World tree

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From Northern Antiquities, an English translation of the Prose Edda from 1847. Painted by Oluf Olufsen Bagge.

The world tree is a motif present in several religions and mythologies, particularly Indo-European religions, Siberian religions, and Native American religions. The world tree is represented as a colossal tree which supports the heavens, thereby connecting the heavens, the terrestrial world, and, through its roots, the underworld. It may also be strongly connected to the motif of the tree of life, but it is the source of wisdom of the ages.

Specific world trees include égig érő fa in Hungarian mythology, Ağaç Ana in Turkic mythology, Modun in Mongol mythology, Yggdrasil in Norse mythology, Irminsul in Germanic mythology, the oak in Slavic, Finnish and Baltic, Iroko in Yoruba religion,[citation needed] Jianmu in Chinese mythology, and in Hindu mythology the Ashvattha (a Ficus religiosa).

The Tree of Knowledge depicted, with Adam and Eve, where the Tree of life is also described as part of the Garden of Eden in the Hebrew bible.

General description[edit]

Scholarship states that many Eurasian mythologies share the motif of the "world tree", "cosmic tree", or "Eagle and Serpent Tree".[1] More specifically, it shows up in "Haitian, Finnish, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Siberian and northern Asian Shamanic folklore".[2]

The World Tree is often identified with the Tree of Life,[3] and also fulfills the role of an axis mundi, that is, a centre or axis of the world.[4] It is also located at the center of the world and represents order and harmony of the cosmos.[5] According to Loreta Senkute, each part of the tree corresponds to one of the three spheres of the world (treetops - heavens; trunk - middle world or earth; roots - underworld) and is also associated with a classical element (top part - fire; middle part - earth, soil, ground; bottom part - water).[6]

Its branches are said to reach the skies and its roots to connect the human or earthly world with an underworld or subterranean realm. Because of this, the tree was worshipped as a mediator between Heavens and Earth.[7] On the treetops are located the luminaries (stars) and heavenly bodies, along with an eagle's nest; several species of birds perch among its branches; humans and animals of every kind live under its branches, and near the root is the dwelling place of snakes and every sort of reptiles.[8][9]

A bird perches atop its foliage, "often .... a winged mythical creature" that represents a heavenly realm.[10][11] The eagle seems to be the most frequent bird, fulfilling the role of a creator or weather deity.[12] Its antipode is a snake or serpentine creature that crawls between the tree roots, being a "symbol of the underworld".[13][14]

The imagery of the World Tree is sometimes associated with conferring immortality, either by a fruit that grows on it or by a springsource located nearby.[15][16] As George Lechler also pointed out, in some descriptions this "water of life" may also flow from the roots of the tree.[17]

Similar motifs[edit]

The World Tree has also been compared to a World Pillar that appears in other traditions and functions as separator between the earth and the skies, upholding the latter.[18] Another representation akin to the World Tree is a separate World Mountain. However, in some stories, the world tree is located atop the world mountain, in a combination of both motifs.[19]

Relation to shamanism[edit]

Romanian historian of religion, Mircea Eliade, in his monumental work Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, suggested that the world tree was an important element in shamanistic worldview.[20] Also, according to him, "the giant bird ... hatches shamans in the branches of the World Tree".[21] Likewise, Roald Knutsen indicates the presence of the motif in Altaic shamanism.[22] Representations of the world tree are reported to be portrayed in drums used in Siberian shamanistic practices.[23]

Some species of birds (eagle, raven, crane, loon, and lark) are revered as mediators between worlds and also connected to the imagery of the world tree.[24] Another line of scholarship points to a "recurring theme" of the owl as the mediator to the upper realm, and its counterpart, the snake, as the mediator to the lower regions of the cosmos.[25]

Researcher Kristen Pearson mentions Northern Eurasian and Central Asian traditions wherein the World Tree is also associated with the horse and with deer antlers (which might resemble tree branches).[26]

Possible origins[edit]

Mircea Eliade proposed that the typical imagery of the world tree (bird at the top, snake at the root) "is presumably of Oriental origin".[27]

Likewise, Roald Knutsen indicates a possible origin of the motif in Central Asia and later diffusion into other regions and cultures.[28]

In specific cultures[edit]

American pre-Columbian cultures[edit]

