7.7%
Uzbekistan 6,550,000 330,000 220,000 550,000 8.4%
Ukraine 41,340,000 1,650,000 5,200,000 6,850,000 16.3% (B)
Unidentified - 165,000 130,000 295,000
Total USSR 194,090,000 10,700,000 15,900,000 26,600,000 13.7%
  • The source of the figures on the table is Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 pp. 23–35 Erlikman notes that these figures are his estimates. This table includes civilian losses in Transcaucasian and Central Asian republics due to famine and disease caused by wartime shortfalls estimated by Vadim Erlikman.

OBD Memorial database[edit]

The names of Soviet war dead are presented at the OBD (Central Data Bank) Memorial database online.[95]

Tomb of the unknown soldier in Voronezh

Causes[edit]

Soviet prisoners of war held in German camp
Citizens of Leningrad leaving their houses destroyed by German bombing

The Red Army suffered catastrophic losses of men and equipment during the first months of the German invasion.,[13][4] In the spring of 1941 Stalin ignored the warnings of his intelligence services of a planned German invasion and refused to put the Armed forces on alert. The bulk of the Soviet combat units were deployed in the border regions in a lower state of readiness. In the face of the German onslaught the Soviet forces were caught by surprise. Large numbers of Soviet soldiers were captured and many perished due to the brutal mistreatment of POWs by the Nazis[96] U.S. Army historians maintain the high Soviet losses can be attributed to 'less efficient medical services and the Soviet tactics, which throughout the war tended to be expensive in terms of human life"[97]

Russian scholars attribute the high civilian death toll to the Nazi Generalplan Ost which treated the Soviet people as "subhumans", they use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR.[98] German occupation policies implemented under the Hunger Plan resulted in the confiscation of food stocks which resulted in famine in the occupied regions. During the Soviet era the partisan campaign behind the lines was portrayed as the struggle of the local population against the German occupation.[99] To suppress the partisan units the Nazi occupation forces engaged in a campaign of brutal reprisals against innocent civilians. Historian Albert Seaton maintains that the Soviet government's "disregard for life and its contempt for any form of humanity and decency was one of the decisive factors in recruiting and control of the partisan movement". According to Seaton the local population was coerced by the Soviet led partisans to support their campaign which led to the reprisals.[100] The extensive fighting destroyed agricultural land, infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food. During the war Soviet civilians were taken to Germany as forced laborers under inhuman conditions.[55][101]

Estimates and their sources[edit]

Estimates for Soviet losses in the Second World War range from 7 million to over 43 million.[102] During the Communist era in the Soviet Union historical writing about World War II was subject to censorship and only official approved statistical data was published. In the USSR during the Glasnost period under Gorbachev and in post communist Russia the casualties in World War II were re-evaluated and the official figures revised.

1946 to 1987[edit]

Joseph Stalin in March 1946 stated that Soviet war losses were 7 million dead. This was to be the official figure until the Khrushchev era.[68] In November 1961 Nikita Khrushchev stated that Soviet war losses were 20 million; this was to be the official figure until the Gorbachev era of Glasnost.[68][103] Leonid Brezhnev in 1965 put the Soviet death toll in the war at "more than 20 million"[77] Ivan Konev in a May 1965 Soviet Ministry of Defense press conference stated that Soviet military dead in World War II were 10 million.[104] In 1971 the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis put losses at 20 million including 6,074,000 civilians and 3,912,000 prisoners of war killed by Nazi Germany, military dead were put at 10 million.[105]

1988 to 1992[edit]

During the period of Glasnost the official figure of 20 million war dead was challenged by Soviet scholars. In 1988–1989 estimates of 26 to 28 million total war dead appeared in the Soviet press.[102] The Russian scholar Dmitri Volkogonov writing at this time estimated total war deaths at 26–27,000,000 including 10,000,000 in the military.[106] In March 1989 Mikhail Gorbachev set up a committee to investigate Soviet losses in the war. In a May 1990 speech Gorbachev gave the figure for total Soviet losses at "almost 27 million". This revised figure was the result of research by the committee set up by Gorbachev that estimated total war dead at between 26 and 27 million.[68] In January 1990 M.A. Moiseev Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces disclosed for the first time in an interview that Soviet military war dead totaled 8,668,400.[107]

