X/1106 C1

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X/1106 C1, also known as the Great Comet of 1106, was a great comet that appeared on 2 February 1106, and was observed across the world from the beginning of February through to mid-March. It was recorded by astronomers in Wales, England, Japan, Korea, China and Continental Europe. It was observed to split into many pieces,[1] forming the Great Comet of 1882 and Comet Ikeya–Seki as well as over 4000 small sungrazing comets observed by the SOHO space telescope.[2][3] It is a member of the Kreutz Group, known as Subfragment I, a split from an earlier large (~150 km) comet that progressively fragmented under the influence of the Sun.[citation needed][4]

Observations[edit]

Britain[edit]

A brief note in the Welsh manuscript known as the Brut y Tywysogion reads:

[-1106]. Yn y vlwydyn honno y gwelat seren anryued y gwelet yn anuon paladyr oheuni yn ol y chefyn ac o prafter colofyn y veint a diruawr oleuat idaw, yn darogan yr hyn a vei rac llaw: kanys Henri, amherawdyr Rufein, gwedy diruawryon vudugolyaetheu a chrefudussaf vched y Grist a orffowyssawd. A'e vab ynteu, wedy cael eistedua amherodraeth Rufein, a wnaethpwyt yn amherawdyr.

This translates into English as:

[-1106]. In that year there was seen a star wonderful to behold, throwing out behind it a beam of light of the thickness of a pillar in size and of exceeding brightness, foreboding what would come to pass in the future: for Henry, emperor of Rome, after mighty victories and a most pious life in Christ, went to his rest. And his son, after winning the seat of the empire of Rome, was made emperor.[5]

The 1106 annal of the Peterborough Chronicle describes the comet. The Dorothy Whitlock translation reads:

In the first week of Lent, on the Friday, 16 February, in the evening, there appeared an unusual star, and for a long time after that it was seen shining a while every evening. This star appeared in the south-west; it seemed small and dark. The ray that shone from it, however, was very bright, and seemed to be like an immense beam shining north-east; and one evening it appeared as if this beam were forking into many rays toward the star from an opposite direction.

Japan[edit]

The most impressive observations of the comet come from the Japanese chronicle Dainihonshi. The chronicle reported that on 7 February 1106 AD the gigantic comet appeared in the southwest and stretched across a massive portion of the sky towards the east. The brilliant comet was described as white and with a tail stretching 100 degrees across the entire sky. [6]

China[edit]

An excerpt from a Chinese manuscript describes the following report of a comet in 1106, mentioning the comet's breakup after perihelion, dated February 10:

In the reign of Hwuy Tsung, the 5th year of the epoch of Tsung Ning, the 1st moon [February], day Woo Seuh (Feb. 10th), a comet appeared in the west. It was like a great Pei Kow. The luminous envelope was scattered. It appeared like a broken-up star. It was 60 [degrees] in length and was 3 [degrees] in breadth. Its direction was to the north-east. It passed S.D. Kwei (southern Andromeda/northern Pisces). It passed S.D. Lew (Southern Aries), Wei (Pegasus), Maou, and Peih (Taurus). It then entered into the clouds and was no more seen.[1]

Vietnam[edit]

The Vietnamese Annals Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư also recorded the comet event:

"Bính Tuất, năm thứ 6 mùa xuân, tháng giêng, sao chổi mọc ở phương Tây đuôi dài khắp nơi."
(At year Binh Tuat (Fire Dog), in spring January, there is a comet in the West with long radiant tail)

Others[edit]

Resources[edit]

  • Thomas Jones, Brut y Tywysogion, or, the Chronicle of the Princes: Red Book of Hergest version, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1955.
  • Comet X/1106 C1: Publication der Sternwarte in Kiel, No. 6, pp. 1–66, and AN 238 (1930 Jun 5), pp. 403–4

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Williams, John (1871). Observations of Comets: From 611 B.C. to A.D.1640 : Extracted from the Chinese annals. Royal Astronomical Society. Science and Technology. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  2. ^ Matthew M. Knight; et al. (2010). "Photometric Study of the Kreutz Comets Observed by SOHO from 1996 to 2005". The Astronomical Journal. 139 (3): 926. Bibcode:2010AJ....139..926K. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/139/3/926.
  3. ^ Frazier, Sarah (16 June 2020). "4,000th Comet Discovered by ESA & NASA Solar Observatory". NASA. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  4. ^ "X/1106 C1".
  5. ^ Jones, Bryn. "A History of Astronomy in Wales". Retrieved 25 September 2019. The source of these quotes is the edited version of the Chronicles by Thomas Jones, Brut y Tywysogyon, or, the Chronicle of the Princes: Red Book of Hergest version, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1955
  6. ^ https://cometography.com/lcomets/1106c1.html

Sources[edit]