||This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. (March 2014)|
World peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations and/or people. World peace is an idea of planetary non-violence by which nations willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that prevents warfare. The term is sometimes used to refer to a cessation of all hostility amongst all humanity. For example, World Peace could be crossing boundaries via human rights, technology, education, engineering, medicine, diplomats and/or an end to all forms of fighting. Since 1945, the United Nations and the 5 permanent members of its Security Council (the US, Russia, China, France, and the UK) have worked to resolve conflicts without war or declarations of war. However, nations have entered numerous military conflicts since that time.
- 1 World peace theories
- 1.1 Imperial and hegemonic peace
- 1.2 Various political ideologies
- 1.3 Democratic peace theory
- 1.4 Capitalism peace theory
- 1.5 Cobdenism
- 1.6 Mutual assured destruction
- 1.7 United Nations Charter and International law
- 1.8 Globalization
- 1.9 Isolationism and non-interventionism
- 1.10 Self-organized peace
- 1.11 Economic norms theory
- 2 International Day of Peace
- 3 Religious views
- 4 Economic implications
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
World peace theories
Many theories as to how world peace could be achieved have been proposed. Several of these are listed below.
Imperial and hegemonic peace
The oldest theory of peace is imperial. When a certain state in states system conquers all other states (performs universal conquest) the result is a system-wide peace. Most classical examples are Bronze Age Egypt, ancient Rome, ancient and medieval China and Japan, and Inca. Civil wars occur but not as often as wars between independent states and there is no permanent state of war. With shorter periods of civil wars, Pax Sinica and Pax Japanica survived until the late modern period when the two universal Empires became states in the modern system of states. The ideal of Pax Romana outlived the Roman Empire for millennium until the days of Dante. However, following generations of Dante's compatriots invented the theory of peace based on the balance of power.
The reality produced by the balance of power hardly associated with peace. In 1637, Jesuit Guldo Aldeni reported that his Chinese friends often asked of Europe a good question in the middle of the dreadful Thirty Year War: "If there are so many kings, how can you avoid wars?" Nevertheless, the balance-of-power peace became the European paradigm. The peace of universal monarchy was discredited by European leading thinkers—Kant, Herder, Hegel, Fichte, and others–as the least desirable, even less than the permanent war of all against all.
The European paradigm became the mainstream modern International Relations theory. The imperial peace is regarded as undesirable, unacceptable and impossible. All empires and great powers inevitably fall and none possess sufficient sources even for a short world-wide hegemony. Due to this paradigm, most observers were taken by surprise with the advent of the unipolarity. Many experts refused to acknowledge the fact, claiming instead that the world is multipolar. Many others acknowledged, but expected the unipolarity to last no longer than a "moment" and predicted imminent decline of the United States. Leading Realist and Neorealist thinkers—Kenneth Waltz, John Mearsheimer, and Christopher Layne—predicted rise of rival powers and coalitions. Famous Security Advisers—Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and Paul Wolfowitz—identified Eurasia as the region where these powers and coalitions are about to rise.
Instead, the research received a series of articles explaining why the world does not "push back." The Pax Americana proved to be persistent rather than momentous phenomenon and statistically confirmed the millennia-old theory of the imperial or hegemonic peace. The scale of warfare as defined by war casualties per year dropped, especially for international wars. International borders are seldom changed by force. Territorial conquests are rare and much smaller than conquests preceding the Pax Americana.
Colin Gray cites the conclusion of Donald Kagan: "What seems to work best, even though imperfectly, is the possession by those states who wish to preserve peace of the preponderant power and of the will to accept the burdens and responsibilities required to achieve that purpose." Gray comments: "Peace researchers, please note!"
Robert Gilpin shortly before the unipolar moment had extended the Realism school by the Hegemonic stability theory, but he took it to economic rather than political field. The theory was brought to the political field by political scientist William Wohlforth in his path-breaking article "The Stability of a Unipolar World," followed by historian Max Ostrovsky's Y = Arctg X: The Hyperbola of the World Order. The latter states that the only long-lasting peace known in history was imperial or hegemonic.
Most scholars agree that world empire would be more peaceful organization than alleged "international anarchy". Almost all of them, however, find the prospect of world-empire negative. The imperial peace is often called "the peace of graveyard." President John Kennedy used the metaphor referring specifically to the possibility of Pax Americana. Ostrovsky demonstrates that the attitude to the imperial peace was not different in previous civilizations. Initially, universal conquests and domination were fiercely resisted. Nevertheless, wherever distribution of power became unipolar, the "peace of graveyard" was eventually accepted. The modern world seems to follow suit.