From 1942–46 the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission collected information on Nazi crimes in the USSR. The reports of the Commission detailing the number of civilian deaths were kept secret until the collapse of the USSR. Declassified documents from the Soviet archives prepared in 1946 but published in the 1990s indicated total war losses of 23 million. Military irreplaceable losses of 7,660,000 military dead and missing[108] 3,912,283[109] prisoner of war dead, 6,074,857[109] civilians killed, 3,999,796[109] lost during German forced labor. Civilian deaths during the Siege of Leningrad numbered 641,803[110][109] from starvation and 17,000[110] killed from artillery fire. Also 688,772[111] Soviet citizens that remained in western countries after the war were considered losses.
In 1991 the Russian scholar A.A. Shevyakov published an article with summary of civilian losses based on the reports of the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission , civilian dead were given as 17.7 million[112] In a second article in 1992 A.A. Shevyakov gave a figure of 20.8 million[113] civilian dead; no explanation for the difference was given.[68][114][115]

Russian estimates 1993–95[edit]

In 1993 the Russian Ministry of Defense published a study by Krivosheev that gave a detailed accounting of Soviet military losses for the campaigns in the war, total Soviet military dead and missing were put at 8,668,400. These figures were based on an official report of the Soviet General Staff from 1966–1968 that was previously classified secret.[116] A report published by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993 estimated that the total Soviet population losses were 26.6 million. This is a current official figure for total losses in the war.[1][68] In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published an article that analyzed Soviet civilian losses in the war. They estimated civilian deaths in the German occupied USSR at 13.7 million, which includes 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. They also estimated an additional 3 million deaths due to famine and disease in the regions not occupied by Germany[55]

Russians published in the West 1950–83[edit]

In 1949 a Soviet Colonel Kalinov defected to the west, he published a book claiming that Soviet records indicated the military loss of 13.6 million men including 2.6 million POW dead.[117][118] Sergei Maksudov a Russian demographer living in the west estimated Soviet war losses at between 24.5 and 27.4 million, including 7.5 million military dead.[68][119][120] The Soviet mathematician Iosif G. Dyadkin published a study in the United States that estimated the total Soviet population losses from 1939–45 due to the war and political repression at 30 million. Dyadkin was imprisoned for publishing this study in the west.[121]

Western scholars[edit]

Historians writing outside of the Soviet Union and Russia have evaluated the various Russian language sources and have offered their estimates of Soviet war dead. Here is a listing of estimates by recognized scholars published in the West.

