XXII Corps (Union Army)
Badge of the 3rd Division of the XXII Corps 
|Active||February 2, 1863 – June 26, 1865|
|Type||Infantry and Cavalry|
|Part of||Department of Washington|
|Colors||White background, red badge (1st Division)|
Blue background, white badge (2nd Division)
White background, blue badge (3rd Division)
• Valley Campaigns of 1864
• Battle of Fort Stevens
• Skirmishes with Mosby's Rangers
|First Commander||Major General Samuel P. Heintzelman|
|Second Commander||Major General Christopher C. Augur|
|Third Commander||Major General John G. Parke|
XXII Corps was a corps in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was created on February 2, 1863, to consist of all troops garrisoned in Washington, D.C., and included three infantry divisions and one of cavalry (under Judson Kilpatrick, which left to join the Army of the Potomac during the Gettysburg Campaign). Many of its units were transferred to the Army of the Potomac during Grant's Overland Campaign.
This Corps did not include the many regiments that passed through Washington, D.C., on the way to the front or away from it. Nor does it include the many regiments from the Army of the Potomac, Army of Georgia, and Army of the Tennessee that encamped in the area to participate in the Grand Review of the Armies.
Civil War Armies at the time took their name from the Department that it was born out of. This is the reason for the naming of the Army of the Potomac, born out of the Department of the Potomac. At the time of the war, the Union named most of its departments, and thus its armies, after naturally occurring landmarks, specifically water courses, i.e. The Army of the Potomac, The Army of the James, The Army of the Gulf, etc. In opposition, the Confederacy named most of their Armies for geographic areas and states.
Department of the East
Comprising all of the United States east of the Mississippi River, about half of which became Confederate territory. Formed on January 1, 1861, there were many Departments formed within its borders, and finally destablished August 17, 1861. Its primary focus was to employ a chain of command to all units until the smaller departments could be formed. Headquartered in Albany, New York, it was commanded by Major General John E. Wool.
Department of Washington, D.C.
Constituted April 9, 1861, to include Washington, D.C., to its original boundaries of Arlington, Virginia, and the state of Maryland as far as Bladensburg. It was formed to center on the defense of the national capital, and to differentiate it from the Department of the East. The department was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Charles F. Smith from April 10 through April 28, 1861, and Colonel (later Brigadier General) Joseph K. Mansfield from April 28, 1861, through the Department's dissolution on July 25, 1861.
Department of the Potomac
The Department of the Potomac, formed July 25, 1861, and destablished August 16, 1861, provide for the defense of the city of Washington, D.C. This Department was entrusted with the duty of protecting the United States' capital, with the construction of fortifications. Before the dissolution of the Department of the Potomac, most of the fortifications in the Washington, D.C., area were constructed, mainly by the regiments that were garrisoned there, most of whom had gone on to form the Army of the Potomac. Commanded by Major General George B. McClellan.
Military District of Washington
A Military District during the Civil War was a formation within a Department for the purpose of reporting directly to the department commander for administrative affairs.
The Military District of Washington was organized June 26, 1862, to include Washington, D.C.; Alexandria, Virginia; and Fort Washington, Maryland. It was a District under the Department of the Potomac. It was incorporated into the Department of the Rappahanock from April 4, 1862, through June 26, 1862, when it again became an independent command. On February 2, 1863, it merged into the Department of Washington. Commanded by Brigadier General James S. Wadsworth.
Department of the Rappahannock
The Department of the Rappahannock was formed April 4, 1862, from the original I Corps of the Army of the Potomac, to control the area east of the Blue Ridge Mountains to the Potomac River, the Fredericksburg and Richmond Rail Road and the District of Columbia expanded to include the area between the Potomac and Patuxent Rivers. It was merged into the Army of Virginia as III Corps on June 26, 1862, with Major General Irwin McDowell as its commander.
Defenses of Washington, D.C.
The Defenses of Washington D.C. was a short lived command, from September 2, 1862, through February 2, 1863. used for the consolidation of all the defenses of the area including and surrounding Washington, D.C. Its main focus was on the maintaining of the fortifications in extending in a ring around Washington, D.C.
