World War II cryptography
Cryptography was used extensively during World War II because of the importance of radio communication and the ease of radio interception. The nations involved fielded a plethora of code and cipher systems, many of the latter using rotor machines. As a result, the theoretical and practical aspects of cryptanalysis, or codebreaking, were much advanced.
Possibly the most important codebreaking event of the war was the successful decryption by the Allies of the German "Enigma" Cipher. The first break into Enigma was accomplished by Polish Cipher Bureau around 1932; the techniques and insights used were passed to the French and British Allies just before the outbreak of the war in 1939. They were substantially improved by British efforts at Bletchley Park during the war. Decryption of the Enigma Cipher allowed the Allies to read important parts of German radio traffic on important networks and was an invaluable source of military intelligence throughout the war. Intelligence from this source and other high level sources, such as Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher, was eventually called Ultra.
A similar break into the most secure Japanese diplomatic cipher, designated Purple by the US Army Signals Intelligence Service, started before the US entered the war. Product from this source was called Magic.
On the other side, German code breaking in World War II achieved some notable successes cracking British naval and other ciphers.
- Enigma machine
- Fish (cryptography) British codename for German teleprinter ciphers
- Short Weather Cipher
- Gisbert Hasenjaeger
- Cryptanalysis of the Enigma
- Biuro Szyfrów (Cipher Bureau)
- Marian Rejewski
- Jerzy Różycki
- Henryk Zygalski
- Lacida Machine
- Bletchley Park
- Cryptanalysis of the Enigma
- Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher
- Far East Combined Bureau (FECB)
- Naval Intelligence Division (NID)
- Wireless Experimental Centre (WEC)
- Colossus computer
- Alan Turing
- W. T. Tutte
- John Tiltman
- Max Newman
- Tommy Flowers
- I. J. Good
- John Herivel
- Leo Marks
- Poem code
- Magic (cryptography)
- Signals Intelligence Service US Army, see also Arlington Hall
- OP-20-G US Navy Signals Intelligence group
- Elizebeth Smith Friedman
- William Friedman
- Frank Rowlett
- Abraham Sinkov
- Genevieve Grotjan Feinstein
- Leo Rosen
- Joseph Rochefort, leader of the effort to crack Japanese Naval codes
- Joseph Mauborgne
- Agnes Meyer Driscoll
- SIGABA cipher machine
- SIGSALY voice encryption
- SIGTOT one-time tape system
- M-209 cipher machine
- Station HYPO cryptanalysis group
- Station CAST cryptanalysis group
- Station NEGAT
- Budiansky, Stephen (2000). Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780684859323.
- Hinsley, F. H.; Stripp, Alan (2001). Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192801326.
- Haufler, Hervie (2014). Codebreakers' Victory: How the Allied Cryptographers Won World War II. Open Road Media. ISBN 9781497622562.