Various political ideologies
World peace is sometimes claimed to be the inevitable result of a certain political ideology." Leon Trotsky, a Marxist theorist, assumed that a proletariat world revolution would lead to world peace.
Democratic peace theory
There are, however, several wars between democracies that have taken place, historically.
Capitalism peace theory
In her essay "The Roots of War," Ayn Rand held that the major wars of history were started by the more controlled economies of the time against the freer ones and that capitalism gave mankind the longest period of peace in history—a period during which there were no wars involving the entire civilized world—from the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, with the exceptions of the Franco-Prussian War (1870), the Spanish–American War (1898), and the American Civil War (1861–1865), which notably occurred in perhaps the most liberal economy in the world at the beginning of the industrial revolution.
Proponents of cobdenism claim that by removing tariffs and creating international free trade wars would become impossible, because free trade prevents a nation from becoming self-sufficient, which is a requirement for long wars.
However, free trade does not prevent a nation from establishing some sort of emergency plan to become temporarily self-sufficient in case of war or that a nation could simply acquire what it needs from a different nation. A good example of this is World War I, during which both Britain and Germany became partially self-sufficient. This is particularly important because Germany had no plan for creating a War economy.
More generally, free trade—while not making wars impossible—can make wars, and restrictions on trade caused by wars, very costly for international companies with production, research, and sales in many different nations. Thus, a powerful lobby—unless there are only national companies—will argue against wars.
Mutual assured destruction
Mutual assured destruction is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both belligerents. Proponents of the policy of mutual assured destruction during the Cold War attributed this to the increase in the lethality of war to the point where it no longer offers the possibility of a net gain for either side, thereby making wars pointless.
United Nations Charter and International law
After World War II, the United Nations was established by the United Nations Charter to "save successive generations from the two scourge of war which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind" (Preamble). The Preamble to the United Nations Charter also aims to further the adoption of fundamental human rights, to respect obligations to sources of international law as well as to unite the strength of independent countries in order to maintain international peace and security. All treaties on international human rights law make reference to or consider "the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and "peace in the world".
Gordon B. Hinckley saw a trend in national politics by which city-states and nation-states have unified and suggests that the international arena will eventually follow suit. Many countries such as China, Italy, the United States, Australia, Germany, India and Britain have unified into single nation-states with others like the European Union following suit, suggesting that further globalization will bring about a world state.
Isolationism and non-interventionism
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (January 2013)|
Proponents of isolationism and non-interventionism claim that a world made up of many nations can peacefully coexist as long as they each establish a stronger focus on domestic affairs and do not try to impose their will on other nations.
Non-interventionism should not be confused with isolationism. Isolationism, like non-interventionism, advises avoiding interference into other nation's internal affairs but also emphasizes protectionism and restriction of international trade and travel. Non-interventionism, on the other hand, advocates combining free trade (like Cobdenism) with political and military non-interference.
Nations like Japan are perhaps the best known for establishing isolationist policies in the past. The Japanese Shogun Tokugawa initiated the Edo Period, an isolationist period where Japan cut itself off from the world as a whole.
World peace has been depicted as a consequence of local, self-determined behaviors that inhibit the institutionalization of power and ensuing violence. The solution is not so much based on an agreed agenda, or an investment in higher authority whether divine or political, but rather a self-organized network of mutually supportive mechanisms, resulting in a viable politico-economic social fabric. The principle technique for inducing convergence is thought experiment, namely backcasting, enabling anyone to participate no matter what cultural background, religious doctrine, political affiliation or age demographic. Similar collaborative mechanisms are emerging from the Internet around open-source projects, including Wikipedia, and the evolution of other social media.
Economic norms theory
Economic norms theory links economic conditions with institutions of governance and conflict, distinguishing personal clientelist economies from impersonal market-oriented ones, identifying the latter with permanent peace within and between nations.