Department of Washington
On February 2, 1863, the Department of Washington was re-formed to encompass the area from north of the Potomac from Piscataway Creek to Annapolis Junction (near present-day Fort Meade), west to the Monocacy River, south to the Bull Run Mountains by way of Goose Creek, then east to Occoquan River. The size of it would expand throughout the war to include the entirety of the counties in the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia.
The Quartermaster Department of the Department of Washington was the largest Quartermaster Department in the Union Army. Duties as varied as building, maintenance of fortifications, supplies, road building, transportation, and ordnance testing as well as many other duties were taken over by the quartermasters of the Washington Department. Washington, D.C., also served as a transship point for supplies and materiel destined to both the Army of the Potomac and Army of the James.
A Corps is a grouping of two to six divisions, providing a level of the chain of command typically commanded by a Major General. Corps were first created by an Act of Congress on July 17, 1862, but Major General George B. McClellan had instituted them in the spring of 1862. Before this time, the formations were known as either "Wings" or "Grand Divisions". Most Corps came under the operational command of an Army, but the XXII Corps did not.
XXII Corps was formed as a Corps under the Department of Washington on February 2, 1863. As was tradition, its commanders doubled as commanders of the Department of Washington. During its time, many of the regiments that were fought out arrived to reconstitute and would then be transferred back out, most of them from or to the Army of the Potomac.
During the time of existence of the 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry, better known as Mosby's Rangers, Mosby's Command, or Mosby's Raiders, commanded by Colonel John S. Mosby, made many forays in the area known as Mosby's Confederacy which extended from Loudoun County to Fairfax County, Virginia. Many of the raids it performed came into the area protected by XXII Corps, and many skirmishes with Brigadier General William Gamble's Cavalry Division, as well as various other XXII Corps units. During its reign, Mosby's Raiders captured Brigadier General Edwin H. Stoughton (then commanding the 2nd Vermont Brigade), cut telegraph wires during Early's Valley Campaign and numerous raids against rail lines and supply stations.
Battle of Fort Stevens
The corps took part in the defense of Washington during Jubal Early's Washington Raid of 1864, playing a major role in the defense of Fort Stevens on July 11, 1864. Hardin's Division held the skirmish lines and engaged in small engagements, suffering 73 killed and wounded. The following day, Early found the works held by veteran soldiers of Major General Horatio Wright's VI Corps and Brevet Brigadier General William Emory's XIX Corps. After making a small fight, Early would withdraw, crossing back into Virginia the next day.
|Major General Samuel P. Heintzelman||February 2, 1863 – October 13, 1863 |
|Major General Christopher C. Augur||October 13, 1863 – June 11, 1865 |
|Major General John G. Parke||June 7, 1865 – June 26, 1865 |
|Major General John G. Barnard||Chief Engineer, Department of Washington||July 1, 1862 — June 5, 1864 |
|Major General Silas Casey||Commanded Casey's Division (Provisional Brigade) and served as an administrative officer||June 1862 — May 1863 |
|Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan||Commanded Department of the Potomac||July 25, 1861 — August 16, 1861 |
|Major General Montgomery C. Meigs||Quartermaster General of the Union Army and commander of War Department clerks during the Battle of Fort Stevens||May 15, 1861 — June 30, 1865 |
|Brigadier General John Joseph Abercrombie||Commanded Abercrombie's Division||October 1862 — June 26, 1863|
