A Wrinkle in Time

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A Wrinkle in Time
WrinkleInTimePBA1.jpg
First-edition dust jacket
AuthorMadeleine L'Engle
IllustratorEllen Raskin (1960s editions)
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
SeriesTime Quintet
GenreYoung Adult, Science fantasy
PublisherAriel Books
Publication date
January 1, 1962
OCLC22421788
LC ClassPZ7.L5385 Wr 1962[1]
Followed byA Wind in the Door 

A Wrinkle in Time is a science fantasy novel written by American author Madeleine L'Engle, first published in 1962.[2] The book won the Newbery Medal, Sequoyah Book Award, and Lewis Carroll Shelf Award, and was runner-up for the Hans Christian Andersen Award.[3][a] Throughout the novel, the young characters Meg Murry, Charles Wallace Murry, and Calvin O'Keefe, embark on a journey through space and time, from universe to universe, as they endeavor to save their father, Mr. Murry, and the world, at the same time. The novel offers a glimpse into the battles between light and darkness, goodness and evil, as the young characters mature into adolescents on their journey.[4] The novel wrestles with questions of spirituality and purpose, as the characters are often thrown into conflicts of love, divinity, and goodness.[4] It is the first book in L'Engle's Time Quintet, which follows the Murrys and Calvin O'Keefe.

L'Engle mirrored the Murry family after her own. Scholar Bernice E. Cullinan noted that L'Engle created characters who "share common joy with a mixed fantasy and science fiction setting." [5] The novel's scientific and religious undertones are therefore highly reflective upon the life of L'Engle. [6]

The book inspired two film adaptations, both by Disney: a 2003 television film directed by John Kent Harrison, and a 2018 theatrical film directed by Ava DuVernay.

Background[edit]

The book was written between 1959 and 1960.[7] L'Engle wrote repeatedly about the writing of the story and the long struggle to get it published. In A Circle of Quiet (1972), she explains that the book was conceived "during a time of transition." [8] After years of living in rural Goshen, Connecticut, and running a general store, L'Engle's family, the Franklins, moved back to New York City, first taking a ten-week camping trip across the country and back again. L'Engle writes that "we drove through a world of deserts and buttes and leafless mountains, wholly new and alien to me. And suddenly into my mind came the names, Mrs Whatsit. Mrs Who. Mrs Which."[9] This was in the spring of 1959. L'Engle was reading about quantum physics at the time, which also made its way into the story.[10]

Publication history[edit]

When L'Engle completed the book in early 1960, it was rejected by at least 26 publishers, because it was, in L'Engle's words, "too different," and "because it deals overtly with the problem of evil, and it was really difficult for children, and was it a children's or an adults' book, anyhow?"[2][9]

In "A Special Message from Madeleine L'Engle" on the Random House website, L'Engle explains another possible reason for the rejections: "A Wrinkle in Time had a female protagonist in a science fiction book," which at the time was uncommon. [11] After trying "forty-odd" publishers (L'Engle later said "twenty-six rejections"), L'Engle's agent returned the manuscript to her. Then at Christmas, L'Engle threw a tea party for her mother. One of the guests happened to know John C. Farrar of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, and insisted that L'Engle should meet with him. [11] Although the publisher did not, at the time, publish a line of children's books, Farrar met L'Engle, liked the novel, and ultimately published it under the Ariel imprint.[11]

In 1963 the book won the Newbery Medal which is awarded annually by the Association for Library Service to Children, a division of the American Library Association, to the author of the most distinguished contribution to American literature for children. The book has been continuously in print since its first publication. The hardback edition is still published by Farrar, Straus & Giroux. The original blue dust jacket by Ellen Raskin was replaced with new art by Leo and Diane Dillon, with the publication of A Swiftly Tilting Planet in 1978. The book has also been published in a 25th anniversary collectors' edition (limited to 500 signed and numbered copies), at least two book club editions (one hardback, one Scholastic Book Services paperback), as a trade paperback under the Dell Yearling imprint, and as a mass market paperback under the Dell Laurel-Leaf imprint. The cover art on the paperback editions has changed several times since first publication.

