World record progression 400 metres individual medley

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The first world record in the 400 metres individual medley in long course (50 metres) swimming was recognized by the International Swimming Federation (FINA) in 1957, followed by the women a year later. In the short course (25 metres) swimming events the world's governing body recognizes world records since March 3, 1991.

Men[edit]

Long course[edit]

Time Swimmer Date Place
5:15.6 United States Gary Heinrich 27 August 1957 Philadelphia, United States
5:12.9 Soviet Union Vladimir Strushanov 20 October 1957 Moscow, Soviet Union
5:08.8 United Kingdom Ian Black 6 June 1959 Cardiff, United Kingdom
5:07.8 United States George Harrison 24 June 1960 Los Angeles, United States
5:05.3 United States George Harrison 24 June 1960 Los Angeles, United States
5:04.5 United States Dennis Rounsaville 22 July 1960 Toledo, United States
5:04.3 United States Ted Stickles 1 July 1961 Chicago, United States
4:55.6 United States Ted Stickles 18 August 1961 Los Angeles, United States
4:53.8 Germany Gerhard Hetz 24 May 1962 Moscow, Soviet Union
4:51.4 United States Ted Stickles 30 June 1962 Chicago, United States
4:51.0 United States Ted Stickles 12 July 1962 Louisville, United States
4:50.2 Germany Gerhard Hetz 12 October 1963 Tokyo, Japan
4:48.6 United States Dick Roth 31 July 1964 Los Altos, United States
4:45.4 United States Dick Roth 14 October 1964 Tokyo, Japan
4:45.3 Soviet Union Andrei Dunayev 3 April 1968 Tallinn, Soviet Union
4:45.1 United States Greg Buckingham 6 July 1968 Santa Clara, United States
4:43.4 United States Gary Hall, Sr. 20 July 1968 Los Angeles, United States
4:43.3 United States Charlie Hickcox 30 August 1968 Long Beach, United States
4:39.0 United States Charlie Hickcox 30 August 1968 Long Beach, United States
4:38.7 United States Gary Hall, Sr. 11 July 1969 Santa Clara, United States
4:33.9 United States Gary Hall, Sr. 15 August 1969 Louisville, United States
4:31.0 United States Gary Hall, Sr. 21 August 1970 Los Angeles, United States
4:30.81 United States Gary Hall, Sr. 3 August 1972 Chicago, United States
4:28.89 Hungary András Hargitay 20 August 1974 Vienna, Austria
4:26.00 Hungary Zoltán Verrasztó 2 April 1976 Long Beach, United States
4:23.68 United States Rod Strachan 25 July 1976 Montreal, Canada
4:23.39 United States Jesse Vassallo 4 August 1978 The Woodlands, United States
4:20.05 United States Jesse Vassallo 28 August 1978 West Berlin, West Germany
4:19.78 Brazil Ricardo Prado 8 August 1982 Guayaquil, Ecuador
4:19.61 East Germany Jens-Peter Berndt 23 May 1984 Magdeburg, East Germany
4:17.53 Canada Alex Baumann 17 June 1984 Etobicoke, Canada
4:17.41 Canada Alex Baumann 30 July 1984 Los Angeles, United States
4:16.12 United States David Wharton 14 August 1987 Brisbane, Australia
4:15.42 Hungary Tamás Darnyi 19 August 1987 Strasbourg, France
4:14.75 Hungary Tamás Darnyi 21 September 1988 Seoul, South Korea
4:12.36 Hungary Tamás Darnyi 8 January 1991 Perth, Australia
4:12.30 United States Tom Dolan 11 September 1994 Rome, Italy
4:11.76 United States Tom Dolan 17 September 2000 Sydney, Australia
4:11.09 United States Michael Phelps 15 August 2002 Fort Lauderdale, United States
4:10.73 United States Michael Phelps 7 April 2003 Indianapolis, United States
4:09.09 United States Michael Phelps 27 July 2003 Barcelona, Spain
4:08.41 United States Michael Phelps 7 July 2004 Long Beach, United States
4:08.26 United States Michael Phelps 14 August 2004 Athens, Greece
4:06.22 United States Michael Phelps 1 April 2007 Melbourne, Australia
4:05.25 United States Michael Phelps 29 June 2008 Omaha, United States
4:03.84[1] United States Michael Phelps 10 August 2008 Beijing, China

