X-Press Pearl

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Cargo ship at sea with brownish fumes coming from a container amidships
20 May 2021, showing fumes from leaking nitric acid
History
Singapore
NameX-Press Pearl
OwnerEOS RO Pte Ltd[1]
OperatorX-Press Feeders
Port of registrySingapore
BuilderZhoushan Changhong International Shipyard
Yard numberCHB084
Launched28 September 2020
Completed10 February 2021
Out of service27 May 2021
Identification
FateSank off the coast of Colombo, Sri Lanka after a fire erupted 12 days earlier
General characteristics
Class and typeSuper Eco 2700
TypeContainer ship
Tonnage
Displacement48,848 Tonnes[1]
Length186.0 m (610 ft 3 in)[1]
Beam34.8 m (114 ft 2 in)[1]
Depth17.9 m (58 ft 9 in)[1]
Capacity2,756 TEUs
Crew26

X-Press Pearl was a Singapore-registered Super Eco 2700–class container ship. The vessel entered service in February 2021 and was around 186 metres (610 ft) long.[2] It was operated by X-Press Feeders.

On 20 May 2021, X-Press Pearl caught fire off the coast of Colombo, Sri Lanka.[3] The vessel was engulfed in flames by 27 May and declared a total loss. It was still afloat, and the fire was thought to be under control by Sri Lankan firefighters by the late hours of 27 May 2021.[4] After burning for 12 days, the vessel sank on 2 June as it was being towed away to deeper waters.[5][6] The incident was deemed the worst marine ecological disaster in Sri Lankan history[7][8] for the chemical products that spilled.[9]

According to X-Press Feeders,[10] salvage operations to remove the wreck began in November 2021. All work on site is expected to be completed by April 2023. Salvage work will be interrupted during the southwest monsoon from late April to November 2022.

Construction and operational history[edit]

X-Press Pearl was built by Zhoushan Changhong International Shipyard Co. Ltd at Zhoushan, China for Singapore-based X-Press Feeders, along with its sister ship X-Press Mekong.[11][12] The 37,000-deadweight tonne (DWT) container vessel could carry 2,743 twenty-foot equivalent units. The ship was launched on 28 September 2020 and delivered on 10 February 2021.[13][14]

The vessel was deployed on the Straits to Middle East (SMX) service of X-Press Feeders, from Port Klang (Malaysia) via Singapore and Jebel Ali (Dubai, UAE) to Hamad Port (Qatar). The return voyage to Malaysia was via Hazira (India) and Colombo (Sri Lanka). The vessel had made three voyages, calling at Colombo on 17 March and 18 April, and caught fire shortly after arriving for its third call at the port on 19 May.[15]

Fire[edit]

X-Press Pearl carried 1,486 containers, with contents including 25 tons of nitric acid (which can be used in the manufacture of fertilisers and explosives), other chemicals, cosmetics and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pellets, when it departed the port of Hazira on 15 May 2021, arriving off Colombo on 19 May.[16][17] By 11 May the crew had discovered that a container loaded at Jebel Ali was leaking nitric acid, and had requested both Hamad and Hazira ports to allow it to be offloaded, but permission was not granted.[18] According to X-Press Feeders, the requests were denied as "there were no specialist facilities or expertise immediately available to deal with the leaking acid", and the vessel proceeded on its planned journey to Colombo.[19]

The ship reached Colombo on the night of 19 May and was anchored in the outer harbor awaiting a berth. The ship did not declare an emergency for the cargo acid leak. On 20 May the ship's agents requested a re-working of the container. Harbour Master Nirmal de Silva said as a maritime hub, Colombo had the expertise to help. The vessel then issued its first report of a fire, which the crew had put out using its on-board system.[20]

It was reported that the ship caught fire on 20 May, 9.5 nautical miles (17.6 km; 10.9 mi) northwest of the Colombo Port.[21] The Sri Lanka Navy, along with the Sri Lanka Ports Authority, which boarded the ship in order to find out the cause of fire, suspected that the fire might have started as a result of the reaction of chemicals being transported on the ship.[22] During the fire incident, the vessel had a crew of 25 members on board.[23]

Though initial reports linked the incident to leaking acid, Harbor Master De Silva said the fire had broken out in the number 2 hold of X-Press Pearl while the container was stacked on deck. A fuller investigation was needed to determine the cause, he said.[20]

