Xiahou Shang

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Xiahou Shang
Governor of Jing Province (荊州牧)
In office
222 (222) – 225 (225)
Monarch Cao Pi
Senior General Who Attacks the South
In office
221 (221) – 225 (225)
Monarch Cao Pi
Inspector of Jing Province (荊州刺史)
In office
220 (220) – 222 (222)
Monarch Cao Pi
General Who Attacks the South
In office
220 (220) – 221 (221)
Monarch Cao Pi
Personal details
Born Unknown
Died 225[1]
Luoyang, Henan
Occupation General
Courtesy name Boren (伯仁)
Posthumous name Marquis Dao (悼侯)
Peerage Marquis of Changling District (昌陵鄉侯)

Xiahou Shang (died 225),[1] courtesy name Boren, was a military general of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was a distant nephew of Xiahou Yuan and the father of Xiahou Xuan and Xiahou Hui.


Xiahou Shang was a distant nephew of Xiahou Yuan, who adopted him as a son. Xiahou Shang was not very active when Cao Cao was alive, only participating in suppressing tribal uprisings. Cao Cao's successor, Cao Pi, was a close friend of Xiahou Shang, so he gave him important positions, such as General Who Attacks the South (征南將軍) and Inspector of Jing Province. Xiahou Shang generally took over commands for Wei's southern frontiers. He took the Shu outpost at Shangyong (上庸) from Liu Feng, and although Eastern Wu was allied with Wei at the time, Xiahou Shang tightened his defences against Wu. Surely enough, Sun Quan declared independence from Wei rule soon after. In 222, Xiahou Shang and Cao Zhen attacked the Wu fortress at Jiangling guarded by Zhuge Jin. Xiahou Shang advanced both through land and water, burning Zhuge Jin's ships mid-river and capturing the fortress. However, he was called back because of a plague. For his efforts during this campaign he was granted an additional 600 taxable households.

Later, Cao Pi sent him and Xu Huang to lead an army to attack the Shu-controlled Shangyong (上庸), where they achieved success.[2]

In 224, a favourite concubine of Xiahou Shang drew the envy of his wife, who was the sister of Cao Zhen. In support of his clansmen, Cao Pi had the concubine strangled to death. Xiahou Shang became depressed after the loss of his favourite concubine and would not see anyone. A year later, he fell to sickness and died, before which Cao Pi held his hand and sobbed.

In Romance of the Three Kingdoms[edit]

In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Xiahou Shang is only portrayed as a minor character. He participated in the Battle of Mount Dingjun as a subordinate of Xiahou Yuan against Liu Bei's forces. During a skirmish, he was captured by the enemy and later released in exchange for the enemy general Chen Shi, who was captured by Xiahou Yuan. During the exchange, Huang Zhong fired an arrow at him, which hit him in the back and seriously injured him.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 884. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. 
  2. ^ (文帝即王位,以晃為右將軍,進封逯鄉侯。及踐阼,進封楊侯。與夏侯尚討劉備於上庸,破之。以晃鎮陽平,徙封陽平侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.