  • Among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, the concept of "world trees" is a prevalent motif in Mesoamerican cosmologies and iconography. The Temple of the Cross Complex at Palenque contains one of the most studied examples of the world tree in architectural motifs of all Mayan ruins. World trees embodied the four cardinal directions, which represented also the fourfold nature of a central world tree, a symbolic axis mundi connecting the planes of the Underworld and the sky with that of the terrestrial world.[29]
  • Depictions of world trees, both in their directional and central aspects, are found in the art and traditions of cultures such as the Maya, Aztec, Izapan, Mixtec, Olmec, and others, dating to at least the Mid/Late Formative periods of Mesoamerican chronology. Among the Maya, the central world tree was conceived as, or represented by, a ceiba tree, called yax imix che ('blue-green tree of abundance') by the Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel.[30] The trunk of the tree could also be represented by an upright caiman, whose skin evokes the tree's spiny trunk.[31] These depictions could also show birds perched atop the trees.[32]
  • A similarly-named tree, yax cheel cab ('first tree of the world'), was reported by 17th-century priest Andrés de Avendaño to have been worshipped by the Itzá Maya. However, scholarship suggests that this worship derives from some form of cultural interaction between "pre-Hispanic iconography and [millenary] practices" and European traditions brought by the Hispanic colonization.[33]
  • Directional world trees are also associated with the four Yearbearers in Mesoamerican calendars, and the directional colors and deities. Mesoamerican codices which have this association outlined include the Dresden, Borgia and Fejérváry-Mayer codices.[34] It is supposed that Mesoamerican sites and ceremonial centers frequently had actual trees planted at each of the four cardinal directions, representing the quadripartite concept.
  • World trees are frequently depicted with birds in their branches, and their roots extending into earth or water (sometimes atop a "water-monster", symbolic of the underworld).
  • The central world tree has also been interpreted as a representation of the band of the Milky Way.[35]
  • Izapa Stela 5 contains a possible representation of a world tree.

A common theme in most indigenous cultures of the Americas is a concept of directionality (the horizontal and vertical planes), with the vertical dimension often being represented by a world tree. Some scholars have argued that the religious importance of the horizontal and vertical dimensions in many animist cultures may derive from the human body and the position it occupies in the world as it perceives the surrounding living world. Many Indigenous cultures of the Americas have similar cosmologies regarding the directionality and the world tree, however the type of tree representing the world tree depends on the surrounding environment. For many Indigenous American peoples located in more temperate regions for example, it is the spruce rather than the ceiba that is the world tree; however the idea of cosmic directions combined with a concept of a tree uniting the directional planes is similar.

Greek mythology[edit]

Like in many other Indo-European cultures, one tree species was considered the World Tree in some cosmogonical accounts.

Oak tree[edit]

The sacred tree of Zeus is the oak,[36] and the one at Dodona (famous for the cultic worship of Zeus and the oak) was said by later tradition to have its roots furrow so deep as to reach the confines of Tartarus.[37]

In a different cosmogonic account presented by Pherecydes of Syros, male deity Zas (identified as Zeus) marries female divinity Chthonie (associated with the earth and later called Gê/Gaia), and from their marriage sprouts an oak tree. This oak tree connects the heavens above and its roots grew into the Earth, to reach the depths of Tartarus. This oak tree is considered by scholarship to symbolize a cosmic tree, uniting three spheres: underworld, terrestrial and celestial.[38]

Other trees[edit]

Besides the oak, several other sacred trees existed in Greek mythology. For instance, the olive, named Moriai, was the world tree and associated with the Olympian goddess Athena.

In a separate Greek myth the Hesperides live beneath an apple tree with golden apples that was given to the highest Olympian goddess Hera by the primal Mother goddess Gaia at Hera's marriage to Zeus.[39] The tree stands in the Garden of the Hesperides and is guarded by Ladon, a dragon. Heracles defeats Ladon and snatches the golden apples.