Source Military Dead Civilian Dead Total Dead
Frank Lorimer (1946),[122][123] 5,000,000 9,000,000 14,000,000 (within 1938 borders)
Pierre George (1946)[124] 7,000,000 10,000,000 17,000,000
N. S. Timasheff (1948),[125] 7,000,000 18,300,000 25,300,000
Helmut Arntz (1953)[126][127] 13,600,000 7,000,000 20,000,000+
Jean-Noël Biraben (1958)[128] 8,000,000 6,700,000 14,700,000
Warren W. Eason (1959)[129][130] 10,000,000 15,000,000 25,000,000
E. Ziemke (1968)[97] more than
12,000,000
Albert Seaton (1971)[131] 10,000,000
Gil Elliot (1972)[132] 10,000,000 10,000,000 20,000,000
Charles Messenger (1989)[133] 20,000,000
John Keegan (1989)[134] 7,000,000 7,000,000 14,000,000
R. J. Rummel (1990)[135] 7,000,000 12,250,000 19,625,000 plus 10,000,000 due to Soviet repression
John Ellis (1993)[136] 11,000,000 6,700,000 17,700,000
Michael Ellman and Sergei Maksudov(1994) [68] 8,700,000 18,000,000 26–27,000,000
Norman Davies (1998)[137] 8–9,000,000 16–19,000,000 24–28,000,000
Richard Overy (1997)[138] 8,668,400 17,000,000 25,000,000
Mark Mazower (1998)[139] 9,500,000 10,000,000 19,500,000
David Wallechinsky (1995)[140] 13,600,000 20–26,000,000
Michael Clodfelter (2002)[141] 8,668,400 20–26,000,000
Michael Haynes (2003) [142] 8,700,000 17,900,000 26,600,000
Martin Gilbert (2004)[143] 10,000,000 KIA &
3,300,000 POW
7,000,000 20,000,000+
H. P. Willmott (2004)[144] 8,700,000 16,900,000 25,600,000
Tony Judt (2005)[145] 8,600,000 16,000,000 24,600,000
Norman Davies (2006)[146] 8,668,000 18,332,000 27,000,000
Cambridge History of Russia (2006)[147] 8.7 million + 13.7 million in Nazi occupied USSR
and 2.6 million in interior USSR
24–26 million
Steven Rosefielde (2010)[148] 8,700,000 "all causes" "17.7 or 20.3 million" "26.4 to 29 million" plus 5.458 million dead due to Soviet repression
  • David Glantz maintains that " the war with Nazi Germany cost the Soviet Union at least 29 million military casualties"(dead, wounded and sick) " The exact numbers can never be established, and some revisionists have attempted to put the number as high as 50 million"[149]
  • Richard Overy believes the figures for military dead published in 1993... give the fullest account yet available, but they omit three operations that were clear failures. The official figures themselves must be viewed critically, given the difficulty of knowing in the chaos of 1941 and 1942 exactly who had been killed, wounded or even conscripted"[150] Regarding military dead Richard Overy believes that "for the present the figure of 8.6 million must be regarded as the most reliable"[151]
  • Norman Davies points out that not all Soviet war dead were killed by the Nazis; many perished due to Soviet repression. Davies notes It lies in the nature of the problem that the victims of Soviet wartime repressions cannot be easily quantified. The records of the victorious Soviets, unlike those of the defeated Nazis have never been opened for scrutiny. Whether the fraction of Soviet civilians who perished at the hands of their own régime was one quarter, one third or even one half of the whole will never be firmly established until the Soviet government itself comes clean.[152]
  • The authors of the Cambridge History of Russia have provided an analysis of Soviet wartime casualties. Overall losses were about 25 million persons plus or minus 1 million. Red Army records indicate 8.7 million military deaths, "this figure is actually the lower limit". The official figures understate POW losses and armed partisan deaths. Excess civilian deaths in the Nazi occupied USSR were 13.7 million persons including 2 million Jews. There were an additional 2.6 million deaths in the interior regions of the Soviet Union. The authors maintain "scope for error in this number is very wide". At least 1 million perished in the wartime GULAG camps or in deportations. Other deaths occurred in the wartime evacuations and due to war related malnutrition and disease in the interior. The authors maintain that both Stalin and Hitler "were both responsible but in different ways" for these deaths.
    The authors of the Cambridge History of Russia believe that "In short the general picture of Soviet wartime losses suggests a jigsaw puzzle. The general outline is clear: people died in colossal numbers but in many different miserable and terrible circumstances. But individual pieces of the puzzle do not fit well; some overlap and others are yet to be found"[153]
  • Steven Rosefielde puts the war related demographic losses of the USSR from 1941–45 at 22.0 to 26.0 million persons (7.8 million military and 14.2 to 18.2 million civilians). The actual wartime losses are higher because some persons who would have died peacefully actually perished as a result of the war. Rosefielde estimated the actual military dead at 8.7 million men and 17.7 to 20.3 million civilians killed by the Nazis in the war (exterminated, shot, gassed burned 6.4 or 11.3 million; famine and disease 8.5 or 6.5 million; forced laborer in Germany 2.8 or 3.0 million and 500,000 who did not return to USSR after war.)[148]:72 In addition to these war deaths Rosefielde also estimated the excess deaths attributed to the "total potential crimes against humanity" due to Soviet repression at 2.183 million persons in 1939–40 and 5.458 million from 1941–1945. The figures for losses due to Soviet repression do not include 1 million military deaths of men drafted from the Gulag into penal suicide battalions.[148]:179

Sources[edit]

(English)

