Xanthine dehydrogenase

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XDH
Protein XDH PDB 1fiq.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases XDH, XO, XOR, xanthine dehydrogenase
External IDs OMIM: 607633 MGI: 98973 HomoloGene: 324 GeneCards: XDH
Genetically Related Diseases
obesity[1]
Targeted by Drug
allopurinol[2]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE XDH 210301 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_000379

NM_011723

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000370

NP_035853.2

Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 31.33 – 31.41 Mb Chr 17: 73.88 – 73.95 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse
xanthine dehydrogenase
Identifiers
EC number 1.17.1.4
CAS number 9054-84-6
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO

Xanthine dehydrogenase, also known as XDH, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the XDH gene.[5][6]

Function[edit]

Xanthine dehydrogenase belongs to the group of molybdenum-containing hydroxylases involved in the oxidative metabolism of purines. The enzyme is a homodimer. Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification.[5]

Xanthine dehydrogenase catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

Xanthine dehydrogenase.svg
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O urate + NADH + H+

The three substrates of this enzyme are xanthine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its three products are urate, NADH, and H+.

This enzyme participates in purine metabolism.

Nomenclature[edit]

This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, to be specific, those acting on CH or CH2 groups with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include NAD+-xanthine dehydrogenase, xanthine-NAD+ oxidoreductase, xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase, and xanthine oxidoreductase.

Clinical significance[edit]

Defects in xanthine dehydrogenase cause xanthinuria, may contribute to adult respiratory stress syndrome, and may potentiate influenza infection through an oxygen metabolite-dependent mechanism.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Diseases that are genetically associated with XDH view/edit references on wikidata". 
  2. ^ "Drugs that physically interact with Xanthine dehydrogenase view/edit references on wikidata". 
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: XDH xanthine dehydrogenase". Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
  6. ^ Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T (Nov 1993). "Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene". Gene. 133 (2): 279–84. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90652-J. PMID 8224915. 

Further reading[edit]