Wushantou Reservoir

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Wushantou Reservoir
烏山頭水庫
Coral Lake Tainan from airplane window.JPG
Wushantou Reservoir is located in Taiwan
Wushantou Reservoir
Location of Wushantou Reservoir
烏山頭水庫 in Taiwan
CountryTaiwan
LocationLiujia, Guantian Districts, Tainan
Coordinates23°12′20.5″N 120°23′24.88″E / 23.205694°N 120.3902444°E / 23.205694; 120.3902444Coordinates: 23°12′20.5″N 120°23′24.88″E / 23.205694°N 120.3902444°E / 23.205694; 120.3902444
StatusIn use
Construction began1920
Opening date1930
Dam and spillways
Type of damEmbankment Dam
ImpoundsGuantian Creek、Zengwun River (by tunnel)
Height56 m (184 ft)
Length1,273 m (4,177 ft)
SpillwaysGuantian Creek
Spillway typeGated overflow, service
Spillway capacity1,500 m3/s (53,000 cu ft/s)
Reservoir
CreatesWusanto Reservoir
Total capacity154,158,000 m3 (5.4440×109 cu ft)
Catchment area58 km2 (22 sq mi)
Surface area13 km2 (3,200 acres)
Power Station
Installed capacity50 MW
Annual generation438,000 KWh

Wushantou Reservoir (Chinese: 烏山頭水庫; pinyin: Wūshāntóu Shuǐkù), sometimes spelled Wushanto or Wusanto, is a reservoir and scenic area located in Lioujia District and Guantian District of Tainan, Taiwan. It is also referred to as Coral Lake (珊瑚潭; Shānhútán) due to its zigzagging shoreline. The reservoir was designed by engineer Yoichi Hatta and was the largest in Asia at the time of its completion in 1930.[1]

Overview[edit]

Construction of the Wusanto Reservoir began in 1920 and was completed in 1930. The goal of the project was to provide irrigation for over 100-thousand hectares of farmland in the Chianan area.[2] After construction of the reservoir, the irrigation plain became an important producer of rice for consumption in Taiwan and Japan, with three rice harvests possible each year.[3]

Engineering[edit]

The reservoir was built in conjunction with the Chianan Canal, also designed by Hatta.[2] At the time of its completion, Wusanto Reservoir was the largest reservoir in Asia and the third largest in the world.[1] Construction of the reservoir and of the Wusanto Dam used an uncommon semi-hydraulic fill technique, where fine-grained material is placed at the end of an embankment and then washed into its desired position using jets of water; this is a variant of the hydraulic fill technique.[4] Wusanto Reservoir is the only project constructed with the semi-hydraulic fill technique that is still in use anywhere in the world. This process was expensive and time-consuming, but produced a dam which has proven resistant to Taiwan's severe seismic activity.[3]

Scenic area[edit]

Today, the Wusanto Reservoir Scenic Area is a popular tourist destination in Tainan. The area includes a memorial and museum for Yoichi Hatta. Cherry blossom viewing is a popular event in spring. The area is also known for its abundant native flora and fauna.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yang, S.D. "Hatta, Yoichi". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Potential World Heritage Sites in Taiwan: Wushantou Reservoir and Jianan Irrigation Waterways". Bureau of Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  3. ^ a b Liu, Alexandra. "Country Travel, New Style". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  4. ^ Graham, Andrew. "World Wide Web Pages for Dam Design". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  5. ^ "Wusanto Reservoir Scenic Area (Coral Lake)". Retrieved 18 November 2013.