X-Plane (simulator)

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X-Plane 11 logo.svg
Logo of the latest version
Genres Amateur flight simulation
Developer(s) Laminar Research
Austin Meyer
Publisher(s) Laminar Research
Platforms Android
Latest release X-Plane 11.25
July 2018

X-Plane is a flight simulator produced by Laminar Research. A desktop version is available for macOS, Windows, and Linux, while a mobile version is available for Android, iOS, and webOS.[1] X-Plane is packaged with several commercial, military, and other aircraft, as well as basic global scenery which covers most of the Earth. X-Plane also ships with other software to build and customize aircraft and scenery. X-Plane also has a plugin architecture that allows users to create their own modules, extending the functionality of the software by letting users create their own worlds or replicas of places on Earth. This is further enhanced by the Scenery Gateway which allows user to share airports with other users and eventually the airports are included by default in the base product.

On November 25, 2016 Laminar Research released the first public beta of X-Plane 11 to the general public.[2][3] A second public beta was released on December 6, 2016 which fixed some major bugs.[4] The official full release of X-Plane 11 was released on March 30, 2017.

Flight model[edit]

Screenshot of X-Plane 10.2: King Air at Idaho County Airport

X-Plane differentiates itself from other simulators by implementing an aerodynamic model called blade element theory.[5] Traditionally, flight simulators emulate the real-world performance of an aircraft by using empirical data in predefined lookup tables to determine aerodynamic forces such as lift or drag, which vary with differing flight conditions. These simulators sufficiently simulate the flight characteristics of the aircraft, specifically those with known aerodynamic data, but are not useful in design work, and do not predict the performance of aircraft when the actual figures are not available.

Blade element theory improves on this type of simulation by modeling the forces and moments on an aircraft and individually evaluating the parts that constitute it. Blade-element theory and other computational aerodynamic models are often used to compute aerodynamic forces in real time or pre-compute aerodynamic forces of a new design for use in a simulator employing lookup tables.

With blade element theory, a surface (e.g. wing) may be made up of many sections (1 to 4 is typical), and each section is further divided into as many as 10 separate subsections. After that, the lift and drag of each section are calculated, and the resulting effect is applied to the whole aircraft. When this process is applied to each component, the simulated aircraft will fly similar to its real-life counterpart. This approach allows users to design aircraft quickly and easily, as the simulator engine immediately illustrates how an aircraft with a given design might perform in the real world. X-Plane can model fairly complex aircraft designs, including helicopters, rockets, rotorcraft, and tilt-rotor craft.


Users are encouraged to design their own aircraft, and design software titled Plane Maker and Airfoil Maker are included with the program. This has created an active community of users who use the simulator for a variety of purposes. Since designing an aircraft is relatively simple and the flight model can help predict performance of real-world aircraft, several aircraft companies use X-Plane in their design process.[6] The CarterCopter uses X-Plane for flight training and research. X-Plane also contributed to the design of the Atlantica blended wing body aircraft.

Through the plugin interface, users can create external modules that extend the X-Plane interface, flight model or create new features. One such feature is the XSquawkBox plugin, which allows X-Plane users to fly on a worldwide shared air traffic control simulation network. Other work has been done in the area of improving X-Plane's flight model and even replacing entire facets of X-Plane's operation.

Maps and scenery are fully editable. While no tool is provided to edit the 3D mesh objects, there are tutorials for using the third party 3D modelers AC3D, SketchUp, Blender, and Autodesk 3ds Max[7]

Network flight[edit]

X-Plane can connect to other X-Plane instances via a UDP/IP or TCP/IP network[8][9] for multiplayer flight simulation, networked multi-monitor X-Plane configurations or to plugins, such as Pilot Edge,[10] which themselves communicate with other X-Plane instances.[11][12][13]

The X-Plane IOS (Instructor Operation Station) can be used remotely (via the Internet) or locally (via a computer connected to the X-Plane session by a LAN) as part of a flight training session allowing a flight instructor to alter and control the aircraft in various ways. It can be used to simulate various aircraft system failures and also to change the weather, time, or location.


Multiple utilities are shipped with X-Plane 10/11 by Laminar Research for users to customize various aspects of the simulation.

World Editor is an overlay editor with a graphic user interface to facilitate editing of airports. With the most recent update, this utility global resources to allow users to submit data to be included in X-Plane by default with each update. The primary purpose of this tool is to modify and correct airport layouts. World Editor also can read the geographical coordinates in GeoTIFF files. In version 1.3r1, a new feature was added to allow users to submit airports using default assets to an Airport Scenery Gateway.[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Meet X-Plane Mobile - X-Plane". Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  2. ^ "X-Plane 11.00b1 now available". X-Plane. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  3. ^ X-Plane [@XPlaneOfficial] (8 October 2016). "X-Plane 11 is coming this November! Check out for more details!" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  4. ^ "Some Bugs We're Working on for Public Beta 2". X-Plane Developer. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  5. ^ "How X-Plane Works - X-Plane". Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  6. ^ "Apple - Games - Articles - X-Plane". Retrieved 2014-11-19. 
  7. ^ "X-Plane 8 Scenery Tutorials". Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  8. ^ "Background info". Nuclear Projects. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  9. ^ "X-Plane Reference". Nuclear Projects. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  10. ^ "How it works". Pilotedge. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  11. ^ "X-Plane Manual" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  12. ^ "Useful downloads". Archived from the original on 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  13. ^ "X-Plane 10 Desktop Manual". Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  14. ^ "The Gateway Lives - X-Plane Developer". developer.x-plane.com. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 

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