The book was reissued by Square Fish in trade and mass market paperback formats in May 2007, along with the rest of the Time Quintet. This new edition includes a previously unpublished interview with L'Engle as well as the text of her Newbery Medal acceptance speech.[12]

Plot summary[edit]

Thirteen-year-old Meg Murry's classmates and teachers see her as a troublesome and stubborn student. Her family knows that she is emotionally immature but also sees her capable of doing great things. The family includes her scientist mother Katherine, her missing scientist father Alexander, the twins Sandy and Dennys, and her five-year-old brother Charles Wallace Murry, a child genius who can sometimes read Meg's mind.

The book begins with the line "It was a dark and stormy night," an allusion to the opening words in Edward Bulwer-Lytton's 1830 novel Paul Clifford. [13] Unable to sleep during a thunderstorm, Meg descends from her attic room to find Charles Wallace sitting at the table drinking milk and eating bread and jam. They are then joined by their mother, and are visited by their new eccentric neighbor, Mrs. Whatsit. In the course of conversation, Mrs. Whatsit casually mentions that there is such a thing as a tesseract, which causes Katherine to almost faint.

The next morning, Meg discovers that the term refers to a scientific concept her father was working on before his mysterious disappearance. The following afternoon, Meg and Charles Wallace encounter Meg's schoolmate, Calvin O'Keefe, a high-school junior who, although he is a popular at school, considers himself a misfit as well. They then go to visit an old haunted house near town which Charles Wallace already knows is the home of Mrs. Whatsit. There they encounter two companions of Mrs. Whatsit's, the equally strange Mrs. Who and the unseen voice of Mrs. Which. She promises that she and her friends will help Meg find and rescue her father. In the evening, Charles Wallace declares it is time for them to go on their mission to save their father. This is accompanied by the appearance of the third member of the Mrs. W's, Mrs. Which, who appears to materialize out of nothing.

Mrs. Whatsit, Mrs. Who, and Mrs. Which turn out to be supernatural beings who transport Meg, Charles Wallace, and Calvin O'Keefe through the universe by means of tesseract, a fifth-dimensional phenomenon explained as being similar to folding the fabric of space and time. Their first stop is the planet Uriel, a Utopian world filled with Centaur-like beings who live in a state of light and love. Mrs. Whatsit herself shows that she, Mrs. Who, and Mrs. Which are all these centaur-like creatures in disguise as humans. There the Mrs. W's reveal to the children that the universe is under attack from an evil being who appears as a large dark cloud called The Black Thing, which is essentially the personification of evil. The children are then taken to visit the Happy Medium, a woman with a crystal ball through which they see that Earth is partially covered by the darkness, although great religious figures, philosophers, scientists, and artists have been fighting against it. Mrs. Whatsit is revealed to be a former star who exploded in an act of self-sacrifice to fight the darkness.

The children then travel to the dark planet of Camazotz, which has succumbed to the Black Thing. Meg's father is trapped there. They find that all the inhabitants behave in a mechanical way and seem to be under the control of a single mind. At the planet's central headquarters, CENTRAL Central Intelligence, they discover a telepathic red-eyed man who can cast a hypnotic spell and claims to know their father’s whereabouts. Charles Wallace deliberately looks into the man’s red eyes, allowing himself to be hypnotized in order to find their father. Under the man's influence, he takes Meg and Calvin to the place where Alexander is being held prisoner because he would not succumb to the group mind.

The planet turns out to be controlled by an evil disembodied brain with powerful abilities, which the inhabitants of Camazotz call "IT." Charles Wallace takes them to the place where IT is held. In such proximity to IT, the children are threatened by a possible telepathic takeover of their minds. With special powers from Mrs Who's glasses, Alexander is able to "tesser" Calvin, Meg and himself away from Camazotz, but Charles Wallace is left behind, still under the influence of IT. Dr. Murry, inexperienced at tessering, does not know how to protect Meg from the Black Thing, nearly killing her. When they arrive on the neighboring planet of Ixchel, Meg is nearly frozen, and paralyzed. Calvin and the Murrys are discovered by the planet's inhabitants - large, eyeless beasts with featureless faces, tentacles and four arms, who prove both wise and gentle. Meg's paralysis is cured under the care of one inhabitant, whom Meg nicknames Aunt Beast. Meg overcomes her anger at her father for leaving Charles Wallace on Camazotz, realizing that parents can't fix everything, and sometimes children can solve problems themselves.

