Xanthine dehydrogenase

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Xanthine dehydrogenase
Protein XDH PDB 1fiq.png
PDB rendering based on 1fiq.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols XDH ; XO; XOR
External IDs OMIM607633 MGI98973 HomoloGene324 ChEMBL: 1929 GeneCards: XDH Gene
EC number,
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE XDH 210301 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7498 22436
Ensembl ENSG00000158125 ENSMUSG00000024066
UniProt P47989 Q00519
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000379 NM_011723
RefSeq (protein) NP_000370 NP_035853
Location (UCSC) Chr 2:
31.33 – 31.41 Mb
Chr 17:
73.88 – 73.95 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
xanthine dehydrogenase
EC number
CAS number 9054-84-6
IntEnz IntEnz view
ExPASy NiceZyme view
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO

Xanthine dehydrogenase, also known as XDH, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the XDH gene.[1][2]


Xanthine dehydrogenase belongs to the group of molybdenum-containing hydroxylases involved in the oxidative metabolism of purines. The enzyme is a homodimer. Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification.[1]

Xanthine dehydrogenase catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

Xanthine dehydrogenase.svg
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O \rightleftharpoons urate + NADH + H+

The three substrates of this enzyme are xanthine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its three products are urate, NADH, and H+.

This enzyme participates in purine metabolism.


This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, to be specific, those acting on CH or CH2 groups with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include NAD+-xanthine dehydrogenase, xanthine-NAD+ oxidoreductase, xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase, and xanthine oxidoreductase.

Clinical significance[edit]

Defects in xanthine dehydrogenase cause xanthinuria, may contribute to adult respiratory stress syndrome, and may potentiate influenza infection through an oxygen metabolite-dependent mechanism.[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: XDH xanthine dehydrogenase". Retrieved October 25, 2012. 
  2. ^ Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T (Nov 1993). "Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene". Gene 133 (2): 279–84. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90652-J. PMID 8224915. 

Further reading[edit]