XXVII Reserve Corps (German Empire)

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XXVII Reserve Corps
XXVII. Reserve-Korps
Stab eines Generalkommandos.svg
Flag of the Staff of a Generalkommando (1871–1918)
Active October 1914 - February 1919
Country  German Empire
Type Corps
Size Approximately 32,000 (on formation)
Engagements

World War I

Western Front
First Battle of Ypres
Second Battle of Ypres
Second Battle of Champagne
Battle of the Somme
Spring Offensive
Eastern Front

The XXVII Reserve Corps (German: XXVII. Reserve-Korps / XXVII RK) was a corps level command of the German Army in World War I.

Formation[edit]

XXVII Reserve Corps was formed in October 1914.[1] It was part of the first wave of new Corps formed at the outset of World War I consisting of XXII - XXVII Reserve Corps of 43rd - 54th Reserve Divisions (plus 6th Bavarian Reserve Division). The personnel was predominantly made up of kriegsfreiwillige (wartime volunteers) who did not wait to be called up.[2] It was still in existence at the end of the war.[3]

Structure on formation[edit]

On formation in October 1914, XXVII Reserve Corps consisted of two divisions.[4] but was weaker than an Active Corps

  • Reserve Infantry Regiments consisted of three battalions but only had a machine gun platoon (of 2 machine guns) rather than a machine gun company (of 6 machine guns)[5]
  • Reserve Jäger Battalions did not have a machine gun company on formation, though some were provided with a machine gun platoon[6]
  • Reserve Cavalry Detachments were much smaller than the Reserve Cavalry Regiments formed on mobilisation[7]
  • Reserve Field Artillery Regiments consisted of three abteilungen (2 gun and 1 howitzer) of three batteries each, but each battery had just 4 guns (rather than 6 of the Active and the Reserve Regiments formed on mobilisation)[8]

In summary, XXVII Reserve Corps mobilised with 26 infantry battalions, 10 machine gun platoons (20 machine guns), 2 cavalry detachments, 18 field artillery batteries (72 guns) and 2 pioneer companies.

Corps Division Brigade Units
XXVII Reserve Corps 53rd Reserve Division[9] 105th Reserve Infantry Brigade 241st Reserve Infantry Regiment
242nd Reserve Infantry Regiment
106th Reserve Infantry Brigade 243rd Reserve Infantry Regiment
244th Reserve Infantry Regiment
25th Reserve Jäger Battalion[10]
53rd Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
53rd Reserve Cavalry Detachment
53rd Reserve Pioneer Company
54th Reserve Division[11] 107th Reserve Infantry Brigade 245th Reserve Infantry Regiment
246th Reserve Infantry Regiment
108th Reserve Infantry Brigade 247th Reserve Infantry Regiment
248th Reserve Infantry Regiment[12]
26th Reserve Jäger Battalion[13]
54th Reserve Field Artillery Regiment
54th Reserve Cavalry Detachment
54th Reserve Pioneer Company

Combat chronicle[edit]

Formed of Saxon and Württemberg units in the early stages of the First World War, the Corps appeared on the Western Front in Belgium in October 1914. It was assigned to the 4th Army, commanded by Generalfeldmarschall Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg, with which it participated in the First Battle of Ypres. In 1915, it took part in the Second Battle of Ypres and the Second Battle of Champagne and in 1916 in the Battle of the Somme.

In November 1916, it was transferred to the Eastern Front. In late 1917 it returned to the West, initially on border security duties on the Dutch-Belgian border, before reurning to the Flanders front in January 1918. It took part in the Spring Offensive from March 1918 and continued to be engaged on the Western Front for the remainder of the War.

The Corps was dissolved in February 1919.

Commanders[edit]

XXVII Reserve Corps had the following commanders during its existence:[14][15]

From Rank Name
25 August 1914 Generalleutnant Adolph von Carlowitz
27 October 1914 General der Artillerie Richard von Schubert
28 August 1916 General der Infanterie Oskar von Ehrenthal
15 June 1917 General der Kavallerie Hans Krug von Nidda
8 September 1917 Generalleutnant Bernhard von Watzdorf

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cron 2002, p. 87
  2. ^ Cron 2002, p. 97
  3. ^ Cron 2002, pp. 88–89
  4. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, pp. 508,515
  5. ^ Busche 1998, pp. 111–113
  6. ^ Cron 2002, p. 116 Active Jäger Battlions had a machine gun company with the exceptions of the 1st and 2nd Bavarian Jäger Battalions
  7. ^ Cron 2002, p. 128 Reserve Cavalry Regiments consisted of three squadrons
  8. ^ Cron 2002, p. 136
  9. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, p. 507
  10. ^ Busche 1998, p. 133 With a machine gun platoon
  11. ^ AEF GHQ 1920, p. 516
  12. ^ Busche 1998, p. 113 With two machine gun platoons
  13. ^ Busche 1998, p. 134 Without a machine gun platoon
  14. ^ "German War History". Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  15. ^ "Armee-Reserve-Korps". The Prussian Machine. Archived from the original on April 11, 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. 
  • Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6. 
  • Busche, Hartwig (1998). Formationsgeschichte der Deutschen Infanterie im Ersten Weltkrieg (1914 bis 1918) (in German). Institut für Preußische Historiographie. 
  • Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War (1914-1918), compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, Chaumont, France 1919. The London Stamp Exchange Ltd (1989). 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3. 
  • The German Forces in the Field; 7th Revision, 11th November 1918; Compiled by the General Staff, War Office. Imperial War Museum, London and The Battery Press, Inc (1995). 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X.