Then the trio of Mrs. Whatsit, Mrs. Who, and Mrs. Which arrive. They charge Meg with rescuing Charles Wallace from IT, because only Meg has a strong enough bond with him. Their father had last seen Charles Wallace when he was a baby and Calvin had only just met him. They each give her a gift. Mrs. Whatsit gives Meg her love. Mrs. Who quotes to Meg a passage from the Bible about God choosing the foolish of the world to confound the wise, and the weak to defeat the strong (1 Corinthians 1:27-29). Mrs. Which tells Meg that she has one thing that IT does not have but doesn't specify what it is. Upon arriving at the building where IT is housed, Charles Wallace is still there under IT's influence. Meg realizes that the one thing she has that IT does not is love. She focuses all her love at Charles Wallace and is able to free him from IT's control. Mrs. Who, Mrs. Which and Mrs. Whatsit tesser the Murrys and Calvin back to Earth. In the vegetable garden they are all reunited with Katherine and the twins. Mrs. Whatsit says that although she and the others like the spectacle of the family reuniting, they have to go somewhere. Before Mrs. Whatsit finishes her sentence, she and the others disappear.

Characters[edit]

Main characters[edit]

Margaret "Meg" Murry[edit]

Meg is the oldest child of scientists Alex and Kate Murry, about thirteen years old. Introduced on the first page of the book, she is the story's main protagonist.

Charles Wallace Murry[edit]

Charles Wallace is the youngest Murry child, at five years old. Charles Wallace speaks only to his family, but can empathically or telepathically read certain people's thoughts and feelings.

Calvin O'Keefe[edit]

Calvin is the third oldest of Paddy and Branwen O'Keefe's eleven children: a tall, thin, red-haired 14-year-old high school junior. He shows some signs of being able to communicate telepathically, the same power Charles Wallace seems to have.

Primary immortal characters[edit]

Hardcover art by Leo and Diane Dillon, showing the "Mrs. W's"

Mrs. W's[edit]

Mrs Whatsit, Mrs Who, and Mrs Which are immortal beings who can travel across large stretches of time and space by dematerializing and rematerializing. They are capable of shapeshifting, but spend most of their time on Earth as elderly women. All three are billions of years old and were once stars that had sacrificed themselves as a nova or supernova to destroy parts of the Black Thing.

Mrs. Whatsit[edit]

Mrs Whatsit is the youngest of the Mrs. W's (despite being 2,379,152,497 years, 8 months, and 3 days old), and interacts with the children.

Mrs. Who[edit]

Mrs Who communicates in Latin, Spanish, Italian, German, French, Portuguese and Greek. She struggles to articulate her words.

Mrs. Which[edit]

Mrs Which is the leader of the three women and the wisest. Her distinguishing quirk is her long, drawn-out method of speech, symbolized by doubled and tripled consonants in her words.

IT[edit]

Current book cover art (2007) by Taeeun Yoo, showing the Mrs. W's (at the left) and the children at the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building (at the right)

IT is the bodiless, telepathic brain that dominates the planet of Camazotz and is the main antagonist of the story. IT is described as a giant sized human brain. While IT usually speaks through one of its pawns, IT can speak directly to people through telepathy.

The Black Thing[edit]

The Black Thing, a formless, shadowy being, is the source of all evil in the universe.

Sub-characters[edit]

Alex Murry[edit]

Alex Murry, the father of the Murry children, is a physicist who is researching the mysteries of the space/time continuum. He has been missing for some time at the start of the novel.

Dr. Katherine "Kate" Murry[edit]

Katherine Murry, the mother of the Murry children, is a microbiologist. She is considered beautiful by the Murry children and others, having "flaming red hair", creamy skin, and violet eyes with long dark lashes.

Sandy and Dennys Murry[edit]

Sandy and his twin brother Dennys are the middle children in the Murry family, older than Charles Wallace but younger than Meg. They are 10 years old at the time of this book. The twins are depicted as inseparable from one another.

Mrs. Buncombe[edit]

The wife of the constable in Meg's hometown.

