Boot-sole-like profile of Wunü Mountain
|Elevation||821 m (2,694 ft)|
|Easiest route||cable car|
Wunü Shan (Chinese: 五女山; pinyin: Wǔnǚ Shān; Korean: 오녀산 Ohnyeosan), which means mountain of Five Women, is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located in the north of the town of Huanren, in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, Liaoning Province, China. The tallest peak is the 821 metre-high Main Peak. Jolbon, the birthplace of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo and its capital from 37 BC to 3 AD, was in Wunü Mountain.
Wunü Shan has a long history of human living. Recent years some archaeologists found historical remains and relics on the mountain. The oldest ones that had been proven are the potteries of the late Neolithic Age, more than 4500 years ago. Those relics also include some human-used weapons and producing tools which have thousands of years of history. According to the Samguk Sagi, Goguryeo was founded above the mountain in 37 BC, and the mountain city remained its capital until King Yuri moved it to Gungnae Fortress in 3 AD. In contemporary sources, the city was called Holbon fortress(홀본성) in the Gwanggaeto Stele and Heulseunggol fortress(흘승골성) in Records of the Three Kingdoms. During the North-South States Period in Unified Shilla, it was recorded as Jolbon fortress(졸본성). During Goryeo period, according to Goryeosa, it was called Oros mountain fortress(오로산성) or Ura mountain fortress(우라산성).
Today's name of Wunü Mountain derives from a Chinese legend that five ladies from Tang Dynasty defended the mountain from foreign invaders.
Wunü Shan is located in the northeast of Huanren County and the northwest of the Hun Jiang River, 8 km from the county. Its main peak measures 821 metres above sea level, has a length of 1500 m from the north to the south side and a width of 300 m from the east to the west side. Its central coordinate is 41°19’36"N，125°24’44"E.
Wunü Shan is located in the north temperate zone so it has four distinct seasons. There are more than 60 natural tourist spots. In the spring and summer one will find flowers, trees, butterflies, and birds, and there are tourist ships that travel down the river. In the fall, the mountain turns red because of the famous Chinese sweet gums. In the winter, the mountain receives snow.
Wunü Shan has all the elements of a defensive city wall---temple, palace, barn, barracks, water source, and a city wall of more than 200 metres above sea level. Therefore, the Goguryeo kingdom could quarter at the mountain for extended periods in the cold weapon era.
- 1994 Awarded as the Most Protected Culture Relic
- 1999 One of the Top10 National Archaeological Discovery
- 2002 Rated as AAAA Class National Tourist Spot
- 2004 Nominated on the UNESCO World Heritage List