In the epic quest for the Golden Fleece of Argonautica, the object of the quest is found in the realm of Colchis, hanging on a tree guarded by a never-sleeping dragon (the Colchian dragon).[40] In a version of the story provided by Pseudo-Apollodorus in Bibliotheca, the Golden Fleece was affixed by King Aeetes to a oak tree in a grove dedicated to war god Ares.[41] This information is repeated in Valerius Flaccus's Argonautica.[42] In the same passage of Valerius Flaccus' work, King Aeetes prays to Ares for a sign and suddenly a "serpent gliding from the Caucasus mountains" appears and coils around the grove as to protect it.[43]

Roman mythology[edit]

In Roman mythology the world tree was the olive tree, that was associated with Pax. The Greek equivalent of Pax is Eirene, one of the Horae. The Sacred tree of the Roman Sky father Jupiter was the oak, the laurel was the Sacred tree of Apollo. The ancient fig-tree in the Comitium at Rome, was considered as a descendant of the very tree under which Romulus and Remus were found.[36]

Norse mythology[edit]

In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil is the world tree.[a] Yggdrasil is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, Yggdrasil is an immense ash tree that is central and considered very holy. The Æsir go to Yggdrasil daily to hold their courts. The branches of Yggdrasil extend far into the heavens, and the tree is supported by three roots that extend far away into other locations: one to the well Urðarbrunnr in the heavens, one to the spring Hvergelmir, and another to the well Mímisbrunnr. Creatures live within Yggdrasil, including the harts Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and Duraþrór, the giant in eagle-shape Hræsvelgr, the squirrel Ratatoskr and the wyrm Níðhöggr. Scholarly theories have been proposed about the etymology of the name Yggdrasil, the potential relation to the trees Mímameiðr and Læraðr, and the sacred tree at Uppsala.

Circumbaltic mythology[edit]

In Baltic, Slavic and Finnish mythology, the world tree is usually an oak.[44][b] Most of the images of the world tree are preserved on ancient ornaments. Often on the Baltic and Slavic patterns there was an image of an inverted tree, "growing with its roots up, and branches going into the ground".

Baltic beliefs[edit]

Scholarship recognizes that Baltic beliefs about a World Tree, located at the central part of the Earth, follow a tripartite division of the cosmos (underworld, earth, sky), each part corresponding to a part of the tree (root, trunk, branches).[46][47]

It has been suggested that the word for "tree" in Baltic languages (Latvian mežs; Lithuanian medis), both derived from Proto-Indo-European *medh- 'middle', operated a semantic shift from "middle" possibly due to the belief of the Arbor Mundi.[48]

Lithuanian culture[edit]

The world tree (Lithuanian: Aušros medis) is widespread in Lithuanian folk painting, and is frequently found carved into household furniture such as cupboards, towel holders, and laundry beaters.[49][50][51] According to Lithuanian scholars Dunduliene and Velias, the World Tree is "a powerful tree with widespread branches and strong roots, reaching deep into the earth". The recurrent imagery is also present in Lithuanian myth: on the treetops, the luminaries and eagles, and further down, amidst its roots, the dwelling place of snakes and reptiles.[52] The World Tree of Lithuanian tradition was sometimes identified as an oak or a maple tree.[53]

Latvian culture[edit]

In Latvian mythology the world tree (Latvian: Austras koks) was one of the most important beliefs, also associated with the birth of the world. Sometimes it was identified as an oak or a birch, or even replaced by a wooden pole.[54] According to Ludvigs Adamovičs's book on Latvian folk belief, ancient Latvian mythology attested the existence of a Sun Tree as an expression of the World Tree, often described as "a birch tree with three leaves or forked branches where the Sun, the Moon, God, Laima, Auseklis (the morning star), or the daughter of the Sun rest[ed]".[55]

Slavic beliefs[edit]

Old Russian ornament of the world tree.

According to Slavic folklore, as reconstructed by R. Katičić, the draconic or serpentine character furrows near a body of water, and the bird that lives on the treetop could be an eagle, a falcon or a nightingale.[56]

Scholars Ivanov and Toporov offered a reconstructed Slavic variant of the Indo-European myth about a battle between a Thunder God and a snake-like adversary. In their proposed reconstruction, the Snake lives under the World Tree, sleeping on black wool. They surmise this snake on black wool is a reference to a cattle god, known in Slavic mythology as Veles.[57]

Further studies show that the usual tree that appear in Slavic folklore is an oak. In addition, the world tree appears in the Island of Buyan, on top of a stone. Another description shows that legendary birds Sirin and Alkonost make their nests on separate sides of the tree.[58]

Ukrainian scholarship points to the existence of the motif in "archaic wintertime songs and carols": their texts attest a tree at the center of the world and two or three falcons or pigeons sat on its top, ready to dive in and fetch mud to create land (the Earth diver cosmogonic motif).[59][60]

Finnic mythology[edit]