On 25 May, a large explosion took place inside the vessel and all 25 crew members were evacuated safely from the vessel.[24][25] Two Indian crew members who sustained injuries during the explosion were admitted to the Colombo's National Hospital of Sri Lanka.[26][27]

The fire continued to blaze during 25 May, and by late afternoon containers were dropping off the vessel into the sea. The Sri Lanka Maritime Environmental Protection Authority (MEPA) declared a Tier II oil spill event from on-board bunkers as the blaze got worse.[28] India dispatched firefighting and pollution control Coast Guard vessels, a tug and a Dornier maritime reconnaissance aircraft to help containment measures, and fishermen were asked to stay clear of the ship.[29][30]

Chairperson of MEPA Dharshani Lahandapura said on 26 May that 378 tonnes of oil were on board the vessel and about half could leak into the sea after the fire ended. Bad weather prevented the deployment of oil-containment booms around the ship, but authorities were ready to clean up any oil that reached the shore.[31] By morning, burnt debris and some fallen cargo were washing up on Sri Lanka's Negombo coast.[32] On 29 May, X-Press Pearl was still smouldering and belching smoke, though flames were down. Hull integrity was still intact. Firefighting tugs continued to pour water on the ship. The Sri Lanka Air Force dropped dry chemical powder. The Indian Coast Guard vessel ICG Samudra Prahari, a pollution control ship, joined the task force.[33] By the morning of 30 May, the fire was mostly out and water was still being sprayed. X-Press Feeders said salvors were looking at boarding the vessel to set up a tow connection.[15] Salvors boarded the vessel on 1 June for the first inspection.[34] Salvors found the engine room flooded and smoke still coming out from cargo hold 1, 2 and 3 intermittently.[35]

Rescue operations[edit]

On 21 May 2021, Sri Lankan Navy deployed two offshore patrol vessels, naval ships such as Sagara and Sindurala along with an aircraft in firefighting rescue operations which went in full swing despite inclement weather conditions surrounding the area.[36] It was revealed that the fire had been brought under control on 21 May and the cooling efforts were continued to prevent the fire from flaring up.[37][38] On 22 May, the Sri Lanka Air Force deployed a Bell 212 helicopter in the rescue operations.[39][40] Out of the 25 evacuated crew, two were in the hospital.[41] On May 25, India dispatched ICG Vaibhav, ICG Dornier and Tug Water Lilly to help the Sri Lankan Navy extinguish the fire. India's specialised pollution response vessel Samudra Prahari reached there on May 29. India had named the rescue efforts Operation Sagar Araksha 2.[42]

On 2 June 2021, X-Press Feeders issued a statement saying the company "regret[s] to report that despite salvors successfully boarding the vessel and attaching a tow wire, efforts to move the ship to deeper waters have failed".[43]

The ship remains in 21 metres (69 ft) deep water. Most of it is submerged, and the site is continuously monitored by a dedicated ship.[44]

Environmental damage[edit]

Sri Lanka's Marine Environmental Protection Authority (MEPA) said it was assessing the environmental damage and collecting evidence. Plans were made to submit an interim claim.[45] Plastic resin pellet pollution from spilled cargo was washing up on Sri Lanka's beaches from 27 May. LDPE pellets have also been washed onto nearby land.[46] According to MEPA, there were three containers of plastic pellets on board the ship, each weighing 26,000 kilograms (57,000 lb).[47][48]

NPR's Laurel Wamsley described the incident as an environmental disaster in June 2021.[43]

Health experts and MEPA also warned that there are possibilities for mild acid rains in Sri Lanka due to the emission of nitrogen dioxide.[49] Sri Lanka authorities banned coastal fishing from Kalutara to Negombo, over contamination fears. About 5,600 one-day boats were unable to venture out and the government promised compensation.[50] People were also urged by MEPA to not touch any debris of the container ship which is contaminated with toxic substances.[51][52]

A police complaint was made to investigate negligence. It was also assembling an expert panel to assess longer-term environmental damage. Dead fish and turtles continued to wash up on Sri Lanka's beaches and are being examined to determine if their deaths were caused by the spill.[15] Out of the 1,486 containers, 81 of those were regarded as toxic harmful dangerous containers inclusive of 5 tons of nitric acid.[53]