Short course[edit]

Time Swimmer Nationality Date Location
4:08.77 Luca Sacchi  Italy 29 February 1992 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
4:07.10 Jani Sievinen  Finland 9 February 1993 Malmö, Sweden
4:06.03 Jani Sievinen  Finland 20 January 1996 Lappeenranta, Finland
4:05.59 Marcel Wouda  Netherlands 1 February 1997 Gelsenkirchen, Germany
4:05.41 Marcel Wouda  Netherlands 8 February 1997 Paris, France
4:04.24 Matthew Dunn  Australia 24 September 1998 Perth, Australia
4:02.72 Brian Johns  Canada 23 February 2003 Victoria, Canada
4:00.37 László Cseh  Hungary 9 December 2005 Trieste, Italy
3:59.33 László Cseh  Hungary 14 December 2007 Debrecen, Hungary
3:57.27 László Cseh  Hungary 11 December 2009 Istanbul, Turkey
3:55.50 Ryan Lochte  United States 16 December 2010 Dubai, United Arab Emirates
3:54.81 Daiya Seto  Japan 20 December 2019 Las Vegas, United States


Women[edit]

Long course[edit]

Time Swimmer Date Place
5:46.6 United States Sylvia Ruuska 27 June 1958 Los Angeles, United States
5:43.7 United States Sylvia Ruuska 1 August 1958 Topeka, United States
5:41.1 United States Sylvia Ruuska 24 February 1959 Melbourne, Australia
5:40.2 United States Sylvia Ruuska 17 July 1959 Redding, United States
5:36.5 United States Donna de Varona 15 July 1960 Indianapolis, United States
5:34.5 United States Donna de Varona 11 August 1961 Philadelphia, United States
5:29.7 United States Donna de Varona 2 June 1962 Los Altos, United States
5:27.4 United States Sharon Finneran 26 July 1962 Osaka, Japan
5:24.7 United States Donna de Varona 26 July 1962 Osaka, Japan
5:21.9 United States Sharon Finneran 28 July 1962 Osaka, Japan
5:16.5 United States Donna de Varona 10 March 1964 Lima, Peru
5:14.9 United States Donna de Varona 30 August 1964 New York City, United States
5:11.7 United States Claudia Kolb 9 July 1967 Santa Clara, United States
5:09.7 United States Claudia Kolb 1 August 1967 Winnipeg, Canada
5:08.2 United States Claudia Kolb 19 August 1967 Philadelphia, United States
5:04.7 United States Claudia Kolb 24 August 1968 Los Angeles, United States
5:02.97 Australia Gail Neall 9 July 1972 Munich, West Germany
5:01.10 East Germany Angela Franke 18 August 1973 Utrecht, Netherlands
4:57.51 East Germany Gudrun Wegner 6 September 1973 Belgrade, Yugoslavia
4:52.42 East Germany Ulrike Tauber 21 August 1974 Vienna, Austria
4:52.20 East Germany Ulrike Tauber 7 June 1975 Wittenberg, West Germany
4:48.79 East Germany Birgit Treiber 1 June 1976 East Berlin, East Germany
4:42.77 East Germany Ulrike Tauber 24 July 1976 Montreal, Canada
4:40.83 United States Tracy Caulkins 23 August 1978 West Berlin, West Germany
4:39.96 East Germany Petra Schneider 30 March 1980 Leningrad, Soviet Union
4:38.44 East Germany Petra Schneider 27 May 1980 Magdeburg, East Germany
4:36.29 East Germany Petra Schneider 26 July 1980 Moscow, Soviet Union
4:36.10 East Germany Petra Schneider 1 August 1982 Guayaquil, Ecuador
4:34.79 China Chen Yan 13 October 1997 Shanghai, PR China
4:33.59 Ukraine Yana Klochkova 16 September 2000 Sydney, Australia
4:32.89 United States Katie Hoff 1 April 2007 Melbourne, Australia
4:31.46 Australia Stephanie Rice 22 March 2008 Sydney, Australia
4:31.12 United States Katie Hoff 29 June 2008 Omaha, United States
4:29.45 Australia Stephanie Rice 10 August 2008 Beijing, China
4:28.43 China Ye Shiwen 28 July 2012 London, United Kingdom
4:26.36 Hungary Katinka Hosszú 6 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Short course[edit]