Through most of human history societies have been based on personal relations: individuals in groups know each other and exchange favors. Today in most lower-income societies hierarchies of groups distribute wealth based on personal relationships among group leaders, a process often linked with clientelism and corruption. Michael Mousseau argues that in this kind of socio-economy conflict is always present, latent or overt, because individuals depend on their groups for physical and economic security and are thus loyal to their groups rather than their states, and because groups are in a constant state of conflict over access to state coffers. Through processes of bounded rationality, people are conditioned towards strong in-group identities and are easily swayed to fear outsiders, psychological predispositions that make possible sectarian violence, genocide, and terrorism.
Market-oriented socio-economies are integrated not with personal ties but the impersonal force of the market where most individuals are economically dependent on trusting strangers in contracts enforced by the state. This creates loyalty to a state that enforces the rule of law and contracts impartially and reliably and provides equal protection in the freedom to contract – that is, liberal democracy. Wars cannot happen within or between nations with market-integrated economies because war requires the harming of others, and in these kinds of economies everyone is always economically better off when others in the market are also better off, not worse off. Rather than fight, citizens in market-oriented socio-economies care deeply about everyone’s rights and welfare, so they demand economic growth at home and economic cooperation and human rights abroad. In fact, nations with market-oriented socio-economies tend to agree on global issues and not a single fatality has occurred in any dispute between them.
Economic norms theory should not be confused with classical liberal theory. The latter assumes that markets are natural and that freer markets promote wealth. In contrast, Economic norms theory shows how market-contracting is a learned norm, and state spending, regulation, and redistribution are necessary to ensure that almost everyone can participate in the “social market” economy, which is in everyone’s interests. One proposed mechanism for world peace involves consumer purchasing of renewable and equitable local food and power sources involving artificial photosynthesis ushering in a period of social and ecological harmony known as the Sustainocene.
International Day of Peace
The International Day of Peace, sometimes unofficially known as World Peace Day, is observed annually on 21 September. It is dedicated to peace, and specifically the absence of war and violence, such as might be occasioned by a temporary ceasefire in a combat zone for humanitarian aid access. The day was first celebrated in 1982, and is kept by many nations, political groups, military groups, and peoples. In 2013, for the first time, the Day has been dedicated to peace education, i.e. by the key preventive means to reduce war sustainably.
Many religions and religious leaders have expressed a desire for an end to violence.
The central aim of the Bahá'í Faith is the establishment of the unity of the peoples of the world. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, stated in no uncertain terms, "the fundamental purpose animating the Faith of God and His Religion is to safeguard the interests and promote the unity of the human race ..." In His writings, Bahá'u'lláh described two distinct stages of world peace – a lesser peace and a most great peace.
The lesser peace is essentially a collective security agreement between the nations of the world. In this arrangement, nations agree to protect one another by rising up against an aggressor nation, should it seek the usurpation of territory or the destruction of its neighbors. The lesser peace is limited in scope and is concerned with the establishment of basic order and the universal recognition of national borders and the sovereignty of nations. Bahá'ís believe that the lesser peace is taking place largely through the operation of the Divine Will, and that Bahá'í influence on the process is relatively minor.
The most great peace is the eventual end goal of the lesser peace and is envisioned as a time of spiritual and social unity – a time when the peoples of the world genuinely identify with and care for one another, rather than simply tolerating one other's existence. The Bahá'ís view this process as taking place largely as a result of the spread of Bahá'í teachings, principles and practices throughout the world. The larger world peace process and its foundational elements are addressed in the document The Promise of World Peace, written by the Universal House of Justice.
Many Buddhists believe that world peace can only be achieved if we first establish peace within our minds. The idea is that anger and other negative states of mind are the cause of wars and fighting. Buddhists believe people can live in peace and harmony only if we abandon negative emotions such as anger in our minds and cultivate positive emotions such as love and compassion. As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.
Peace Pagodas are monuments that are built to symbolize and inspire world peace and have been central to the peace movement throughout the years. These are typically of Buddhist origin, being built by the Japanese Buddhist organisation Nipponzan Myohoji. They exist around the world in cities such as London, Vienna, New Delhi, Tokyo and Lumbini.
"Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid."
As christologically interpreted from Isaiah 2, whereupon the "Word of the Lord" is established on the earth, the material human-political result will be 'nation not taking up sword against nation; nor will they train for war anymore'. Christian world peace necessitates the living of a proactive life replete with all good works in direct light of the Word of God. The details of such a life can be observed in the Gospels, especially the historically renowned Sermon on the Mount, where forgiving those who do wrong things against oneself is advocated among other pious precepts.