In June 2021, it was reported that the container ship had sunk, which would trigger adverse effects to the marine species.[54] On 2 June, salvors set up a line towing X-Press Pearl away from the coast when the stern hit bottom forcing them to abort the operation. Sri Lanka Navy Captain Indika de Silva said it was not clear whether there was any un-burnt bunker oil left on the vessel but authorities were on the watch for an oil spill.[55]

Sri Lanka has ordered salvors to remove bunker oil, if any had survived the blaze, and take containment measures. X-Press Feeders said it had hired Oil Spill Response Limited to support the effort. The operators had engaged SMIT Salvage when the crisis first started. By 3 June, the vessel was still partially afloat, with the aft section resting on the bottom 21 metres (69 ft) below.[56][57]

Chief Executive of X-Press Feeders Shmuel Yoskovitz apologized to the people of Sri Lanka for the incident. "I'd like to express my deep regrets and apologies to the Sri Lankan people for the harm this incident has caused to the livelihood and to the environment of Sri Lanka," he was quoted as saying in an interview with Singapore's Channel News Asia.[58] Authorities in Sri Lanka continued to collect debris and plastic pellets in what was described as the biggest ever nurdle hunt in the country. About 34 containers had been filled with debris from X-Press Pearl including nurdles.[59] Authorities had collected 1,075 tonnes of debris, including sand, which were stored in containers by June 08.[60]

As of 15 June 2021, about 40 dead turtles were reported to have been washed up the shore.[61][62] In addition to turtles, many species of fish, whales, and at least six dolphins also washed up with multiple burn markings; aquatic species are also seriously affected by dispersal of the plastic pellets.[63][64][65]

Investigations[edit]

Investigations into the fire on board the container ship were initiated on 30 May.[66] C. D. Wickramaratne, Inspector General of Police, instructed the police to hand over the investigations to Sri Lanka's Criminal Investigation Department,[67] with authorities warning of possible legal action against X-Press Feeders, the vessel's owners.[68] On 31 May, a police spokesman revealed that a ten-member police special team had begun to record statements from the captain and chief engineer of X-Press Pearl.[69][70] Sri Lanka Police questioned the chief officer of X-Press Pearl over two days on the vessel's container stowage plan. The ship was carrying multiple classes of dangerous goods including sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) in holds as well as at least one container of nitric acid which was leaking on deck. The voyage data recorder (VDR) or black box, was also recovered.[71][72] On 16 June 2021, the chairman of local shipping agency, Arjuna Hettiarachchi representing X-Press Pearl ship who was identified as the main suspect regarding the incident was granted bail by the Colombo High Court.[73][74]

On 31 October, OpenFacto, the French Collective for open source research, published an investigation[75] tracking the nitric acid container to Iran where it was allegedly sold by a broker company called ChemiPakhsh Paykan and produced[76] by Esfahan Chemical Industries, a sanctioned[77] affiliate of the Iranian Ministry of Defence.

Economic impact[edit]

