Xanthine dehydrogenase

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XDH
Protein XDH PDB 1fiq.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases XDH, XO, XOR, xanthine dehydrogenase
External IDs OMIM: 607633 MGI: 98973 HomoloGene: 324 GeneCards: 7498
Genetically Related Diseases
Disease Name References
obesity
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE XDH 210301 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_000379

NM_011723

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000370.2

NP_035853.2

Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 31.33 – 31.41 Mb Chr 17: 73.88 – 73.95 Mb
PubMed search [2] [3]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse
xanthine dehydrogenase
Identifiers
EC number 1.17.1.4
CAS number 9054-84-6
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO

Xanthine dehydrogenase, also known as XDH, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the XDH gene.[1][2]

Function[edit]

Xanthine dehydrogenase belongs to the group of molybdenum-containing hydroxylases involved in the oxidative metabolism of purines. The enzyme is a homodimer. Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification.[1]

Xanthine dehydrogenase catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

Xanthine dehydrogenase.svg
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O urate + NADH + H+

The three substrates of this enzyme are xanthine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its three products are urate, NADH, and H+.

This enzyme participates in purine metabolism.

Nomenclature[edit]

This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, to be specific, those acting on CH or CH2 groups with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include NAD+-xanthine dehydrogenase, xanthine-NAD+ oxidoreductase, xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase, and xanthine oxidoreductase.

Clinical significance[edit]

Defects in xanthine dehydrogenase cause xanthinuria, may contribute to adult respiratory stress syndrome, and may potentiate influenza infection through an oxygen metabolite-dependent mechanism.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: XDH xanthine dehydrogenase". Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
  2. ^ Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T (Nov 1993). "Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene". Gene 133 (2): 279–84. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90652-J. PMID 8224915. 

Further reading[edit]