However, not all Christians expect a lasting world peace on this earth:
"Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I have come to turn a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law—a man's enemies will be the members of his own household."
Many Christians believe that world peace is expected to be manifest upon the "new earth" that is promised in Christian scripture such as Revelation 21.
Traditionally, Hinduism has adopted an ancient Sanskrit phrase Vasudha eka kutumbakam, which translates as "The world is one family." The essence of this concept is the observation that only base minds see dichotomies and divisions. The more we seek wisdom, the more we become inclusive and free our internal spirit from worldly illusions or Maya. World peace is hence only achieved through internal means—by liberating ourselves from artificial boundaries that separate us all. As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.
According to Islamic teachings, the journey towards true inner peace and tranquility involves an absolute faith and obedience through worship of only one God, the source of Ultimate Peace. The knowledge of having a common ancestry derived from Adam and Eve is evoked as a reminder for men and women to suppress the poisonous ideology of racial superiority and to enable communities and nations to live together in this shared world, in peace and harmony.
"O mankind, we created you from a male and female, and rendered you distinct peoples and tribes, that you may recognise and know one another. The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. Certainly, God is Omniscient, All-Aware" - Holy Qur'an 49:13
The fundamental premise is that knowing and recognising God is what can bring about true contentment of the soul. If the individual does not know his Creator, then he/she will always yearn to fill the spiritual vacuum with something to pacify his/her inner agitation and confusion. And if the human experiences any pleasure or happiness other than in God, that joy and happiness will not endure.
However, once an individual is at peace with himself and free of any internal agitations, he can then enter into truly peaceful relations with others. He will have no reason to feel resentment towards the rest of the world—those whom he may blame for his lack of internal peace. In fact, since his goal is that of the Hereafter, he has no reason even to feel envy or rage towards others concerning what they have received in this world—while envy and rage strike at the very root of peaceful relations towards others.
His freedom from internal agitation should definitely, therefore, affect how he interacts with those around him. This starts with those closest to him in his family and extends to his neighbors and others in the community, eventually extending to all of humankind as a whole. Thus, Islam establishes an entire social structure in which people interact with others, based on relationships, rights and obligations, in ways that bring about a peaceful coexistence.
"Mankind was one community, (then they began to differ) whereupon God raised up the Prophets as heralds of glad tidings and as warners..." - Holy Qur'an 2:213
The purpose of the Islamic faith is to help people recognize their own natural inclination towards their "fitrah". When a child is born, it has within it a natural belief in God. This natural belief is called the "Fitrah" in Arabic. It is the predisposition of humans to yearn after One God. If the child were left alone, it would grow up aware of God in His oneness, but all children are affected by the pressures of their environment whether directly or indirectly. This instinctive belief in One God has been the subject of much research over the years with some research psychologists showing that such belief may be innate. Some ideologies within Islam consider the achievement of global peace through forced Islamization (literally Pacification) as a legitimate tJol for such a high cause. However, forced belief is anathematic to the concept of Islam, with freedom of religion being ordained in the Qur'an:
"There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. True guidance has indeed become manifestly clear from error. Therefore, whosoever rejects evil and believes in Allah has grasped the most Trustworthy hand-hold that never breaks. And Allah Hears and Knows all things." - Holy Qur'an 2:256
These ideologies wrongly believe that pacification can either be by completing the Islamization of the already Islamic domain (defensive Jihad) or the Islamization of the entire world (offensive Jihad).
According to Islamic eschatology, the whole world will be united under the leadership of prophet Isa (Jesus) in his second coming. At that time love, justice and peace will be so abundant that the world will be in likeness of paradise.
The concept of Tikkun olam (Repairing the World) is central to modern Rabbinic Judaism. Tikkun olam is accomplished through various means, such as ritualistically performing God's commandments, charity and social justice, as well as through example persuading the rest of the world to behave morally. According to some views, Tikkun Olam would result in the beginning of the Messianic Age. It has been said that in every generation, a person is born with the potential to be the spiritual Messiah. If the time is right for the Messianic Age within that person's lifetime, then that person will be the mashiach. But if that person dies before he completes the mission of the Messiah, then that person is not the Messiah (Mashiach).
Specifically, in Jewish messianism it is considered that at some future time a Messiah (literally "a King appointed by G-d") will rise up to bring all Jews back to the Land of Israel, followed by everlasting global peace and prosperity. This idea originates from passages in the Written Bible and the Oral Bible.