# Time Name Nationality Date Meet Location Ref
4:29.00 Dai Guohong China China 2 December 1993 Short Course Worlds Palma de Mallorca, Spain
4:27.83 Yana Klochkova Ukraine Ukraine 20 January 2002 World Cup meet Paris, France
4:26.52 Kirsty Coventry Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 9 April 2008 Short Course Worlds Manchester, United Kingdom
4:25.87 Julia Smit United States USA 28 November 2008 Canada Cup Toronto, Canada
4:25.06 Mireia Belmonte Spain Spain 14 December 2008 Short Course Europeans Rijeka, Croatia
4:22.80 Kathryn Meaklim South Africa South Africa 22 November 2009 World Cup meet Singapore
4:21.04 Julia Smit United States USA 18 December 2009 Duel in the Pool Manchester, United Kingdom
4:20.85 Katinka Hosszú  Hungary 11 Aug 2013 World Cup Berlin, Germany [2]
4:20.83 Katinka Hosszú  Hungary 28 Aug 2014 World Cup Doha, Qatar [3]
4:19.86 Mireia Belmonte Spain Spain 3 December 2014 World Championships Doha, Qatar [4]
4:19.46 Katinka Hosszú Hungary Hungary 2 December 2015 European Championships Netanya, Israel [5]
4:18.94 Mireia Belmonte Spain Spain 12 August 2017 World Cup Eindhoven, Netherlands [6]
Legend: # – Record awaiting ratification by FINA;
Records not set in finals: h – heat; sf – semifinal; r – relay 1st leg; rh – relay heat 1st leg; b – B final; – en route to final mark; tt – time trial



All-time top 25[edit]

Men[edit]

  • Correct as of August 2020
Pos Time Swimmer Date Venue Ref
1 4:03.84  Michael Phelps (USA) 10 August 2008 China [7]
2 4:05.18  Ryan Lochte (USA) 28 July 2012 Great Britain [8]
3 4:05.90  Chase Kalisz (USA) 30 July 2017 Hungary [9]
4 4:06.05  Kosuke Hagino (JPN) 6 August 2016 Brazil [10]
5 4:06.09  Daiya Seto (JPN) 26 January 2020 Japan
6 4:06.16  László Cseh (HUN) 10 August 2008 China [11]
7 4:06.96  Tyler Clary (USA) 7 July 2009 United States [12]
8 4:07.47  Dávid Verrasztó (HUN) 24 June 2017 Hungary [13]
9 4:08.86  Thiago Pereira (BRA) 2 August 2009 Italy [14]
28 July 2012 Great Britain [15]
10 4:09.10  Wang Shun (CHN) 4 September 2013 China [16]
11 4:09.22  Jay Litherland (USA) 28 July 2019 South Korea
12 4:09.62  Max Litchfield (GBR) 30 July 2017 Hungary [17]
13 4:09.88  Luca Marin (ITA) 1 April 2007 Australia [18]
14 4:10.14  Thomas Fraser-Holmes (AUS) 26 April 2013 Australia [19]
15 4:10.18  Yang Zhixian (CHN) 24 September 2014 South Korea [20]
16 4:10.40  Gergő Kis (HUN) 2 August 2009 Italy [21]
17 4:10.41  Qin Haiyang (CHN) 21 October 2019 China [22]
18 4:10.49  Huang Chaosheng (CHN) 24 September 2014 South Korea [23]
19 4:10.52  Yuya Horihata (JPN) 2 April 2012 Japan
20 4:10.53  Oussama Mellouli (TUN) 29 June 2009 Italy [24]
21 4:10.68  Alessio Boggiatto (ITA) 9 August 2008 China [25]
22 4:10.90  Takeharu Fujimori (JPN) 20 May 2017 Japan
23 4:11.04  Daniel Wallace (GBR) 24 July 2014 Great Britain
24 4:11.11  Sebastien Rousseau (RSA) 30 July 2013 United States [26]
25 4:11.27  Erik Vendt (USA) 12 August 2002 United States