|Brigadier General Barton S. Alexander||Chief Engineer of the Defenses of Washington, D.C.||July 1, 1862 — April 7, 1863|
|Brigadier General Robert Cowdin||Commanded 1st and 2nd Brigade, Abercrombie's Division||October, 1862 — March 30, 1863|
|Brigadier General Gustavus Adolphus DeRussy||Commander of DeRussy's Division, stationed south of Washington, D.C.||May 25, 1863 — August 20, 1865 |
|Brigadier General Martin Davis Hardin||Commander of Haskin's Division, stationed north of Washington, D.C.||July 8, 1864 — August 2, 1865|
|Brigadier General Joseph Abel Haskin||Commander of Haskin's Division, stationed north of Washington, D.C., later Chief of Artillery||February 2, 1863 — April 10, 1866|
|Brigadier General William Gamble||Commanded Cavalry Division||December 21, 1863 — July 17, 1865 |
|Brigadier General Rufus King||Commanded King's Division||July 15, 1863 — October 20, 1863|
|Brigadier General Joseph K. Mansfield||Commanded the original Department of Washington||April 28, 1861 — March 15, 1862|
|Brigadier General Edwin H. Stoughton||Commander, 2nd Vermont Brigade||December 7, 1862 — March 9, 1863|
|Colonel John Baillie McIntosh||Commander of Cavalry Division||January 2, 1864 — May 2, 1864|
|Chief Aeronaut Thaddeus S. C. Lowe||Commander of the Union Army Balloon Corps||October 1861 — August 1863|
Components of XXII Corps
Many Regiments and Brigades serving in the XXII Corps were only temporarily assigned to it. Some mainly served during times when they were reconstituting due to battle casualties, while others were trained in the vicinity of Washington before going into the field. Yet others were heavy artillery regiments assigned to the fortifications surrounding the capital. Many units, including heavy artillery regiments, left when more soldiers were needed during Grant's Overland Campaign and continued through the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign until the end of the war. Some units began serving before the XXII Corps was formed.
Famed Brigades in XXII Corps
The California Brigade was formed by Oregon Senator and Colonel Edwin Baker to have a California presence in the Eastern Theater. After the death of Colonel Baker at the Battle of Balls Bluff, the brigade was redesignated the Philadelphia Brigade. Made up of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 5th California Infantry. After redesignation as the Philadelphia Brigade, it consisted of the 69th, 71st, 72nd, and 106th Pennsylvania Infantry.
The First New Jersey Brigade was a Brigade formed by the state of New Jersey while defending Washington, D.C.. This was the first brigade in the Civil War to be formed with the intention of encompassing regiments from one state. It consisted of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 10th New Jersey Infantry. By the end of the war, at different it would have up to eight New Jersey regiments.
The Pennsylvania Reserve Division was formed out of an overflow of volunteers over the amount requested by the Department of War. After the Secretary of War declined to accept the new units into Federal Service, they were formed, equipped and maintained by the State of Pennsylvania. During its service in Washington, D.C., it was composed of the 3rd, 4th, and 8th Pennsylvania Reserves.
Vermont gave two brigades to the defenses of Washington, D.C. The 1st Vermont Brigade, composed of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 6th Vermont Infantry. It was brigaded together through the efforts of Colonel William F. "Baldy" Smith who went to his West Point classmate and friend, Major General George B. McClellan.
The Iron Brigade was the only named brigade to come from varied states, the 2nd, 6th, and 7th Wisconsin Infantry, along with the 19th Indiana Infantry and was formed on October 1, 1861. Although at the time, it wasn't known by this name, simply known as 3rd Brigade, I Corps. It wouldn't earn the moniker for almost a year, during the Battle of South Mountain during the Antietam Campaign.
