Wynkyn de Worde
Wynand "Wynkyn" de Worde / / (died c. 1534) was a printer and publisher in London known for his work with William Caxton, and is recognized as the first to popularize the products of the printing press in England.
As Wynkyn de Worde was a Dutch emigrant in England, there is some confusion in documentary sources as to the correct form of his name. While his name is given in the consistent forms Wynkyn de Worde, Wynken de Worde, Wynkyn de Word, Wijnkijn de Worde, and Winandus van Worden ("Wynkyn" is a nickname for "Wynand"), it is also given fifteen times (in the sacrist's roll of Westminster Abbey and in city records) as variants of "John Wynkyn", including John Wynkyn, Johannes Wynkyn, Jan Wynkyn, and Jan van Wynkyn. He is also seemingly recorded as Willelmo Wynkyn ("William Wynkyn") once and as Mr. Wylkyns eight times. His son Richard is recorded as both Richard Wynkyn and Rycharde de Worde.
Some authors have therefore concluded that his real name was John Wynkyn (or Wynand) and that "de Worde" was "merely a place name," while others have concluded that his real name was Wynkyn (or Wynand) de Worde and that "John" was an added name: "It is … possible that John Wynkyn was an Anglicized alias devised by de Worde himself for occasional use—though why, and for what occasions, remains obscure." Accordingly, some authors refer to him mononymously as "Wynkyn" and others as "de Worde".
Life and work
De Worde was born in either Woerden, the Netherlands, or Wœrth in Alsace; the name by which he is generally known means "Wynkyn of Woerden/Wœrth". Traditionally, he was believed to have accompanied Caxton to England in 1476; more recently, it has been argued that de Worde actually arrived c. 1481, and that Caxton brought him to England to counter the competition of a second printer. (John Lettou set up a press in London in 1480.) Sometime while in England, de Worde married his wife Elizabeth. De Worde improved the quality of Caxton's product; he was, in this view, "England's first typographer". In 1495, following Caxton's death in 1492 and a three-year litigation, de Worde took over Caxton's print shop.
De Worde is generally credited for moving English printing away from its late-medieval beginnings and toward a "modern" model of functioning. Caxton had depended on noble patrons to sustain his enterprise; while de Worde enjoyed the support of patrons too (principally Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII), he shifted his emphasis to the creation of relatively inexpensive books for a commercial audience and the beginnings of a mass market. Where Caxton had used paper imported from the Low Countries, de Worde exploited the product of John Tate, the first English papermaker. De Worde published more than 400 books in over 800 editions (though some are extant only in single copies and many others are extremely rare). His greatest success, in terms of volume, was the Latin grammar of Robert Whittington, which he issued in 155 editions. Religious works dominated his output, in keeping with the tenor of the time; but de Worde also printed volumes ranging from romantic novels to poetry (he published the work of John Skelton and Stephen Hawes), and from children's books to volumes on household practice and animal husbandry. He innovated in the use of illustrations: while only about 20 of Caxton's editions contained woodcuts, 500 of Wynkyn de Worde's editions were illustrated.
He moved his firm from Caxton's location in Westminster to London; he was the first printer to set up a site on Fleet Street (1500), which for centuries became synonymous with printing. He was also the first person to build a book stall in St. Paul's Churchyard, which soon became a centre of the book trade in London. The site of Wynkyn de Worde's press is marked by a plaque on the wall of the hall of the Worshipful Company of Stationers off Ludgate Hill and Ave Maria Lane, near St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
De Worde was the first to use italic type (1528) and Hebrew and Arabic characters (1524) in English books; and his 1495 version of Polychronicon by Ranulf Higdon was the first English work to use movable type to print music.
His name lives on via the Wynkyn de Worde Society, founded in the United Kingdom in 1957 for "people dedicated to excellence in all aspects of printing and the various stages of its creation, production, finishing and dissemination".
Books printed by Wynkyn de Worde include:
- Treatise of Love
- Vitae Sanctorum Patrum
- Bartholomaeus de Proprietatibus Rerum by John Trevisa
- The Chastising of God's Children
- Dives and Pauper
- The Book of Saint Albans
- The Canterbury Tales
- Contemplacyon of sinners by William Touris
- Mandeville's Travels
- Beves of Hamtoun
- Guy of Warwick
- The Squire of Low Degree
- Robin Hood
- The Miracles of Our Lady
- The Rote or mirror of Consolation
- The Twelve profits of tribulation
- The Bowge of Court by John Skelton
- The History of the Three Kings of Cologne
- The Ship of Fools
- Mundus et Infans (1522)
- Gesta Romanorum
- Christmasse Carolles
- Also spelt "Wynken".
- Blayney, Peter W. M. (2013). The Stationers' Company and the Printers of London, 1501–1557. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107512405.
- Stark, J. Mozley (1869). "An English Bible by Caxton?". Notes and Queries 4 (3): 218.
- E. Gordon, Duff (1900). "Worde, Wynkyn de". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder, & Co.
- Crépin, André; Buschinger, Danielle & Spiewok, Wolfgang (1993). Études de linguistique et de littérature en l'honneur d'André Crépin. Reineke Verlag. p. 26. ISBN 9783894920029.
- Plomer, Henry Robert (1977). Wynkyn de Worde and His Contemporaries from the Death of Caxton to 1535: A Chapter in English Printing. Folcroft Library Editions. p. 43. Plomer writes, "It is a mistake to suppose that … his Christian name was Jan or John."
- Hutmacher, William F. (1978). Wynkyn de Worde and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Rodopi. pp. 7–8; 13. ISBN 90-6203-502-7.
- Hellinga, Lotte (1995). "Wynkyn de Worde's Native Land". In Richard Beadle. New Science Out of Old Books. pp. 342–359. ISBN 9781859280034.
- "Biography of John Lettou, bookbinder and printer". Oxforddnb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-23. (subscription required (. ))
- Haley, Allan (1992). Typographic Milestones. John Wiley & Sons. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-471-28894-7.
- Gillespie, Vincent; Powell, Susan (2014). A Companion to the Early Printed Book in Britain, 1476–1558. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-1-84384-363-4.
- Loewenstein, David; Mueller, Janel, eds. (1999). The Cambridge History of Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp. 86–88. ISBN 0-521-63156-4.
- "About the Society". The Wynkyn de Worde Society. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
- Douglass, Sara (10 January 2005). The Nameless Day: Book One of 'The Crucible'. Tom Doherty Associates. p. 538. ISBN 978-0-7653-4282-9.
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