(Russian)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Andreev, Darski & Kharkova 2002.
  2. ^ Ellman & Maksudov 1994, p. 677.
  3. ^ a b c Haynes 2003.
  4. ^ a b c d e Krivosheev 1997, p. 79.
  5. ^ a b Zemskov, Viktor. "The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War ("Военно-исторический архив" In Russian)". Democcope.ru , 2012,. pp. 59–71. 
  6. ^ a b Il'Enkov 2001, pp. 73–80.
  7. ^ a b c d Il'Enkov 1996.
  8. ^ a b Korol 1996.
  9. ^ a b Sokolov 1996.
  10. ^ Krivosheev 1997.
  11. ^ "Ministry of Defense WW2 losses 9 million soldiers(In Russian)". tsargrad TV News. Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  12. ^ Krivosheev 1997, pp. 51–97, 79.
  13. ^ a b Krivosheev 2001.
  14. ^ a b c Krivosheev 2001, Table 111.
  15. ^ Krivosheev 1997, pp. 85–86 Includes 12,031 dead and missing in the Invasion of Manchuria
  16. ^ Krivosheev 2001, Tables 121 &123.
  17. ^ Krivosheev 2001, Table 120, p. 237.
  18. ^ a b c Krivosheev 1997, pp. 85–97.
  19. ^ Krivosheev 1997, p. 85.
  20. ^ Krivosheev 2001, Table 176.
  21. ^ Krivosheev 1997, pp. 85–86.
  22. ^ Krivosheev 1997, p. 236.
  23. ^ Г.Ф.КРИВОШЕЕВ, НЕКОТОРЫЕ НОВЫЕ ДАННЫЕ АНАЛИЗА СИЛ И ПОТЕРЬ НА СОВЕТСКО-ГЕРМАНСКОМ ФРОНТЕ, Мир истории 1999 Nr 1- так как в конце войны в лагерях для военнопленных было зарегистрировано 2 016 тыс. человек, из них вернулось 1 836 тыс. человек, а 180 тыс. не вернулось G. Krivosheev, Some new data analysis on forces and losses on the Soviet German front in Mir Istorii 1999
  24. ^ Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners (p. 290) – "2.8 million young, healthy Soviet POWs" killed by the Germans, "mainly by starvation ... in less than eight months" of 1941–42, before "the decimation of Soviet POWs ... was stopped" and the Germans "began to use them as laborers".
  25. ^ Krivosheev 1997, pp. 89.
  26. ^ Krivosheev 1997, pp. 87.
  27. ^ Krivosheev 2001, Table 121.
  28. ^ Krivosheev 2001, p. 236.
  29. ^ Mikhalev, S. N (2000). Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941–1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie (Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 A Statistical Investigation). Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet (Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University). ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6.  (In Russian)
  30. ^ a b c Erlikhman 2004.
  31. ^ Krivosheev, G. F. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4. figure includes 180,000 POW who remained in western countries
  32. ^ Rummel 1992, Table A.
  33. ^ "Nazi Persecution of Soviet Prisoners of War". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  34. ^ Krivosheev 1997, pp. 230–238.
  35. ^ "Памяти профессора Михалева Сергея Николаевича". 
  36. ^ Великая Отечественная: демографические и военно-оперативные потери // Людские потери СССР в Великой Отечественной войне: Сб.ст. - СПб., 1995. - 1,0 п. л. The Russian Academy of Science published the details of his analysis of total population losses here
  37. ^ Krivosheev 1997, p. 85–91.
  38. ^ Mikhalev, S. N (2000). Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941–1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie (Human Losses in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 A Statistical Investigation). Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet (Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University). ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6.  (In Russian)
  39. ^ Excludes those drafted twice.
  40. ^ Лев Лопуховский. К вопросу о достоверности официальных данных о безвозвратных потерях в Великой Отечественной войне. // «Военно-исторический архив» № 11(142), ноябрь 2011 г.
  41. ^ "Ушли под дерн". www.vokrugsveta.ru. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  42. ^ including 7.4 million killed; 2.54 million POWs; 400,000 non combat dead and 380,000 executed by Soviets
  43. ^ "Mark Solonin. Historian's personal webpage.Fire in the Storehouse". 
  44. ^ Ivlev, Polyhovskii, Zmeskov and Pyhalov, "Washed in Blood"? Lies and Truth on Losses in Great Patriotic War" Yaouza—Aexmo Publishing House 2012. Игорь Пыхалов, Лев Лопуховский, Виктор Земсков, Игорь Ивлев, Борис Кавалерчик, "Умылись кровью"? Ложь и правда о потерях в Великой Отечественной войне" [1]
  45. ^ "Потери Красной Армии в начальный период Великой Отечественной войны - Лев Лопуховский Борис Кавалерчик". podelise.ru. September 2013. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  46. ^ Lopukhovsky & Kavalerchik 2012, p. 3.