|1st Connecticut Cavalry||April 29, 1865 — August 2, 1865||Mustered out |
|1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery||August 27, 1862 — May 13, 1864||Overland Campaign |
|2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery||November 23, 1863 — May 13, 1864||Overland Campaign |
|2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery||June 3, 1865 — August 18, 1865||Mustered out|
|2nd Connecticut Light Artillery||October 15, 1862 — June, 1863||Gettysburg Campaign |
|2nd Connecticut Light Artillery||October 12, 1863 — January, 1864||Transfer to New Orleans, Louisiana |
|5th Connecticut Infantry||May 20, 1865 — July 19, 1865||Mustered out |
|14th Connecticut Infantry||May 15, 1865 — May 21, 1865||Mustered out |
|19th Connecticut Infantry||September 16, 1862 — November 23, 1863||Redesignated 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery |
|22nd Connecticut Infantry||October 3, 1862 — April 14, 1863||Siege of Suffolk |
|29th Connecticut Infantry (Colored)||April 18, 1865 — May 28, 1865||Transfer to Brownsville, Texas |
|Nield's Independent Battery Light Artillery||September, 1862 — April 18, 1863||Transfer to Norfolk, Virginia |
|1st Delaware Infantry||May 12, 1865 - July 12, 1865||Mustered out |
|3rd Delaware Infantry||May 12, 1865 — June 3, 1865||Mustered out |
|4th Delaware Infantry||May 12, 1865 — June 3, 1865||Mustered out |
|8th Delaware Infantry||May 12, 1865 — June 3, 1865||Mustered out |
|1st District of Columbia Cavalry||June, 1863 — January, 1864||Transfer to Yorktown, Virginia |
|2nd District of Columbia Infantry||September 22, 1862 — September 12, 1865||Mustered out |
|8th Illinois Cavalry||January 31, 1864 — July 1, 1865||Transfer to Chicago, Illinois, to be mustered out |
|16th Independent Battery Indiana Light Artillery||October 1, 1862 — June, 1865||Transfer to Indiana to be mustered out |
|19th Indiana Infantry||August 5, 1861 — March, 1862||Bull Run Campaign (Part of the Iron Brigade) |
|28th Indiana Infantry (Colored)||April 26, 1864 — July 1, 1864|||
|63rd Indiana Infantry||May 27, 1862 — August 16, 1862||Bull Run Campaign |
|1st Maine Heavy Artillery||August 25, 1861 — May 15, 1864||Overland Campaign |
|2nd Maine Light Artillery||November 5, 1863 — April 25, 1864||Overland Campaign |
|3rd Maine Light Artillery||September, 1862 — July 5, 1864||Richmond-Petersburg Campaign |
|7th Maine Light Artillery||February 2, 1864 — April 25, 1864||Overland Campaign |
|15th Maine Infantry||April 23, 1865 — May 31, 1865||Transfer to Savannah, Georgia |
|23rd Maine Infantry||October 19, 1862 — June 17, 1863||Transfer to Maine to muster out (9 month regiment) |
|25th Maine infantry||October 18, 1862 — June 30, 1863||Transfer to Maine to muster out (9 month regiment) |
|27th Maine Infantry||October 20, 1862 — July 4, 1863||Transfer to Maine to muster out (9 month regiment) |
|31st Maine Infantry||April 19, 1864 — May 3, 1864||Overland Campaign |
|32nd Maine Infantry||April 21, 1864 — May 3, 1864||Overland Campaign |
|Battery "D" Maryland Light Artillery||June, 1864 — June 25, 1865||Mustered out |
|Baltimore Independent Battery Light Artillery||January, 1865 — June 17, 1865||Mustered out |
|14th New Hampshire Infantry||October, 1862 — March, 1864|||
|2nd New Jersey Cavalry||October 25, 1864 — November 9, 1863|
|10th New Jersey Infantry||December 26, 1861 — April, 1863|
|9th New York Heavy Artillery||September, 1862 — May 18, 1864|||
|11th New York Infantry||May 7, 1861 — July 15, 1861|||
|131st Ohio Infantry (Detachments from)||May 15, 1864 — August 19, 1864|||
|2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery||February 26, 1862 — May 28, 1864|||
|5th Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery||September 14, 1864 — June 30, 1865|||
|6th Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery||September 15, 1864 — June 15, 1865|||
|10th Vermont Infantry||September 8, 1862 — June 22, 1863|||
|11th Vermont Infantry||September 22, 1862 — May 15, 1864|||
|12th Vermont Infantry||October 10, 1862 — June 25, 1863|||
|13th Vermont Infantry||October 13, 1862 — June 25, 1863|||
|14th Vermont Infantry||October 25, 1862 — June 25, 1863|||
|15th Vermont Infantry||October 26, 1862 — June 25, 1863|||
|16th Vermont Infantry||October 27, 1862 — June 25, 1863|||
|Veteran Reserve Corps|||
|1st Battalion, Veteran Reserve Corps|
|2nd Battalion, Veteran Reserve Corps|
|Union Army Balloon Corps||October, 1861 — August, 1863|||
- Washington, D.C., in the American Civil War
- List of corps of the United States
- Lists of American Civil War Regiments by State
- Baltimore riot of 1861
- First Bull Run Union order of battle
- Field artillery in the American Civil War
- Siege artillery in the American Civil War
- Infantry in the American Civil War
- Military leadership in the American Civil War#The Union
- Habeas corpus#Suspension during the Civil War and Reconstruction
- The 1st Division badge consisted of an identical badge in red, 2nd Division in white with a blue background.