Mr. Jenkins[edit]

Mr. Jenkins is Meg's high-school principal who implies that her family is in denial about Mr. Murry's true whereabouts.

Supporting alien characters[edit]

Happy Medium[edit]

The Happy Medium is human in appearance. She uses her powers and a crystal ball to look at distant places and people. She lives in a cavern on a planet in Orion's Belt.

Aunt Beast[edit]

Aunt Beast, a name created by Meg, is a character who nurses and befriends Meg on the planet Ixchel. The character is a four-armed eyeless gray creature with telepathic abilities and numerous long, waving tentacles instead of fingers. The character's actual name, if any, is not given.

Major themes[edit]

Religious Analysis[edit]

The novel is highly spiritualized, with notable influences of divine intervention and prominent undertones of religious messages.[14] According to scholar James Beasley Simpson, the overwhelming love and desire for light within the novel is directly representative of a Christian love for God and Jesus Christ.[14] Furthermore, the children encounter spiritual intervention, signaling God's presence in the ordinary, as well as the extendibility of God's power and love. [4] Madeleine L'Engle's fantasy works are in part highly expressive of her Christian viewpoint in a manner somewhat similar to that of Christian fantasy writer C. S. Lewis. She was herself the official writer-in-residence at New York City's Episcopal Cathedral of St. John the Divine, which is known for its prominent position in the liberal wing of the Episcopal Church.[15] L'Engle's liberal Christianity has been the target of criticism from more conservative Christians, especially with respect to certain elements of A Wrinkle in Time.[16]

L'Engle utilizes numerous religious references and allusions in the naming of locations within the novel. The name Camazotz refers to a Mayan bat god, one of L'Engle's many mythological allusions in her nomenclature.[17] The name Ixchel refers to a Mayan jaguar goddess of medicine.[17] Uriel is a planet with extremely tall mountains, an allusion to the Archangel Uriel. It is inhabited by creatures that resemble winged centaurs. It is "the third planet of the Star Malak (meaning 'angel' in Hebrew) in the spiral nebula Messier 101", which would place it at roughly 25 million light-years from Earth. [18] The site of Mrs Whatsit's temporary transformation into one of these winged creatures, it is the place where "the guardian angels show the questers a vision of the universe that is obscured on earth." [18] The three women are described as ancient star-beings who act as guardian angels.[19]

The theme of picturing the fight of good against evil as a battle of light and darkness is a recurring one. Its manner is reminiscent of the prologue to the Gospel of John, which is quoted within the book. [5] When the Mrs W's reveal their secret roles in the cosmic fight against darkness, they ask the children to name some figures on Earth, a partially dark planet, who fight the darkness. They name Jesus, and later in the discussion Buddha is named as well, two major figures in different religions.

Nevertheless, religious journalist Sarah Pulliam Bailey doubts whether the novel contains religious undertones.[6] Bailey explains that many readers believe the novel promotes witchcraft, as opposed to alluding to Christian spirituality.[6] Bailey states that conservative Christians take offense, due to the novel's potential relativistic qualities, suggesting the various interpretations of religious allusions signals anti-Christian sentiments.[6] However, in her personal journal referencing A Wrinkle in Time, L'Engle confirms the religious content within the novel: "If I've ever written a book that says what I feel about God and the universe, this is it."[6]

Conformity[edit]

Further, the themes of conformity and the status quo are present. IT is a powerful dominant group that manipulates the planet of Camazotz into conformity. Even Charles Wallace falls prey and is hence persuaded to conform. It is thanks to Meg that she and her family are able to break from conformity.[20] According to the author's granddaughter Charlotte Jones Voiklis, the story was not a simple allegory of communism; in a three-page passage that was cut before publication, the process of domination and conformity is said to be an outcome of dictatorship under totalitarian regimes, and by an excessive desire of security under democratic countries.[21][22]

Scholar Jean Fulton writes, "L'Engle's fiction for young readers is considered important partly because she was among the first to focus directly on the deep, delicate issues that young people must face, such as death, social conformity, and truth. L'Engle's work always is uplifting because she is able to look at the surface values of life from a perspective of wholeness, both joy and pain, transcending each to uncover the absolute nature of human experience that they share."[10]

