XIII International Brigade
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|XIII International Brigade (13th Mixed Brigade)|
|Country||Polish, Spanish, Hungarian and Balkans|
|Type||Mixed Brigade – Infantry|
|Part of||35th Division (1938–1939)|
|Engagements||Spanish Civil War|
The 13th International Brigade – often known as the XIII Dabrowski Brigade – fought for the Spanish Second Republic during the Spanish Civil War, in the International Brigades. The brigade was dissolved and then reformed on four occasions.
The brigade was first mustered at the International Brigade headquarters in Albacete in December 1936. The custom was to name Brigades on formation after inspirational "heroes of the Left". The 13th Brigade was named after Jarosław Dąbrowski, a Polish general who died on foreign soil, fighting in the defence of the Paris Commune in 1871. It consisted of three battalions, and three artillery batteries.
- Louise Michel (1) Battalion
- Chapaev Battalion / Czapajew Battalion
- Vuillemin Battalion
- 1st Battery "Ernst Thaelmann"
- 2nd Battery "Karl Liebknecht"
- 3rd Battery "Antoni Gramsci"
This brigade mutinied after receiving heavy casualties the Battle of Brunete in July 1937. Its battalions were dissolved, the men were sent to other units, and its equipment was re-distributed.
The brigade was reformed on 4 August 1937, from Central European battalions. It again used Jarosław Dąbrowski as its exemplar.
- Dabrowski Battalion – Polish and Spanish
- Palafox Battalion – Polish, Spanish, Balkan.
- Rakosi Battalion – Hungarian, Spanish.
It was dissolved on 23 September 1938, along with the other International Brigades, when the Negrin Government took the decision to send foreign volunteers home. This decision was taken after pressure from the Non-Intervention Committee to remove all foreign volunteers from both sides of the conflict in an endeavour to de-internationalise it. Negrin acquiesced because he believed the Nationalists would send their foreigners home too.
The brigade was again reformed (in Monredón) on 1 October 1938 from exclusively Spanish conscript battalions.
In mid-January 1939, in Palafrugell, Catalonia, a group of Polish and Balkan volunteers requested permission of André Marty to return to fight the Nationalists' Catalonia Offensive. On 23 January, they were formed into the XIII International Brigade. It was placed in charge of a young second lieutenant. The unit soon fell apart.
Chiefs of Staff:
- Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War
- Eby, Comrades and Commissars, p 415