List of concurrent and parallel programming languages

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This article lists concurrent and parallel programming languages, categorizing them by a defining paradigm. Concurrent and parallel programming languages involve multiple timelines. Such languages provide synchronization constructs whose behavior is defined by a parallel execution model. A concurrent programming language is defined as one which uses the concept of simultaneously executing processes or threads of execution as a means of structuring a program. A parallel language is able to express programs that are executable on more than one processor. Both types are listed, as concurrency is a useful tool in expressing parallelism, but it is not necessary. In both cases, the features must be part of the language syntax and not an extension such as a library (libraries such as the posix-thread library implement a parallel execution model but lack the syntax and grammar required to be a programming language).

The following categories aim to capture the main, defining feature of the languages contained, but they are not necessarily orthogonal.

Coordination languages[edit]

Dataflow programming[edit]

Distributed computing[edit]

Event-driven and hardware description[edit]

Functional programming[edit]

Logic programming[edit]



Object-oriented programming[edit]

Partitioned global address space (PGAS)[edit]

Message passing[edit]

Actor model[edit]



These application programming interfaces support parallelism in host languages.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Thom Frühwirth (9 July 2009). Constraint Handling Rules. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87776-3.
  2. ^ "Using Threads to Run Code Simultaneously - The Rust Programming Language". Retrieved 2022-10-11.
  3. ^ Documentation » The Python Standard Library » Concurrent Execution
  4. ^ "Using Message Passing to Transfer Data Between Threads - The Rust Programming Language". Retrieved 2022-10-11.
  5. ^ Alan Kay The Early History Of Smalltalk
  6. ^ "Crystal Programming Language – Concurrency". Retrieved 10 August 2018.