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X-bracing is a structural engineering practice where the lateral load on a building is reduced by transferring the load into the exterior columns.
Some skyscrapers by engineer Fazlur Khan, such as the 1969 John Hancock Center, have a distinctive X-bracing exterior, allowing for both higher performance from tall structures and the ability to open up the inside floorplan (and usable floor space) if the architect desires.
- Semsch, Otto Francis (1908). A History of the Singer Building Construction: Its Progress from Foundation to Flag Pole. Trow Press.
- Ali Mir (2001), Art of the Skyscraper: the Genius of Fazlur Khan, Rizzoli International Publications, ISBN 0-8478-2370-9
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