According to scholar Aado Lintrop, Estonian mythology records two types of world tree in Estonian runic songs, with similar characteristics of being an oak and having a bird at the top, a snake at the roots and the stars amongst its branches.[61]

Judeo-Christian mythology[edit]

The Tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the Tree of life are both components of the Garden of Eden story in the Book of Genesis in the Bible. According to Jewish mythology, in the Garden of Eden there is a tree of life or the "tree of souls" that blossoms and produces new souls, which fall into the Guf, the Treasury of Souls.[62] The Angel Gabriel reaches into the treasury and takes out the first soul that comes into his hand. Then Lailah, the Angel of Conception, watches over the embryo until it is born.[63]

Georgian mythology[edit]

According to scholarship, Georgian mythology also attests a rivalry between mythical bird Paskunji, which lives in the underworld on the top of a tree, and a snake that menaces its nestlings.[64][65][66]

Sumerian culture[edit]

Professor Amar Annus states that, although the motif seems to originate much earlier, its first attestation in world culture occurred in Sumerian literature, with the tale of "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld".[67] According to this tale, goddess Innana transplants the huluppu tree to her garden in the City of Uruk, for she intends to use its wood to carve a throne. However, a snake "with no charm", a ghostly figure (Lilith or another character associated with darkness) and the legendary Anzû-bird make their residence on the tree, until Gilgamesh kills the serpent and the other residents escape.[68][69]

Iranian mythology[edit]

Two winged bulls are guarding a sacred tree, on a rhyton from Marlik, Iran, currently at the National Museum of Iran

A world tree is a common motif in ancient art of Iran.[citation needed]

In Persian mythology, the legendary bird Simurgh (alternatively, Saēna bird; Sēnmurw and Senmurv) perches atop a tree located in the center of the sea Vourukasa. This tree is described as having all-healing properties and many seeds. In another account, the tree is the very same tree of the White Hōm (Haōma).[70] Gaokerena or white Haoma is a tree whose vivacity ensures continued life in the universe,[71] and grants immortality to "all who eat from it". In the Pahlavi Bundahishn, it is said that evil god Ahriman created a lizard to attack the tree.[72]

Bas tokhmak is another remedial tree; it retains all herbal seeds and destroys sorrow.[73]

Hinduism and Indian religions[edit]

Remnants are also evident in the Kalpavriksha ("wish-fulfilling tree") and the Ashvattha tree of the Indian religions. The Ashvattha tree ('keeper of horses') is described as a sacred fig and corresponds to "the most typical representation of the world tree in India", upon whose branches the celestial bodies rest.[74][75] Likewise, the Kalpavriksha is also equated with a fig tree and said to possess wish-granting abilities.[76]

In Brahma Kumaris religion, the World Tree is portrayed as the "Kalpa Vriksha Tree", or "Tree of Humanity", in which the founder Brahma Baba (Dada Lekhraj) and his Brahma Kumaris followers are shown as the roots of the humanity who enjoy 2,500 years of paradise as living deities before trunk of humanity splits and the founders of other religions incarnate. Each creates their own branch and brings with them their own followers, until they too decline and split. Twig like schisms, cults and sects appear at the end of the Iron Age.[77]

North Asian and Siberian cultures[edit]

The world tree is also represented in the mythologies and folklore of North Asia and Siberia. In the mythology of the Samoyeds, the world tree connects different realities (underworld, this world, upper world) together. In their mythology the world tree is also the symbol of Mother Earth who is said to give the Samoyed shaman his drum and also help him travel from one world to another. According to scholar Aado Lintrop, the larch is "often regarded" by Siberian peoples as the World Tree.[78]

Scholar Aado Lintrop also noted the resemblance between an account of the World Tree from the Yakuts and a Mokshas-Mordvinic folk song (described as a great birch).[79]

Mongolic and Turkic folk beliefs[edit]

The symbol of the world tree is also common in Tengrism, an ancient religion of Mongols and Turkic peoples. The world tree is sometimes a birch, or a poplar in epic works.[80]

Scholarship points out the presence of the motif in Central Asian and North Eurasian epic tradition: a world tree named Bai-Terek in Altai and Kyrgyz epics; a "sacred tree with nine branches" in the Buryat epic.[81]

Turkic cultures[edit]

Bai-Terek[edit]

The Bai-Terek (also known as bayterek, beyterek, beğterek, begterek, begtereg),[82] found, for instance, in the Altai Maadai Kara epos, can be translated as "Golden Poplar".[83] Like the mythological description, each part of tree (top, trunk and root) corresponds to the three layers of reality: heavenly, earthly and underground. In one description, it is considered the axis mundi. It holds at the top "a nest of a double-headed eagle that watches over the different parts of the world" and, in the form of a snake, Erlik, deity of the underworld, tries to slither up the tree to steal an egg from the nest.[84] In another, the tree holds two gold cuckoos at the topmost branches and two golden eagles just below. At the roots there are two dogs that guard the passage between the underworld and the world of the living.[85]

Aal Luuk Mas[edit]
Aal Luuk Mas, Yakut world tree, symbolising the three levels of reality.