Local fisherman in Sri Lanka have been ordered to stay ashore because of the pollution; it may affect local economies. Denzil Fernando, a regional fishing union chief, stated that the fishing ban will affect 4,300 families.[9] Rob Hawes, head of marine at loss adjuster Crawford & Co. estimated that the cargo loss of the X-Press Pearl could range between $30 million and $50 million in addition to the loss of the vessel.[78]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "X-Press Pearl (21284154)". ABS Record. American Bureau of Shipping. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  2. ^ "X Press Pearl". www.marinetraffic.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  3. ^ "Sri Lanka faces environmental disaster as cargo ship burns for days – video". The Guardian. 31 May 2021. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  4. ^ "Singapore flagged X-Press Pearl under watch off Sri Lanka after fire". EconomyNext. 21 May 2021. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Disaster feared as fire-hit cargo ship sinks off Sri Lanka coast". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  6. ^ "Chemical cargo ship sinks in one of Sri Lanka's worst-ever marine disasters". France 24. 2 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  7. ^ ""Worst Marine Ecological Disaster": Sri Lanka On Cargo Ship Fire". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Sri Lanka faces disaster as burning ship spills chemicals on beaches". the Guardian. 31 May 2021. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  9. ^ a b "X-Press Pearl: Sri Lanka braces for environmental disaster from sunken ship". BBC News. 3 June 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  10. ^ X-Press Pearl Incident Information Centre, X-Press Feeders. Update, 4th February 2022. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  11. ^ "Ship Details – IMO No.: 9875355". new-ships.com. New Ships Orderbook. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  12. ^ "Ship Details – IMO No.: 9875343". new-ships.com. New Ships Orderbook. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  13. ^ "X-Press Pearl (9875343)". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  14. ^ "The X-PRESS PEARL (2,743 TEU) is delivered". germanlashing.de. German Lashing Robert Böck GmbH. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  15. ^ a b c "X-Press Pearl salvors mull boarding as Sri Lanka eyes pollution claim". EconomyNext. 31 May 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  16. ^ Pal, Alasdair (2 June 2021). "Chemical cargo ship sinks off Sri Lanka, fouling rich fishing waters". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  17. ^ Mohan, Sulochana Ramiah (29 May 2021). "X-Press Pearl operators, Captain, local agent under probe". Ceylon Today. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  18. ^ "Sri Lanka: Chemical-filled X-Press Pearl ship threatens marine life and beaches". BBC.
  19. ^ "X-Press Pearl entered Hazira and Hamad ports before reaching Sri Lanka: owners". EconomyNext. 27 May 2021. Archived from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  20. ^ a b "X-Press Pearl fire origin is still a mystery, Sri Lanka official says". EconomyNext. 28 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  21. ^ "Container fire erupts onboard X-Press Feeders vessel in Colombo". Seatrade Maritime. 21 May 2021. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  22. ^ "Firefighters in Sri Lanka battle container blaze on X-Press Pearl". The Loadstar. 21 May 2021. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  23. ^ "Navy assists dousing of fire in vessel carrying chemicals anchored off Colombo". Daily News. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  24. ^ "Explosion aboard MV X-PRESS PEARL; crew evacuated". Sri Lanka News – Newsfirst. 25 May 2021. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  25. ^ "Explosion reported in 'X-Press Pearl' ship, crew members rescued". Daily News. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  26. ^ "X-PRESS PEARL: 02 Indian crew members admitted to Hospital". Sri Lanka News – Newsfirst. 25 May 2021. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  27. ^ "Crew evacuated after explosion on container ship off Colombo". Al Jazeera Media Network. 25 May 2021. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  28. ^ Hamza, Mahadiya (25 March 2021). "Blazing X-press Pearl off Sri Lanka triggers Tier II oil spill warning". EconomNext.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  29. ^ "India sends ships, aircraft to help Sri Lanka control oil spill, X-press Pearl blaze". EconomyNext.com. 25 May 2021. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  30. ^ "Sri Lanka fishermen warned off X-Pres Pearl fire zone amid oil spill fears: Minister". EconomyNext.com. 25 May 2021. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  31. ^ "Sri Lanka prepares for oil spill as burning X-Press Pearl spews cargo and charred debris". EconomyNext.com. 26 May 2021. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  32. ^ "Sri Lanka's Western coast contaminated with debris from burning ship". Newsfirst.com. 26 May 2021. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  33. ^ "X-Press Pearl still smouldering off Sri Lanka, fire fighting continues". EconomyNext. 29 May 2021. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  34. ^ "Salvors board X-Press Pearl off Sri Lanka after putting out fire". EconomyNext. 1 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  35. ^ "X-Press Pear sinking off Sri Lanka while being towed". EconomyNext.com. 2 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  36. ^ "'X-PRESS PEARL' fire continues; SLN & SLPA engaged in containment efforts". Sri Lanka News – Newsfirst. 22 May 2021. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  37. ^ "Fire aboard MV X-Press Pearl contained, cooling efforts continue | Daily FT". www.ft.lk. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  38. ^ "'MV X-Press Pearl' container ship fire, controlled". Hiru News. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  39. ^ "X-PRESS PEARL: Air Force join efforts to douse the fire (Photos)". Hiru News. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  40. ^ "(PICTURES) Sri Lanka Air Force deploys Bell 212 to assist to douse fire aboard 'X-Press Pearl'". Sri Lanka News – Newsfirst. 22 May 2021. Archived from the original on 22 May 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  41. ^ "Indian crew member rescued from blazing ship tests positive for COVID-19". Newsfirst.com. 26 May 2021. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  42. ^ "Sri Lankan authorities using all resources to stop oil spill from gutted cargo ship". PTI. 4 June 2021.