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 4:11.27:

  • Michael Phelps also swam 4:05.25 (2008), 4:06.22 (2007), 4:07.82 (2008), 4:07.89 (2012), 4:08.26 (2004), 4:08.41 (2004), 4:09.09 (2003), 4:09.28 (2012), 4:10.16 (2006), 4:10.47 (2006), 4:10.73 (2003), 4:11.09 (2002).
  • Ryan Lochte also swam 4:06.08 (2008), 4:06.40 (2009), 4:07.01 (2009), 4:07.06 (2012), 4:07.13 (2011), 4:07.59 (2010), 4:08.09 (2008), 4:08.77 (2010), 4:09.74 (2007), 4:09.98 (2010), 4:10.33 (2008), 4:10.66 (2012), 4:11.05 (2009).
  • Chase Kalisz also swam 4:06.75 (2016), 4:06.99 (2017), 4:07.95 (2018), 4:08.12 (2016), 4:08.25 (2018), 4:08.92 (2018), 4:09.22 (2013), 4:09.43 (2017), 4:09.54 (2016), 4:09.62 (2014), 4:09.67 (2017), 4:09.79 (2017), 4:10.05 (2015), 4:10.55 (2018), 4:10.80 (2018), 4:10.97 (2018), 4:11.01 (2017), 4:11.09 (2018).
  • Kosuke Hagino also swam 4:07.75 (2014), 4:07.88 (2014), 4:08.31 (2014), 4:08.54 (2015), 4:08.85 (2016), 4:08.90 (2016), 4:08.94 (2012), 4:09.06 (2016), 4:09.52 (2016), 4:09.80 (2016), 4:09.82 (2014), 4:10.00 (2016), 4:10.01 (2012), 4:10.26 (2012), 4:10.30 (2018), 4:10.45 (2017), 4:10.69 (2018), 4:10.77 (2013), 4:10.88 (2016), 4:11.13 (2018), 4:11.16 (2015), 4:11.23 (2013).
  • Daiya Seto also swam 4:07.95 (2019), 4:07.99 (2017), 4:08.47 (2016), 4:08.50 (2015), 4:08.69 (2013), 4:08.79 (2018), 4:08.95 (2019), 4:08.98 (2018), 4:09.14 (2017), 4:09.25 (2019), 4:09.62 (2019), 4:09.71 (2016), 4:09.98 (2019), 4:10.04 (2015), 4:10.10 (2012), 4:10.17 (2016), 4:10.18 (2017), 4:10.21 (2014), 4:10.22 (2017), 4:10.30 (2019), 4:10.39 (2014), 4:10.44 (2017), 4:10.53 (2016), 4:10.58 (2015), 4:10.90 (2013), 4:10.97 (2015).
  • László Cseh also swam 4:07.37 (2009), 4:09.26 (2008), 4:09.59 (2008), 4:09.63 (2005), 4:09.86 (2006), 4:10.33 (2009), 4:10.79 (2003), 4:10.95 (2010), 4:11.22 (2011)
  • Tyler Clary also swam 4:07.31 (2009), 4:09.03 (2014), 4:09.20 (2010), 4:09.51 (2014), 4:09.55 (2010), 4:09.92 (2012), 4:10.04 (2009), 4:10.39 (2013), 4:11.17 (2011).
  • Dávid Verrasztó also swam 4:08.38 (2017), 4:09.90 (2015), 4:10.01 (2017), 4:10.65 (2018).
  • Thiago Pereira also swam 4:09.48 (2013), 4:11.14 (2007).
  • Wang Shun also swam 4:10.13 (2019).
  • Jay Litherland also swam 4:09.31 (2017), 4:10.21 (2018), 4:11.02 (2016), 4:11.10 (2016).
  • Max Litchfield also swam 4:10.57 (2017), 4:10.63 (2017), 4:10.94 (2019), 4:11.00 (2018).
  • Luca Marin also swam 4:10.22 (2008).
  • Thomas Fraser-Holmes also swam 4:10.55 (2014), 4:10.68 (2014), 4:11.09 (2016).
  • Yang Zhixian also swam 4:10.78 (2013), 4:11.04 (2014).
  • Gergő Kis also swam 4:10.66 (2008), 4:10.99 (2009).
  • Takeharu Fujimori also swam 4:11.26 (2017).