Conformity within Camazotz[edit]

Camazotz is a planet of extreme, enforced conformity, ruled by a disembodied brain called IT. Camazotz is similar to Earth, with familiar trees such as birches, pines, and maples, an ordinary hill on which the children arrive, and a town with smokestacks, which "might have been one of any number of familiar towns". The horror of the place arises from its ordinary appearance, endlessly duplicated. The houses are "all exactly alike, small square boxes painted gray," signaling a comparison to "the burgeoning American suburbia," such as the post-war housing developments of Levittown, Pennsylvania.[23] The people who live in the houses are similarly described as "mother figures" who "all gave the appearance of being the same". Camazotz has also been compared to "an early sixties American image of life in a Communist state", a characterization partially dismissed as too glib.[24]

Reception[edit]

At the time of the book's publication, Kirkus Reviews said, "Readers who relish symbolic reference may find this trip through time and space an exhilarating experience; the rest will be forced to ponder the double entendres."[25] In a retrospective essay about the Newbery Medal-winning books from 1956 to 1965, librarian Carolyn Horovitz wrote, "There is no question but that the book is good entertainment and that the writer carries the story along with a great deal of verve; there is some question about the depth of its quality."[26]

A Wrinkle in Time is on the American Library Association list of the 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000 at number 23.[27] Reasons given include the book's references to witches and crystal balls,[28] the claim that it opposes certain spiritual beliefs,[29] and the listing of Jesus alongside artists, philosophers, and scientists, suggesting a certain equality among the individuals.[30]

A 2004 study found that it was a common read-aloud book for sixth-graders in schools in San Diego County, California.[31] Based on a 2007 online poll, the National Education Association named the book one of its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children".[32] It was one of the "Top 100 Chapter Books" of all time in a 2012 poll by School Library Journal.[33]

In 2016, the novel saw a spike in sales after Chelsea Clinton mentioned it as influential in her childhood in a speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention.[34]

Adaptations[edit]

Audio books[edit]

In 1994, Listening Library released an unabridged, 4-cassette audio edition read by the author.[35]

On January 10, 2012, Audible released a 50th anniversary edition recorded by Hope Davis.[36]

Film adaptations[edit]

Play[edit]

An adaptation by James Sie premiered at the Lifeline Theatre in Chicago in 1990, and returned to the stage in 1998 and 2017.[40]

John Glore adapted the novel as a play that premiered in 2010. It was written for six actors playing 12 parts. One actor plays Mrs Whatsit, the Man with Red Eyes, and Camazotz Man. Dr. Kate Murry, Mrs Who, Camazotz Woman, and Aunt Beast also share one performer. The stage adaptation premiered in Costa Mesa, California, with productions in Bethesda, Maryland; Cincinnati; Philadelphia; Orlando; Portland, Oregon; and other cities.[41][42]

An adaptation by Tracy Young premiered at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival in April 2014, as well as at colleges and theaters around the U.S.[43]

Opera[edit]

In 1992, OperaDelaware (known for frequently adapting children's books) staged an opera based on A Wrinkle in Time written by Libby Larsen with a libretto by Walter Green. The review in Philly.com stated "The composer does not place arias and set pieces, but conversational ensembles with spoken dialogue that made the young daughter's climactic but concise song about familial love all the more imposing."[44][45]

Graphic novel[edit]

In 2010, Hope Larson announced that she was writing and illustrating the official graphic novel version of the book. This version was published by Farrar, Straus & Giroux in October 2012.[46][47]

Further reading[edit]

Other books in the series[edit]

L'Engle wrote four other books featuring this generation of the Murry family, collectively known as the Time Quintet.

  • A Wind in the Door (1973) ISBN 0-374-38443-6
  • A Swiftly Tilting Planet (1978) ISBN 0-374-37362-0
  • Many Waters (1986) ISBN 0-374-34796-4
  • An Acceptable Time (1989) ISBN 0-374-30027-5

Jean C. Fulton remarks that the books are not "intended to be read consecutively, these books, though integrated, are independent." Although Many Waters was published approximately eight years after A Swiftly Tilting Planet, it takes place several years earlier, when Sandy and Dennys are in high school and Meg is in college.