And he shall judge between the nations and reprove many peoples, and they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift the sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.
Compassion for all life, human and non-human, is central to Jainism.They have adopted the wordings of Lord Mahvira Jiyo aur Jeeno Do Human life is valued as a unique, rare opportunity to reach enlightenment; to kill any person, no matter what crime he may have committed, is considered unimaginably abhorrent. It is a religion that requires monks and laity, from all its sects and traditions, to be vegetarian. Some Indian regions, such as Gujarat, have been strongly influenced by Jains and often the majority of the local Hindus of every denomination have also become vegetarian. Famous quote on World Peace as per jainism by a 19th Century Indian Legend, Virchand Gandhi "May peace rule the universe; may peace rule in kingdoms and empires; may peace rule in states and in the lands of the potentates; may peace rule in the house of friends and may peace also rule in the house of enemies." As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.
Peace comes from God. Meditation, the means of communicating with God, is unfruitful without the noble character of a devotee, there can be no worship without performing good deeds. Guru Nanak stressed now kirat karō: that a Sikh should balance work, worship, and charity, and should defend the rights of all creatures, and in particular, fellow human beings. They are encouraged to have a chaṛdī kalā, or optimistic - resilience, view of life. Sikh teachings also stress the concept of sharing—vaṇḍ chakkō—through the distribution of free food at Sikh gurdwaras (laṅgar), giving charitable donations, and working for the good of the community and others (sēvā). Sikhs believe that no matter what race, sex, or religion one is, all are equal in God's eyes. Men and women are equal and share the same rights, and women can lead in prayers. As with all Dharmic religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism), ahimsa (avoidance of violence) is a central concept.
A report in June 2015 on the Global Peace Index highlighted that the impact of violence on the global economy reached US$14.3 trillion. The report also found that the economic cost of violence is 13.4% of world GDP, equal to the total economic output of Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Spain and the UK combined.
- Global Peace Index
- Inner peace
- Interfaith dialogue
- International community
- International human rights law
- International security
- International Day of Non-Violence
- International Day of Peace
- List of anti-war organizations
- List of civil rights leaders
- List of ongoing military conflicts
- List of peace activists
- Nobel Peace Prize
- Peace movement
- Peace One Day
- Peace treaty
- Peace walk
- Perpetual peace
- Philosophy of happiness
- Preamble to the United Nations Charter
- University for Peace
- Utopian and dystopian fiction
- War resister
- War Resisters' International
- World Peace Council
- World Peace Foundation
- World Peace Marathon
- World union for peace and fundamental human rights and the rights of peoples
- World Alliance of Religions Peace Summit
- A world historical sketch of the imperial peace theory is found in Max Ostrovsky, Y = Arctg X: The Hyperbola of the World Order, (Lanham; University Press of America, 2007, p 343-348).
- World state
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- Y = Arctg X: The Hyperbola of the World Order, (Lanham; University Press of America, 2007, p 27-31).
- John Mearsheimer, (2001). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, New York & London: W. W. Norton & Company, p 2.
- Peter van Ness, "Hegemony, not Anarchy: Why China and Japan Are not Balancing the US Unipolar Power?" International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 2/1, (2002), 131-150;
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- Jolyon Howard, & Anand Menon, "Still not Pushing Back: Why the European Union Is not Balancing the US," Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53/5, (2009): 727-744.
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- Mousseau, Michael (Spring 2009), "The Social Market Roots of Democratic Peace", International Security 33 (4), pp. 52–86.
- ———————— (Winter 2002–2003), "Market Civilization and its Clash with Terror", International Security 27 (3), pp. 5–29.
- ———————— (2003), International Studies Quarterly 47 (4): 483–510 Missing or empty
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- Faunce, TA (2012). "Towards a global solar fuels project - Artificial photosynthesis and the transition from anthropocene to sustainocene". Procedia Engineering 49: 348–356. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.10.147.
- Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 363–364. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Dharmic Wisdom Quotes - Page 3 - Hindu Dharma Forums
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- Rambam, Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot Melachim, ch. 11-12
- Titze, Kurt, Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence, Mohtilal Banarsidass, 1998
- Useful instructions, In Matter religious , moral and others by Motilal M. Munishi , 1904
- Wood, Angela (1997). Movement and Change. Nelson Thornes. p. 46. ISBN 9780174370673.
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