Women[edit]

  • Correct as of August 2020
Pos Time Swimmer Date Venue
1 4:26.36  Katinka Hosszú (HUN) 6 August 2016 Brazil
2 4:28.43  Ye Shiwen (CHN) 28 July 2012 Great Britain
3 4:29.45  Stephanie Rice (AUS) 10 August 2008 China
4 4:29.89  Kirsty Coventry (ZIM) 10 August 2008 China
5 4:30.43  Li Xuanxu (CHN) 17 October 2009 China
6 4:30.82  Yui Ohashi (JPN) 3 April 2018 Japan
7 4:30.85  Qi Hui (CHN) 17 October 2009 China
8 4:31.12  Katie Hoff (USA) 29 June 2008 United States
9 4:31.15  Maya DiRado (USA) 6 August 2016 Brazil
10 4:31.21  Mireia Belmonte (ESP) 4 August 2013 Spain
11 4:31.27  Elizabeth Beisel (USA) 28 July 2012 Great Britain
12 4:31.33  Hannah Miley (GBR) 16 March 2009 Great Britain
13 4:32.20  Zheng Rongrong (CHN) 8 January 2012 China
14 4:32.52  Emily Overholt (CAN) 9 August 2015 Russia
15 4:32.53  Melanie Margalis (USA) 6 March 2020 United States
16 4:32.88  Sydney Pickrem (CAN) 30 July 2017 Hungary
17 4:33.01  Aimee Willmott (GBR) 24 July 2014 Great Britain
18 4:33.50  Zhou Min (CHN) 4 September 2013 China
19 4:33.59  Yana Klochkova (UKR) 16 September 2000 Australia
20 4:33.86  Leah Smith (USA) 29 June 2017 United States
21 4:34.17  Fantine Lesaffre (FRA) 3 August 2018 Great Britain
22 4:34.34  Alessia Filippi (ITA) 10 August 2008 China
23 4:34.48  Caitlin Leverenz (USA) 25 June 2012 United States
24 4:34.50  Zsuzsanna Jakabos (HUN) 4 August 2013 Hungary
25 4:34.65  Ilaria Cusinato (ITA) 30 June 2018 Italy

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 4:34.65:

  • Katinka Hosszú also swam 4:28.58 (2016), 4:29.33 (2017), 4:29.89 (2016), 4:30.31 (2009), 4:30.39 (2015, 2019), 4:30.41 (2013), 4:30.75 (2016), 4:30.90 (2016), 4:30.97 (2016), 4:31.03 (2014), 4:31.07 (2015), 4:31.53 (2014), 4:31.93 (2015), 4:32.25 (2016), 4:32.30 (2019), 4:32.33 (2016), 4:32.52 (2019), 4:32.68 (2016), 4:32.72 (2013), 4:32.78 (2015), 4:32.83 (2012), 4:32.87 (2019), 4:33.06 (2019), 4:33.49 (2012), 4:33.76 (2012), 4:33.77 (2012, 2019), 4:33.80 (2014), 4:33.81 (2017), 4:33.83 (2019), 4:33.88 (2015), 4:33.90 (2017), 4:34.04 (2015), 4:34.12 (2017), 4:34.14 (2016, 2016), 4:34.16 (2015), 4:34.17 (2015), 4:34.33 (2016), 4:34.37 (2019).
  • Ye Shiwen also swam 4:30.84 (2014), 4:31.59 (2013), 4:31.73 (2012), 4:32.07 (2019), 4:32.97 (2014), 4:33.66 (2011), 4:33.79 (2010), 4:34.27 (2013).
  • Stephanie Rice also swam 4:32.29 (2009), 4:33.45 (2012), 4:34.23 (2011), 4:34.62 (2009).
  • Kirsty Coventry also swam 4:32.12 (2009).
  • Li Xuanxu also swam 4:32.91 (2012), 4:33.34 (2011), 4:34.28 (2012).
  • Yui Ohashi also swam 4:31.42 (2017), 4:32.33 (2019), 4:33.02 (2019), 4:33.77 (2018), 4:33.81 (2019), 4:34.27 (2019), 4:34.40 (2017), 4:34.50 (2017), 4:34.58 (2018).
  • Katie Hoff also swam 4:31.71 (2008), 4:32.89 (2007), 4:34.63 (2008).
  • Maya DiRado also swam 4:31.71 (2015), 4:32.70 (2013), 4:33.50 (2016), 4:33.73 (2016), 4:34.34 (2013).
  • Mireia Belmonte also swam 4:32.17 (2017), 4:32.39 (2016), 4:32.75 (2016), 4:32.92 (2014), 4:33.13 (2014), 4:33.42 (2016), 4:33.91 (2012), 4:34.47 (2019), 4:34.64 (2013).
  • Elizabeth Beisel also swam 4:31.68 (2012), 4:31.69 (2013), 4:31.76 (2012), 4:31.78 (2011), 4:31.99 (2014), 4:32.98 (2014), 4:33.52 (2014), 4:33.55 (2016), 4:34.04 (2010), 4:34.24 (2008), 4:34.38 (2016), 4:34.50 (2013), 4:34.55 (2008).
  • Hannah Miley also swam 4:31.76 (2014), 4:32.16 (2015), 4:32.54 (2016), 4:32.67 (2012), 4:32.72 (2009), 4:33.09 (2010), 4:33.25 (2014), 4:33.40 (2016), 4:33.51 (2015), 4:33.74 (2016), 4:34.12 (2017), 4:34.16 (2013), 4:34.17 (2012), 4:34.21 (2013), 4:34.22 (2011).
  • Aimee Willmott also swam 4:33.64 (2014), 4:33.66 (2015), 4:34.08 (2016)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Swimming Men's 400m Individual Medley Results". Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. 2008-08-10.
  2. ^ "Women's 400m Individual medley Result". Omega Timing. 11 August 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  3. ^ "Women's 400m Individual medley Result". Omega Timing. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Women's 400m IM Results". Omega Timing. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  5. ^ "Katinka Hosszu's World Record Highlights Sizzling Day 1 Prelims at 2015 Euro SCs". Swimming World Magazine. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Women's 400m IM Results". FINA. 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  7. ^ https://www.olympic.org/beijing-2008/swimming/400m-individual-medley-men
  8. ^ https://www.olympic.org/london-2012/swimming/400m-individual-medley-men
  9. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/000111010A0105EF04FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  10. ^ https://www.olympic.org/rio-2016/swimming/400m-individual-medley-men
  11. ^ https://www.olympic.org/beijing-2008/swimming/400m-individual-medley-men
  12. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/0001090B0068000000FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  13. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/000111010A0105EF04FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  14. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/0001090B0068000000FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  15. ^ https://www.olympic.org/london-2012/swimming/400m-individual-medley-men
  16. ^ https://swimswam.com/bio/wang-shun/
  17. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/000111010A0105EF04FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  18. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/0001070D0068000000FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  19. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20131105173541/http://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/lane9/news/World/34299.asp?q=Commonwealth-Record-for-Fraser-Holmes,-Two-Men-Under-15:00-in-Mile-in-Adelaide
  20. ^ https://swimswam.com/2014-asian-games-day-4-finals-real-time-recaps-can-hagino-muster-energy-6th-medal-will-seto-reign/
  21. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/0001090B0068000000FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  22. ^ "Wang Shun Doubles Up On IM Events To Keep China In Military Games Medal Lead". SwimSwam. 2019-10-21. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  23. ^ https://swimswam.com/2014-asian-games-day-4-finals-real-time-recaps-can-hagino-muster-energy-6th-medal-will-seto-reign/
  24. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/0001090B0068000000FFFFFFFFFFFF01.pdf
  25. ^ https://www.olympic.org/beijing-2008/swimming/400m-individual-medley-men
  26. ^ https://www.omegatiming.com/File/Download?id=00010D020200041102FFFFFFFFFFFF02