Among the Yakuts, the world tree (or sacred tree) is called Ál Lúk Mas (Aal Luuk Mas) and is attested in their Olonkho epic narratives. Furthermore, this sacred tree is described to "connect the three worlds (Upper, Middle and Lower)", the branches to the sky and the roots to the underworld.[86] Further studies show that this sacred tree also shows many alternate names and descriptions in different regional traditions.[87] According to scholarship, the prevalent animal at the top of the tree in the Olonkho is the eagle.[88]

Researcher Galina Popova emphasizes that the motif of the world tree offers a binary opposition between two different realms (the Upper Realm and the Underworld), and Aal Luuk Mas functions as a link between both.[89] A spirit or goddess of the earth, named Aan Alahchin Hotun, is also said to inhabit or live in the trunk of Aal Luuk Mas.[90]

Bashkir[edit]

According to scholarship, in the Bashkir epic Ural-batyr, deity Samrau is described as a celestial being married to female deities of the Sun and the Moon. He is also "The King of the Birds" and is opposed by the "dark forces" of the universe, which live in the underworld. A similarly named creature, the bird Samrigush, appears in Bashkir folktales living atop the tallest tree in the world and its enemy is a snake named Azhdakha.[91][92] After the human hero kills the serpent Azhdakha, the grateful Samrigush agrees to carry him back to the world of light.[93]

Kazakh[edit]

Scholarship points to the existence of a bird named Samurik (Samruk) that, according to Kazakh myth, lives atop the World Tree Baiterek. Likewise, in Kazakh folktales, it is also the hero's carrier out of the underworld, after he defeats a dragon named Aydakhara or Aydarhana.[94]

Other representations[edit]

An early 20th-century report on Altaian shamanism by researcher Karunovskaia describes a shamanistic journey, information provided by one Kondratii Tanashev (or Merej Tanas). However, A. A. Znamenski believes this material is not universal to all Altaian peoples, but pertains to the specific worldview of Tanashev's Tangdy clan. Regardless, the material showed a belief in a tripartite division of the world in sky (heavenly sphere), middle world and underworld; in the central part of the world, a mountain (Ak toson altaj sip') is located. Upon this mountain there is a "a navel of the earth and water ... which also serves as the root of the 'wonderful tree with golden branches and wide leaves' (Altyn byrly bai terek)". Like the iconic imagery, the tree branches out to reach the heavenly sphere.[95]

East Asia[edit]

Korea[edit]

The world tree is visible in the designs of the Crown of Silla, Silla being one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. This link is used to establish a connection between Siberian peoples and those of Korea.

China[edit]

In Chinese mythology, a manifestation of the world tree is the Fusang or Fumu tree.[96] In a Chinese cosmogonic myth, solar deity Xihe gives birth to ten suns. Each of the suns rests upon a tree named Fusang (possibly a mulberry tree). The ten suns alternate during the day, each carried by a crow (the "Crow of the Sun"): one sun stays on the top branch to wait its turn, while the other nine suns rest on the lower branches.[97]

Africa[edit]

An origin myth is recorded from the Wapangwa tribe of Tanzania, wherein the world is created through "a primordial tree and a termite mound".[98] As a continuation of the same tale, the animals wanted to eat the fruits of this Tree of Life, but humans intended to defend it. This led to a war between animals and humans.[99]

In folk and fairy tales[edit]

ATU 301: The Three Stolen Princesses[edit]