Four further novels have been published that feature Meg and Calvin's children, especially Polly O'Keefe. The most recent of these, An Acceptable Time, features Meg's parents, and is marketed with the four Murry books as part of the Time Quintet; Sandy Murry appears prominently in A House Like a Lotus, which features Polly O'Keefe. Nearly every novel by Madeleine L'Engle connects to the Murry-O'Keefe series either directly or indirectly with appearances by recurring characters. See also: List of L'Engle's works and Major characters in the works of Madeleine L'Engle for further detail.

Concerning A Wrinkle in Time[edit]

  • Scholastic BookFiles: A Reading Guide to A Wrinkle in Time ISBN 0-439-46364-5
  • Chase, Carole F. Suncatcher: A Study of Madeleine L'Engle and Her Writing, p. 170. Innisfree Press, 1998, ISBN 1-880913-31-3

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The biennial, international Hans Christian Andersen Award for children's writing was inaugurated in 1956, recognizing a single book published during the preceding two years. Since the first three renditions—that is, from 1962—it has recognized a living author for a lasting contribution, considering his or her complete works. Nevertheless, a "Runner-Up List" with single book titles was published from 1960 to 1964. [Pages 15–16. This source does not identify those runners-up or report their number.]
      Glistrup, Eva (2002). "Half a Century of the Hans Christian Andersen Awards". The Hans Christian Andersen Awards, 1956–2002. International Board on Books for Young People. Gyldendal. 2002. Pages 14–21. Hosted by Austrian Literature Online (literature.at). Retrieved 2013-07-22.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A wrinkle in time". LC Online Catalog. Library of Congress (lccn.loc.gov). Retrieved 2016-10-30.
  2. ^ a b L'Unji, Madeleine (2007). "Go Fish: Questions for the Author", A Wrinkle in Time. New York: Square fish. p. 236. ISBN 0-312-36754-6.
  3. ^ Chase, Carole F. (1998). Suncatcher: A Study of Madeleine L'Engle And Her Writing. Philadelphia: Innisfree Press, Inc. p. 170. ISBN 1-880913-31-3.
  4. ^ a b c Thomas. (2006). L'engle, Madeleine. In E. M. Dowling, & W. G. Scarlett (Eds.), Encyclopedia of religious and spiritual development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/sagersd/l_engle_madeleine/0?institutionId=702
  5. ^ a b Cullinan, B. E. (2005). L'engle, Madeleine. In B. E. Cullinan, & D. G. Person (Eds.), Continuum encyclopedia of children's literature. London, UK: Continuum. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/kidlit/l_engle_madeleine/0?institutionId=702
  6. ^ a b c d e Bailey, Sarah Pulliam. "Publishers rejected her, Christians attacked her: The deep faith of 'A Wrinkle in Time' author Madeleine L'Engle." Washington Post, 8 Mar. 2018. Biography In Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A530261696/BIC?u=wash43584&sid=BIC&xid=a8c7637d. Accessed 29 Nov. 2018.
  7. ^ L'Engle, Madeleine (1987). A Wrinkle in Time, 25th Anniversary Collectors' Edition (Limited ed.). ikNew York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. pp. viii–ix.
  8. ^ L'Engle, Madeleine. A Circle of Quiet. ISBN 0-374-12374-8.
  9. ^ a b L'Engle, Madeleine (1972). A Circle of Quiet. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. pp. 5–6, 21, 66, 217–218. ISBN 0-374-12374-8.
  10. ^ a b Fulton, Jean C. (2002). "A Wrinkle in Time". In Fiona Kelleghan. Classics of Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature. 2. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press. p. 596. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved December 26, 2012. Madeleine L'Engle's view of the universe was changed by the work of such well-known physicists as Albert Einstein and Max Planck. She expressed her new perspective in A Wrinkle in Time...
  11. ^ a b c L'Engle, Madeleine (2004). "A Special Message from Madeleine L'Engle". Teachers @ Random: A Wrinkle in Time. Random House, Inc. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  12. ^ "It's Time to Read A Wrinkle in Time". Square Fish Books. 2007. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  13. ^ Bulwer-Lytton, Edward (1830). Paul Clifford. United Kingdom: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley.