  47. ^ "Великая Отечественная война, 1941–1945; События. Люди. Документы: Краткий исторический справочник. – М.: Политиздат, 1990, - С. 76.". Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  48. ^ "Таблица 4 ^ Количество пленных и трофеев - Лев Лопуховский Борис Кавалерчик". podelise.ru. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  49. ^ Rybakovsky 2000a, p. 89.
  50. ^ Korol 1996, pp. 417–423.
  51. ^ Letter to editor by A.N. Mertsalov Voprosy in Istorii(Questions of History) nr 2/3 1991 p. 250
  52. ^ Rybakovsky 2000, pp. 110–111.
  53. ^ Andreev, Darski & Kharkova 1993.
  54. ^ Г.Ф. КРИВОШЕЕВ, «Историк должен ЛИКОВАТЬ и ГОРЕВАТЬ со своим народом ВОЕННО-ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ ЖУРНАЛ №11 2002 G. I. Krivosheev "Historians Should Triumph and Grieve with their People", Military History Journal Nr. 11 2002
  55. ^ a b c d Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 Philimoshin, M. V. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei (About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 1941–1945).  These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR in 1941, including territories annexed in 1939–40.
  56. ^ a b c d Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131
  57. ^ "Important Lessons of Second World War". Ministry of Interior, Russian Federation, Statement May 2015. Ministry of Interior, Russian Federation. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  58. ^ Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.
  59. ^ Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131.
  60. ^ Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease.
  61. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Atlas of the Holocaust. 1988. ISBN 978-0-688-12364-2
  62. ^ David M. Glantz, Siege of Leningrad 1941 1944 Cassell 2001 ISBN 978-1-4072-2132-8 p.320
  63. ^ Rybakovsky 2001, p. 86.
  64. ^ Łuczak, Czesław. Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI. 1994. The losses in the former Polish eastern regions are also included in Poland's total war dead of 5.6 to 5.8 million
  65. ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995; ISBN 5-86789-023-6, p. 158-Deaths resulting from harsh conditions, like lack of food and medicine, on Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans
  66. ^ Евдокимов 1995, pp. 174–177 Deaths resulting from harsh conditions, like lack of food and medicine, on Soviet territory not occupied by the Germans were due to wartime shortages
  67. ^ Mark Solonin, Мозгоимение. Фальшивая история Великой войны, Chapter 13
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h Ellman & Maksudov 1994.
  69. ^ Andreev, EM; Darski, LE; Kharkova, TL (11 September 2002). "Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes". In Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei; Volkov, Andrei. Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-85320-5. 
  70. ^ Andreev, EM; Darski, LE; Kharkova, TL (11 September 2002). "Population dynamics: consequences of regular and irregular changes". In Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei; Volkov, Andrei. Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-85320-5. 
  71. ^ a b Krivosheev, G. F. (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4. 
  72. ^ «Россия и СССР в войнах ХХ века: Потери Вооруженных Сил»,М., ОЛМА-ПРЕСС, 2001, стр. 511, ISBN 5-224-01515-4 G. I. Krivosheev. Russian and Soviet Military Casualties and Combat Losses -revised edition of the Kirvosheev study (советских военнопленных, погибших в немецком плену. Из 4 559 тыс. советских военнослужащих, пропавших без вести и попавших в немецкий плен, вернулись на Родину только 1 млн. 836 тыс. чел. или 40,0 %, а около 2,5 млн. чел. (55,0 %) погибли и умерли в плену и только небольшая часть (более 180 тыс. чел.) эмигрировала в другие страны или вернулась на Родину в обход сборных пунктов.) Soviet POWs who died in German captivity. Out of 4,559,000 Soviet soldiers missing in German captivity those who returned home were only 1,836,000 c. 40.0%, and about 2.5 million (55.0%) died in captivity, and only a small proportion (more than 180,000) emigrated to other countries or returned home, bypassing the collection points
  73. ^ a b Zmeskov, Victor. "Repatriation of Soviet Citizens(in Russian)". Социологические исследования. May 1995. № 5. С. 3–13. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  74. ^ Andreev, Darski & Kharkova 1993, p. 78.
  75. ^ (1998) E.M. Andreev, L.E. Darski and T. L. Kharkova (ADK) Demographic History of Russia 1927–1959 Chapter 7(in Russian [2]
  76. ^ Евдокимов 1995, pp. 36–40.