- "History — XXII Corps". Archived from the original on 2006-03-30. Retrieved 2005-03-18.
- History — Army of the Potomac
- Boatner, p.257
- Boatner, p. 893
- Boatner, p. 664
- General Orders No. 12
- Boatner, p.680
- Maintenance of the Defenses of Washington, D.C.
- Biography — William Gamble
- History — 5th Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery
- Biography — Brigadier General E.H. Stoughton
- Boatner, p. 571
- Eicher, p. 862
- Boatner, p. 392
- Biography — Major General C.C. Augur
- Boatner, p. 34
- "Biography — Major General J.G. Parke". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- Boatner, p. 618-619
- Boatner, p. 44-45
- Mapping of Washington D.C.
- Boatner, p. 131
- Boatner, p. 542
- Boatner, p. 1
- Boatner, p. 6
- Boatner, p. 205
- Boatner, p. 237
- Boatner, p. 375
- Biography — Brigadier General M.D. Hardin
- Boatner, p. 383
- Biography — Brigadier General J.A. Haskin
- Boatner, p. 463
- Boatner, p. 508
- Biography of Brigadier General J.K.F. Mansfield
- Sheridan's Lieutenants: Phil Sheridan, His Generals, and the Final Year of the Civil War
- Biography — T.S.C. Lowe
- Early Balloon Flight in the United States Archived November 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- California and the Civil War - California Brigade
- Boatner, p. 436
- Boatner, p. 634-635
- History — Pennsylvania Brigade
- Army Life in Virginia: The Civil War Letters of George C. Benedict
- History — Vermont Brigade
- History — Iron Brigade
- History - Connecticut Cavalry
- War Department (1880), p. 847.
- War Department (1880), p. 852.
- History — Neild's Independent Battery Light Artillery
- History — Maryland Infantry
- History — District of Columbia Cavalry and Infantry
- War Department (1880), p. 945.
- History — Indiana Artillery
- History — Indiana Infantry (Part II)
- History — 28th US Colored Troops Infantry
- History — Indiana Infantry (Part V)
- History — Maine Artillery
- Maine Civil War Regimental Records Archived 2008-03-14 at the Wayback Machine
- Maine Civil War
- History — Maine Infantry (Part II)
- History — Maine Infantry (Part III)
- History — 27th Maine Infantry
- History — Maryland Artillery
- History — Battery "D" Maryland Light Artillery
- History — Massachusetts Cavalry
- History - Massachusetts Civil War Regiments
- History — 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry Regiment
- History - California Companies in the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry
- History — Massachusetts Artillery
- History — 14th New Hampshire Volunteer Regiment
- History — Fort Foote
- History — New York Civil War Regiments
- Boatner, p. 594
- "Tiger! Zouave!". Archived from the original on 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- History — 131st Ohio Infantry
- 131st Ohio Infantry in the Civil War
- History of the 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery
- "Regimental History — 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery". Archived from the original on 2006-10-26. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- History — 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery
- History — 10th Vermont Infantry
- History — 11th Vermont Regiment
- History — 12th Vermont Infantry
- History — 13th Vermont Infantry
- History — 14th Vermont Infantry
- History — 15th Vermont Infantry
- History — 16th Vermont Infantry
- "History — Veteran's Reserve Corps". Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2008-02-14.
- Boatner, Mark M. III, The Civil War Dictionary: Revised Edition, David McKay Company, Inc., 1984.
- Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-8047-3641-3
- Fox, William F., Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, reprinted by Morningside Bookshop, Dayton, Ohio, 1993, ISBN 0-685-72194-9.
- The War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies at Making of America, Cornell University
- War Department, U.S. (1880). The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. OCLC 857196196.