  14. ^ a b Humankind - Religion - Spirituality. (1988). In J. B. Simpson, Simpson's contemporary quotations. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/simpsons/humankind_religion_spirituality/0?institutionId=702
  15. ^ Chan, Sewell (November 30, 2008). "Repaired After Fire, Cathedral Reopens". The New York Times.
  16. ^ Hettinga, Donald (1998), "A Wrinkle in Faith: The unique spiritual pilgrimage of Madeleine L'Engle", Books & culture: a Christian review, Christianity today
  17. ^ a b Stott, Jon (Fall 1977). "Midsummer Night's Dreams: Fantasy and Self-Realization in Children's Fiction". The Lion and the Unicorn. 1 (2): 25–39. doi:10.1353/uni.0.0401.; cited in Hettinga, pp. 27, 30.
  18. ^ a b Hettinga, p. 26
  19. ^ Hettinga, p. 26
  20. ^ Fulton, Jean C (2002). "A Wrinkle in Time". In Kelleghan, Fiona. Classics of Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature. 2. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press. pp. 597–98. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved December 26, 2012. ...the importance of both individual initiative and family interaction is a thematic thread. L'Engle made both the Murry adults highly talented, both intellectually and scientifically. This was atypical of fiction published in the 1950s, when the book was written. Female characters rarely were featured as intellectuals or scientists. L'Engle has been praised for this departure as well as for her creation of strong female characters. Critics even suggested that in making Meg the protagonist in A Wrinkle in Time, L'Engle opened the door for the many female protagonists who have appeared in more recent fantasy and science fiction.
  21. ^ "A wrinkle in time excerpt". The Wall Street Journal.
  22. ^ Maloney, Jennifer (April 16, 2015). "A New 'Wrinkle in Time'". The Wall Street Journal.
  23. ^ Hettinga, Donald R. (1993). Presenting Madeleine L'Engle. New York: Twayne Publishers. p. 27. ISBN 0-8057-8222-2.
  24. ^ Blackburn, William (1985). "Madeleine L'Engle's A Wrinkle in Time: Seeking the Original Face". Touchstones: Reflections on the Best in Children's Literature. 1: 125.; cited in Hettinga, pp. 27.
  25. ^ "A WRINKLE IN TIME by Madeleine L'Engle". Kirkus Reviews. March 1, 1962. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
  26. ^ Horovitz, Carolyn (1965). "Only the Best". In Kingman, Lee. Newbery and Caldecott Medal Books: 1956-1965. Boston: The Horn Book, Incorporated. p. 159. LCCN 65-26759.
  27. ^ "The 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000". Banned Books Week. American Library Association. 2007. Archived from the original on April 4, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  28. ^ Matheson, Whitney (September 29, 2004). "Some of the best books in life are ... banned?". USA Today. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  29. ^ "Why Were These Books Banned?". Library – Faculty Services. Val A. Browning Library, Dixie State College of Utah. 2001. Archived from the original on March 15, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  30. ^ "A Wrinkle In Time". banned books project. Solonor.com. September 21, 2003. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  31. ^ Fisher, Douglas; et al. (2004). "Interactive Read-Alouds: Is There a Common Set of Implementation Practices?" (PDF). The Reading Teacher. 58 (1): 8–17. doi:10.1598/RT.58.1.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  32. ^ National Education Association (2007). "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  33. ^ Bird, Elizabeth (July 7, 2012). "Top 100 Chapter Book Poll Results". School Library Journal "A Fuse #8 Production" blog. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  34. ^ Brogan, Jacob (29 July 2016). "The Book Chelsea Clinton Touted as Her Childhood Favorite Is Now Outselling Trump's Art of the Deal". Slate. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  35. ^ L'Engle, Madeleine (1994). A Wrinkle in Time (Audiobook ed.). Listening Library. ISBN 0-8072-7587-5.
  36. ^ L'Engle, Madeleine. A Wrinkle in Time. Davis, Hope (Narrator) (Audible ed.). ASIN B006LPK3WS.
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External links[edit]

Awards
Preceded by
The Bronze Bow
Newbery Medal recipient
1963
Succeeded by
It's Like This, Cat