  77. ^ a b c Rybakovsky 2000.
  78. ^ Accepted by Russian government
  79. ^ "Вклад РСФСР в Победу в Великой Отечественной войне". 
  80. ^ "Жгучая память (Burning Memory)". www.sovsekretno.ru. Sovershenno Secretno (The Top Secret) Monthly. May 2, 2011. Retrieved 2015-12-24. 
  81. ^ a b УКРАИНЦЫ В КРАСНОЙ АРМИИ Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  82. ^ В.Янукович: "Потери Украины в ВОВ превысили 10 млн. человек"
  83. ^ Site of the Allied State (Информационно-аналитический портал Союзного государства), soyuz.by›ru/print.aspx?guid=135175
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  85. ^ "Soviet Jews in the War against Nazi Germany" (PDF). 23. Yad Vashem Studies (Hebrew). 1993: 51–89. 
  86. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20130609123024/http://golosarmenii.am/ru/20402/home/26665. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  87. ^ "Голос России: Тенгиз Бегишвили -`300 тысяч грузин погибли во второй мировой войне. Никому не дано право, переписывать историю`". 
  88. ^ [3] Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  89. ^ "ОФИЦИАЛЬНЫЕ ПОТЕРИ БАШКИРИИ В ВЕЛИКОЙ ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОЙ ВОЙНЕ". 
  90. ^ "Совершенно секретно". 
  91. ^ Statement by President of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) E.Borisov of May 9, 2012
  92. ^ "Idanlib". Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. 
  93. ^ "Илин № 1-2 '2010". 
  94. ^ "В Туркмении решили отказаться от Великой Отечественной войны". Рамблер.Новости. 
  95. ^ "ОБД Мемориал". 
  96. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War 1997
  97. ^ a b Earl F. Ziemke, Stalingrad to Berlin, the German Defeat in the East; Office of the Chief of Military History U.S. Army 1968 pp 500
  98. ^ Евдокимов 1995.
  99. ^ Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941–1945: A General Outline. Progress Publishers. 1974. pp. 456–60. 
  100. ^ Seaton 1993, pp. 221–222.
  101. ^ Crimes of the German Wehrmacht, Hamburg Institute for Social Research 2004
  102. ^ a b Rybakovsky 2000, pp. 108–118.
  103. ^ Rybakovsky 2000a, pp. 90–91 The Russian researcher L L Rybakovsky assumes that the source of Nikita Khrushchev's figure of 20 million war dead was the 1957 Soviet translation,(Itogi vtoroj mirovoj vojny. Sbornik statej) of the West German book Bilanz des Zweiten Weltkrieges Hamburg 1953
  104. ^ Boris Urlanis, Populations and Wars Progress Moscow 1971 Page 132
  105. ^ Urlanis 2003, p. 284.
  106. ^ Volkogonov, Dmitriĭ Antonovich (1996). Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy. Prima Pub. ISBN 978-0-7615-0718-5. 
  107. ^ Tsena Pobeda Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal # 3 The Price of Victory –Military History Journal # 3 1990 Interview with M.A. Moiseev Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces.
  108. ^ Mikhalev, S.N. (2000). Liudskie poteri v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine 1941–1945 gg: Statisticheskoe issledovanie (Human Losses in the Great Patriotic Wa<r 1941–1945 A Statistical Investigation). Krasnoiarskii gos. pedagog. universitet (Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University). p. 97. ISBN 978-5-85981-082-6.  Soviet General Staff report July 1945 (6,331,000 killed and 1,329,000 missing and accounted for)
  109. ^ a b c d Жертвы двух диктатур. Остарбайтеры и военнопленные в Третьем Рейхе и их репатриация. – М.: Ваш выбор ЦИРЗ, 1996. – p735-738. (Victims of Two Dictatorships. Ostarbeiters and POW in Third Reich and Their Repatriation) (Russian)
  110. ^ a b Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 M. V. Philimoshin of the War Ministry of the Russian Federation About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 1941–1945 Page 127
  111. ^ Shevyakov, A. A. Sotsiologicheskie issiedovaniya 1993 #8
  112. ^ 6.390 million exterminated; 2.8 million forced labor ; 8.5 million famine and disease голода и эпидемий in occupied regions
  113. ^ 11.3 million exterminated ; 3.0 forced labor; 6.5 million famine and disease голода и эпидемий in occupied regions
  114. ^ Shevyakov 1991.
  115. ^ Shevyakov 1992.
  116. ^ Krivosheev 2001, Table 120.
  117. ^ Cyrille Dimitriévitch Kalinov (1950). Les maréchaux soviétiques vous parlent. Stock, Delamain et Boutelleau. 
  118. ^ Mikhalev 2000, p. 36.
  119. ^ S. Maksudov, Pertes subies par la population de l'URSS, 1918–1958, Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique, XVIII, 3, July–September 1977
  120. ^ S. Maksudov Losses Suffered by the Population of the USSR 1918–1958 The Samizdat register II / edited by Roy Medvedev New York : Norton, 1981.(English translation of Maksudov's 1977 article)