  43. ^ a b "Sri Lanka Faces An Environmental Disaster As A Ship Full Of Chemicals Starts Sinking". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  44. ^ "Oil, acid, plastic: Inside the shipping disaster gripping Sri Lanka". UN Environment. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  45. ^ "X-Press Pearl fire: MEPA to seek compensation". No. 28 May 2021. Newsradio.lk. 28 May 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  46. ^ "Authorities scramble to clear debris from troubled MV X-Press Pearl | Daily FT". Ft.lk. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  47. ^ "Sri Lanka battles waves of plastic waste from burning ship". Yahoo.com. AFP. 28 May 2021.
  48. ^ "Sri Lanka braces for 'almost inevitable' oil spill as ship sinks". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera. 2 June 2021.
  49. ^ "Burning cargo vessel could result in slight acid rains in Sri Lanka: Authorities". The Hindu. PTI. 29 May 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  50. ^ "Si Lanka halts coastal fishing over X-Press Pearl pollution hitting 5,600 boats". EconomyNext. 28 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  51. ^ "Do not touch 'toxic' debris from 'X-Press Pearl' – MEPA". www.adaderana.lk. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  52. ^ "Sri Lanka : Central Environmental Authority issues guidelines for removal of debris from MV X-Press Pearl". www.colombopage.com. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  53. ^ "Sri Lanka Faces An Environmental Disaster As A Ship Full Of Chemicals Starts Sinking". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  54. ^ "Fears of environmental disaster as oil-laden ship sinks off Sri Lanka". BBC News. 2 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  55. ^ "X-Press Pearl stern hits bottom aborting tow, Sri Lanka renews oil spill watch". EconomyNext.com. 2 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  56. ^ "Sri Lanka directs X-Press Pearl salvors to take oil out of gutted ship – if any remains". EconomyNext.com. 3 June 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  57. ^ "MEPA ready to face any oil spill from X-PRESS PEARL". Newsfirst.lk. 3 June 2021. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  58. ^ "CEO of vessel operator apologises for impact of sunken container ship off Sri Lanka coast". channelnewsasia.com. 3 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  59. ^ "Sri Lanka in biggest ever nurdle hunt after X-Press Pearl spill, volunteer hunters arrested". EconomyNext.com. 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  60. ^ "Sri Lanka scrapes 1,075 tonnes of X-Press Pearl waste off shores". EconomynNext. 9 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  61. ^ "X-Press Pearl: Sri Lanka forms expert groups for environmental, economic costs". EconomyNext.com. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  62. ^ "Dead sea turtles continue to wash up on SL shores; Authorities plan to seek maximum compensation". Newsfirst.lk. 7 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  63. ^ "Dead Sea Turtles Continue To Wash Up On Sri Lankan Shores". newsfirst. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  64. ^ "Dead whales, turtles & dolphins wash up on SL shores; Activists warn numbers could rise". newsfirst. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  65. ^ "Nurdles: the worst toxic waste you've probably never heard of". the Guardian. 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  66. ^ "Sri Lanka launches probe after burning ship pollutes beaches". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  67. ^ bugsbunny (31 May 2021). "Criminal investigation underway over fire on X-Press Pearl". Colombo Gazette. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  68. ^ Palenda, Slawomir (31 May 2021). "Sri Lanka readies to sue owners of the fire-struck X-Press Pearl". Splash247. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  69. ^ "Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka CID to record statements from captain and chief engineer of MV X-Press Pearl today". www.colombopage.com. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  70. ^ "X-Press Pearl salvors mull boarding as Sri Lanka eyes pollution claim". EconomyNext. 31 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  71. ^ "Sri Lanka recovers X-Press Pearl black box, chief officer questioned on stowage plan". EconomyNext.com. 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  72. ^ "Black box recovered from fire-stricken ship sinking off Sri Lanka". aljazeera.com. 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  73. ^ "MV X-Press Pearl local agent granted bail by High Court | Daily FT". www.ft.lk. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  74. ^ "Chairman of X-Press Pearl's local agency granted bail". www.adaderana.lk. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  75. ^ OpenFacto. "Pourquoi la Prolifération est mauvaise pour les tortues | OpenFacto" (in French). Retrieved 31 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  76. ^ "Nitric Acid Cargo on X-Press Pearl Came from Iran". CeylonToday. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  77. ^ Canada, Global Affairs (19 October 2015). "Consolidated Canadian Autonomous Sanctions List". GAC. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  78. ^ "X-Press Pearl loss will add to insurers' container ship headaches". S&P Global. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.