Doherty took an impressive 4/46 from 10 overs with the ball in a losing effort against the Sri Lankans on his One Day International debut.
He made his Test debut not long after against England in the First Test of the 2010–11 Ashes series, ahead of then-incumbent Test spinner, Nathan Hauritz. Australian Chairman of Selectors, Andrew Hilditch, stated before the team for the match was announced: "If we play a specialist spinner, which I am pretty sure we will be, it will be Xavier", which showed the likelihood that Doherty would make his Test and Ashes debuts simultaneously. He took his first Test wicket by dismissing Ian Bell in Brisbane. Doherty was recalled for the 2013 Test series against India. He played in the 2nd and 3rd Tests of the Series. In the 2 Tests, his figures were 4/242