The imagery of the World Tree appears in a specific tale type of the Aarne-Thompson-Uther Index, type ATU 301, "The Three Stolen Princesses", and former subtypes AaTh 301A, "Quest for a Vanished Princess" (or "Three Underground Kingdoms") and AaTh 301B, "The Strong Man and His Companions" (Jean de l'Ours and Fehérlófia). The hero journeys alone to the underworld (or a subterranean realm) to rescue three princesses. He leads them to a rope that will take them to the surface and, when the hero tries to climb up the rope, his companions cut it and the hero is stranded in the underworld. In his wanderings, he comes across a tree, on its top a nest of eggs from an eagle, a griffin or a mythical bird. The hero protects the nest from a snake enemy that slithers from the roots of the tree.[100][101]

Serbian scholarship recalls a Serbian mythical story about three brothers, named Ноћило, Поноћило и Зорило ("Noćilo, Ponoćilo and Zorilo") and their mission to rescue the king's daughters. Zorilo goes down the cave, rescues three princesses and with a whip changes their palaces into apples. When Zorilo is ready to go up, his brothers abandon him in the cave, but he escapes with the help of a bird.[102] Serbian scholar Pavle Sofric (sr), in his book about Serbian folkmyths about trees, noted that the tree of the tale, an ash tree (Serbian: јасен), showed a great parallel to the Nordic tree as not to be coincidental.[103]

While comparing Balkanic variants of the tale type ATU 301, researcher Milena Benovska-Sabkova noticed that the conflict between the snake and the eagle (bird) on the tree "was very close to the classical imagery of the World Tree".[104]

Other fairy tales[edit]

According to scholarship, Hungarian scholar János Berze Nágy also associated the imagery of the World Tree with fairy tales wherein a mysterious thief comes at night to steal the golden apples of the king's prized tree.[105] This incident occurs as an alternative opening to tale type ATU 301, in a group of tales formerly classified as AaTh 301A,[c] and as the opening episode in most variants of tale type ATU 550, "Bird, Horse and Princess" (otherwise known as The Golden Bird).[107]

Likewise, historical linguist Václav Blažek argued for parallels of certain motifs of these fairy tales (the night watch of the heroes, the golden apples, the avian thief) to Ossetian Nart sagas and the Greek myth of the Garden of the Hesperides.[108] The avian thief may also be a princess cursed into bird form, such as in Hungarian tale Prince Árgyilus (hu) and Fairy Ilona[109] and in Serbian tale The Nine Peahens and the Golden Apples (both classified as ATU 400, "The Man on a Quest for the Lost Wife").[110]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The original ‘World Tree’ was ... among the Germanic people an ash".Kuperjanov, Andres (2002). "Names in Estonian Folk Astronomy - from 'Bird's Way' to 'Milky Way'". Electronic Journal of Folklore. 22: 55. doi:10.7592/FEJF2002.22.milkyway.
  2. ^ Lithuanian scholar Libertas Klimkas (lt) indicated that the oak was considered a sacred tree to pre-Christian Baltic religion, including being a tree associated to thunder god Perkunas.[45]
  3. ^ The third revision of the Aarne-Thompson classification system, made in 2004 by German folklorist Hans-Jörg Uther, subsumed both subtypes AaTh 301A and AaTh 301B into the new type ATU 301.[106]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Annus, Amar. (2009). "Review Article: The Folk-Tales of Iraq and the Literary Traditions of Ancient Mesopotamia". In: Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 9: 89. 10.1163/156921209X449170.
  2. ^ Crews, Judith. "Forest and tree symbolism in folklore". In: Unasylva (English ed.) Vol. 54, No. 213 (2003). p. 42. ISSN 0041-6436.
  3. ^ Lintrop, Aado (2001). "The Great Oak and Brother-Sister". Electronic Journal of Folklore. 16: 38. doi:10.7592/FEJF2001.16.oak2.
  4. ^ Crews, Judith. "Forest and tree symbolism in folklore". In: Unasylva (English ed.) Vol. 54, No. 213 (2003). p. 41. ISSN 0041-6436.
  5. ^ Senkutė, Loreta. "Varuna "Rigvedoje" ir dievo įvaizdžio sąsajos su velniu baltų mitologijoje" [God Varuna o f the Rigveda as related to images in ancient Baltic mythology]. In: Rytai-Vakarai: Komparatyvistinés Studijos XII. pp. 366-367. ISBN 9789955868552.
  6. ^ Senkutė, Loreta. "Varuna "Rigvedoje" ir dievo įvaizdžio sąsajos su velniu baltų mitologijoje" [God Varuna o f the Rigveda as related to images in ancient Baltic mythology]. In: Rytai-Vakarai: Komparatyvistinés Studijos XII. pp. 366-367. ISBN 9789955868552.
  7. ^ Usačiovaitė, Elvyra. "Gyvybės medžio simbolika Rytuose ir Vakaruose" [Symbolism of the Tree of Life in the East and the West; Life tree symbols in the East and West]. In: Kultūrologija [Culturology]. 2005, t. 12, p. 313. ISSN 1822-2242.
  8. ^ Straižys, Vytautas; Klimka, Libertas. "The Cosmology of the Ancient Balts". In: Journal for the History of Astronomy: Archaeoastronomy Supplement. Vol. 28. Issue 22 (1997): pp. S62-S64. [1]
  9. ^ Kuperjanov, Andres (2002). "Names in Estonian Folk Astronomy - from 'Bird's Way' to 'Milky Way'". Electronic Journal of Folklore. 22: 55. doi:10.7592/FEJF2002.22.milkyway.
  10. ^ Annus, Amar & Sarv, Mari. "The Ball Game Motif in the Gilgamesh Tradition and International Folklore". In: Mesopotamia in the Ancient World: Impact, Continuities, Parallels. Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium of the Melammu Project Held in Obergurgl, Austria, November 4-8, 2013. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag - Buch- und Medienhandel GmbH. 2015. pp. 289-290. ISBN 978-3-86835-128-6.
  11. ^ Lintrop, Aado (2001). "The Great Oak and Brother-Sister". Electronic Journal of Folklore. 16: 38. doi:10.7592/FEJF2001.16.oak2.
  12. ^ Norelius, Per-Johan. "The Honey-Eating Birds and the Tree of Life: Notes on Ṛgveda 1.164.20-22". In: Acta Orientalia 77 (2016): 52-54. ISSN 0001-6438.
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Literature[edit]

