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Clinical data
ATC code
  • None
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ECHA InfoCard 100.208.938
Chemical and physical data
Formula C14H23N3OS
Molar mass 281.42 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

Xanomeline (LY-246,708; Lumeron, Memcor) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist with reasonable selectivity for the M1 and M4 subtypes,[1][2][3][4] though it is also known to act as a M5 receptor antagonist.[5] It has been studied for the treatment of both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, particularly the cognitive and negative symptoms,[6] although gastrointestinal side effects led to a high drop-out rate in clinical trials.[7][8] Despite this, xanomeline has been shown to have reasonable efficacy for the treatment of schizophrenia symptoms, and one recent human study found robust improvements in verbal learning and short-term memory associated with xanomeline treatment.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Farde L, Suhara T, Halldin C, et al. (1996). "PET study of the M1-agonists [11C]xanomeline and [11C]butylthio-TZTP in monkey and man". Dementia (Basel, Switzerland). 7 (4): 187–95. PMID 8835881. 
  2. ^ Jakubík J, Michal P, Machová E, Dolezal V (2008). "Importance and prospects for design of selective muscarinic agonists" (PDF). Physiological Research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca. 57 Suppl 3: S39–47. PMID 18481916. 
  3. ^ Woolley ML, Carter HJ, Gartlon JE, Watson JM, Dawson LA (January 2009). "Attenuation of amphetamine-induced activity by the non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist, xanomeline, is absent in muscarinic M4 receptor knockout mice and attenuated in muscarinic M1 receptor knockout mice". European Journal of Pharmacology. 603 (1-3): 147–9. PMID 19111716. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.12.020. 
  4. ^ Heinrich JN, Butera JA, Carrick T, et al. (March 2009). "Pharmacological comparison of muscarinic ligands: historical versus more recent muscarinic M1-preferring receptor agonists". European Journal of Pharmacology. 605 (1-3): 53–6. PMID 19168056. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.12.044. 
  5. ^ Grant MK, El-Fakahany EE (October 2005). "Persistent binding and functional antagonism by xanomeline at the muscarinic M5 receptor". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 315 (1): 313–9. PMID 16002459. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.090134. 
  6. ^ Lieberman JA, Javitch JA, Moore H (August 2008). "Cholinergic agonists as novel treatments for schizophrenia: the promise of rational drug development for psychiatry". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 165 (8): 931–6. PMID 18676593. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08050769. 
  7. ^ Messer WS (2002). "The utility of muscarinic agonists in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN. 19 (1-2): 187–93. PMID 12212779. doi:10.1007/s12031-002-0031-5. 
  8. ^ Mirza NR, Peters D, Sparks RG (2003). "Xanomeline and the antipsychotic potential of muscarinic receptor subtype selective agonists". CNS Drug Reviews. 9 (2): 159–86. PMID 12847557. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.2003.tb00247.x. 
  9. ^ Shekhar A, Potter WZ, Lightfoot J, et al. (August 2008). "Selective muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline as a novel treatment approach for schizophrenia". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 165 (8): 1033–9. PMID 18593778. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.06091591.