  121. ^ Dyadkin 1983.
  122. ^ Frank Lorimer, The population of the Soviet Union: history and prospects, Geneva, League of Nations, 1946. Pages 181–183.
  123. ^ Lormimer's hypothetical figures, not an estimate, put the total demographic loss at 20.0 million. 9.0 million civilians over age 5 and 6.0 million children under age 5 not born during the war or died during the war. The figure of 5.0 million military dead was based on information available in early 1946 which was published in the USSR during the war. Lormier's figures are for the USSR in 1939 borders and does not include territories annexed in 1939–1940. Losses in the annexed territories were put at 3,000,000
  124. ^ Esquisse d'une étude démographique de l'Union soviétique Population(Paris) No.3 July–September 1946
  125. ^ N. S. Timasheff: "The Post-war Population of the Soviet Union" The American Journal of Sociology, September 1948
  126. ^ Bilanz des Zweiten Weltkrieges, Oldenburg-Hamburg, 1953. – Professor Dr. Helmut Arntz. Die Menschenverluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg
  127. ^ Rybakovsky 2000, pp. 90–91 The Russian researcher L L Rybakovsky assumes that the source of Nikita Khrushchev's figure of 20 million war dead was the 1957 Soviet translation,(Itogi vtoroj mirovoj vojny. Sbornik statej) of the West German book Bilanz des Zweiten Weltkrieges Hamburg 1953
  128. ^ Jean-Noël Biraben, Essai sur l'évolution démographique de l'U.R.S.S. Population (French Edition) Jun., 1958, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 29–62
  129. ^ Eason, Warren W. , "The Soviet Population Today" Foreign Affairs 37 (July 1959): 598–60 6Eason made his calculations based on the preliminary results of the 1959 Soviet census. His estimate was 25 million deaths of those persons alive at the beginning of the war and an additional wartime loss of 20,000,000 children under age 5 due to a decline in births and an increase infant mortality, thus bringing the total to 45,000,000
  130. ^ "Warren Eason Obituary - Columbus, OH - The Columbus Dispatch". The Columbus Dispatch. 
  131. ^ Seaton 1993.
  132. ^ Elliot, Gil (1973). Twentieth century book of the dead. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-684-13115-3. 
  133. ^ Messenger, Charles (1 August 1989). The chronological atlas of World War Two. Macmillan. 
  134. ^ Keegan, John (31 August 2011). The Second World War. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4464-9649-7. 
  135. ^ R. J. Rummel Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 Table 7.A pp. 167 Transaction 1990 ISBN 978-1-56000-887-3
  136. ^ Ellis, John (1993). World War II: A Statistical Survey : the Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants. Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-2971-6. 
  137. ^ Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820171-7. 
  138. ^ Overy 1999.
  139. ^ Mazower, Mark (20 May 2009). Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-55550-2. 
  140. ^ Wallechinsky, David (1 September 1996). Twentieth Century: History with the Boring Parts Left Out. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-92056-8. 
  141. ^ Clodfelter, Micheal (2008). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1494-2007. McFarland. pp. 515–516. ISBN 978-0-7864-3319-3. 
  142. ^ Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: a Note Europe Asia Studies Vol.55, No. 2, 2003, 300–309
  143. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1 June 2004). The Second World War: A Complete History. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-7623-3. 
  144. ^ KINDERSLEY, DORLING; Willmott, H. P.; Messenger, Charles; Cross, =Robin (1 June 2010). World War II. Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 978-1-4053-3520-1. 
  145. ^ Tony Judt Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2005)
  146. ^ Davies, Norman, Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory (2006)pp.367 however on p. 24 Davies put Soviet military dead at 11,000,000
  147. ^ Suny 2006, pp. 225–228.
  148. ^ a b c Rosefielde, Steven (16 December 2009). Red Holocaust. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-19517-5. 
  149. ^ Glantz, David M.; House, Jonathan M. (16 October 2015). When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-2121-7. 
  150. ^ Overy 1999, p. XV.
  151. ^ Overy 1999, p. 287.
  152. ^ Norman Davies ,NOT TWENTY MILLION, NOT RUSSIANS, NOT WAR DEAD, The Independent on December 29, 1987
  153. ^ Suny 2006, pp. 225–227.