  • Haycock DE (2011). Being and Perceiving. Manupod Press. ISBN 978-0-9569621-0-2.
  • Miller, Mary Ellen, Taube, Karl A. The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1993.
  • Roys, Ralph L., The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1967.

Further reading[edit]

  • Balalaeva O., Pluzhnikov N., Funk D., Batyanova E., Dybo A., Bulgakova T., Burykin A. The Myth of the World Tree in the Shamanism of Siberian Peoples. Comments: Funk, D. A. In Search of the World Tree: Some Thoughts on What, Where, and How We Search [V poiskakh Mirovogo dreva: razmyshleniia o tom, chto, gde i kak my ishchem]; Batyanova, E. P. Trees, Shamans, and Other Worlds [Derev’ia, shamany i inye miry]; Dybo, A. V. The World Tree: Data from Siberian Languages [Mirovoe drevo: dannye sibirskikh yazykov]; Bulgakova, T. D. The “World Tree” in the Shamanic Image of the World among the Nanai [“Mirovoe drevo” v shamanskoi kartine mira nanaitsev]; Burykin, A. A. The “Shamanic Theater” and Its Attributes [“Shamanskii teatr” i ego atributy]; Balalaeva, O. E., and N. V. Pluzhnikov. Response to Commenters: Thinking about the Use of Discussions (One of the Keys) [Otvet opponentam: razmyshleniia o pol’ze diskussii (odin iz kliuchei)] // Etnograficheskoe obozrenie – 2019. – №3 C. 80-122 [Electronic resource]. URL: http://ras.jes.su/ethnorev/s086954150005293-2-1-en (circulation date: 06.06.2021). DOI: 10.31857/S086954150005293-2
  • Bauks, Michaela. "Sacred Trees in the Garden of Eden and Their Ancient Near Eastern Precursors". In: Journal of Ancient Judaism 3, 3 (2012): 267-301. doi: https://doi.org/10.30965/21967954-00303001
  • Butterworth, E. A. S. The Tree - the Navel of the Earth. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1970.
  • Holmberg, Uno. Der Baum des Lebens (= Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian toimituksia. Sarja B = Series B, 16, 3, ISSN 0066-2011). Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, Helsinki, 1922 (Auch: Edition Amalia, Bern 1996, ISBN 3-9520764-2-2).
  • Karpun, Mariia. "Образ мирового древа в традиционной культуре донского казачества" [Representations of the World Tree in traditional culture of Don Cossacks]. In: Przegląd Wschodnioeuropejski IX/2018, nr. 2, pp. 115-122. Published by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warmińsko-Mazurskiego w Olsztynie.

External links[edit]