Xiamen (Chinese: 厦门; pinyin: Xiàmén; [ɕi̯âmə̌n] ( listen) Hokkien: Ē-mûiⁿ), also historically known as Amoy (//), is a major city on the southeast (Taiwan Strait) coast of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province, with an area of 1,699.39 square kilometres (656.14 sq mi) and population of 3,531,347 at the 2010 Census. The city's urban area includes the old urban island area and covers all six districts of Xiamen (Huli, Siming, Jimei, Tong'an, Haicang and recently Xiang'an), and has a total urban population of 1,861,289. It also borders Quanzhou to the north and Zhangzhou making this a unique built-up area of more than five million people. The Jinmen (Kinmen) Islands administered by the Republic of China are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away.
Being one of the major Hokkien-speaking cities in the world and the largest in China, Xiamen and the surrounding southern Fujian cities and counties such as Zhangzhou and Quanzhou are the ancestral homes to large communities of overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, especially Singapore, various parts of Malaysia as well as the Indonesian Riau Province. The city was a treaty port in the 19th century and one of the four original Special Economic Zones opened to foreign investment and trade when China began economic reforms in the early 1980s. It is endowed with educational and cultural institutions supported by the overseas Chinese diaspora.
The city is known for its mild climate, Hoklo influence and colonial architecture, as well as low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as China's second "most suitable city for living", as well as China's "most romantic leisure city" in 2011.
- 1 City name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Administration
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Culture
- 10 Colleges and universities
- 11 Military
- 12 Notable people
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
The area where Xiamen now exists was known as Tong'an in some Han Dynasty records, though the area was not significantly settled by Han Chinese until several centuries later. Xiamen Island itself was known as Kaho-Su (Chinese: 嘉禾嶼; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ka-hô-sū) ca. 976 AD until Ming Dynasty General Zhou Dexing built the "Xiamen Castle" on the island in 1387 AD to defend against Japanese pirates.
The city's former Chinese name (下門; Ē-mn̂g / Ē-mûi) may have referred to the position at the mouth of the Jiulong River. The vernacular reading of these characters in Zhangzhou Hokkien (ε̄-mûiⁿ) is the source of the English name "Amoy". The Zhangzhou dialect is still spoken in the west and southwest of the city. Later, the authorities found the former name too unrefined and changed it to the modern toponym (廈門; Ē-mn̂g / Ēe-mûi), which has the same pronunciation in Mandarin — but not necessarily in Hokkien — and literally means "the Gate of the Grand Mansion". In Hokkien, the name continues to be pronounced Ē-mn̂g or ε̄-mûiⁿ, effectively using the older name.
During the early Jin Dynasty, the place was made Tong'an County in 282. During the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD), the city was a seaport open to foreign trade. The Chinese scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031–1095) spent some of his youth there while his father was a local bureaucrat on the government staff.
In 1387, the Ming Dynasty built a fort in Xiamen, then part of Quanzhou, to guard against pirates. After the Manchu Qing Dynasty overthrew the Ming in 1644, Ming loyalist Koxinga, used Xiamen as a base to launch counterattacks against the invading Manchus from 1650 to 1660. In 1656, he named Xiamen Island, Siming (思明洲), or "Remembering the Ming". In 1661, Koxinga drove the Dutch from Taiwan and moved his operations there. The Manchus renamed the island Xiamen. The city was renamed by the Manchus in 1680 to Xiamen Subprefecture. The name "Siming" was changed back after the 1912 Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing Dynasty and the settlement was made a county. Later it reverted to the name Xiamen City. In 1949, Xiamen became a provincially administered city (省辖市), then was upgraded to a vice-province-class city (副省级市), or a municipality. Today, Siming is the name of main city district of downtown Xiamen.
In 1541, European traders (mainly Portuguese) first visited Xiamen, which was China's main port in the nineteenth century for exporting tea. As a result, Hokkien (also known as the Amoy dialect) had a major influence on how Chinese terminology was translated into European languages. For example, the words "Amoy", "tea" (茶; tê), "cumshaw" (感謝; kám-siā), and "Pekoe" (白毫; pe̍h-hô), kowtow (磕頭; khàu-thâu), and possibly Japan (Ji̍t-pún) and "ketchup" (茄汁; kiô-chap) originated from the Hokkien.
During the First Opium War between Britain and China, the British captured the city in the Battle of Amoy on 26 August 1841. Xiamen was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanking (1842) at the end of the war. As a result, it was an early entry point for Protestant missions in China. European settlements were concentrated on the islet of Gulangyu off the main island of Xiamen. Today, Gulangyu is known for colonial architecture and the tradition of piano-playing and organized sports.
Many natives of Xiamen and southern Fujian emigrated to Southeast Asia and Taiwan during the 19th and early 20th century, spreading Hokkien language and culture overseas. Some of the diaspora later returned to fund universities and cultural institutions in Xiamen. An estimated 220,000 Xiamen residents are returning overseas Chinese and their kin. Some 350,000 overseas Chinese trace their ancestry to Xiamen.
During World War II, Xiamen was occupied by Japan from May 1938 to September 1945. In the Chinese Civil War that followed, the islands of Xiamen and Gulangyu were captured by Communist forces in October 1949 but an assault on the island of Jinmen was repelled by Nationalist defenders. The battle line of the war remained in the narrow channel between Xiamen and Jinmen. In 1955 and 1958, mainland China escalated Cold War political tensions by shelling offshore islands held by Taiwan including Jinmen in what became known as the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. The Nationalists responded by reinforcing Jinmen and shelling Xiamen. Due to political tensions, the eastern half of Xiamen Island and much of the Fujian Coast facing the offshore islands remained undeveloped in the 1960s and 1970s. The Water Police and Post-Office were situated directly across the water from the American embassy.
When China began to reform its economy, Xiamen was made one of the original Special Economic Zones in 1980, to attract foreign investment, particularly from overseas Chinese. The city grew and prospered from foreign investment and trade. On April 18, 1988, Xiamen was approved a sub-provincial administrative status, and is specifically designated in the state plan. In 2001, the governments of mainland China and Taiwan agreed to initiate the "Three Mini-Links" and restored ferry, commercial and mail links between the mainland and offshore islands. Trade and travel between Xiamen and Jinmen was restored and later expanded to include direct air travel to Taiwan. In 2010, travelers between Xiamen and Jinmen made 1.31 million trips.
In 1999, the largest corruption scandal in China's history was uncovered in Xiamen, implicating up to 200 government officials. Lai Changxing is alleged to have run an enormous smuggling operation, which financed the city's football team, film studios, largest construction project, and a vast brothel rented to him by the local Public Security Bureau. According to Time, "locals used to joke that Xiamen should change its name to Yuanhua, the name of Lai's company." They subsequently claimed that potential investors were discouraged by the taint of corruption.
Xiamen comprises Xiamen Island (longitude 118° 04' 04" E, latitude 24° 26' 46" N), Gulangyu Island, and part of the rugged mainland coastal region from the left bank of the Jiulong River in the west to the islands of Xiang'an in the northeast. The city centers on Xiamen Island, which is divided between Huli District and Siming District (which also encompasses Gulangyu). The city's four other districts, Haicang, Jimei, Tong'an and Xiang'an, are all located on the mainland.
Just east of Xiamen Island are the Jinmen Islands, also spelled "Kinmen" and known as "Quemoy". At their nearest points, Greater Jinmen is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Xiamen Island and Lesser Jinmen, also known as Lieyu, is about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) away. The Republic of China based in Taiwan governs the Jinmen Islands.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Xiamen has a monsoonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), characterised by long, hot and humid summers (but moderate compared to much of the rest of the province) and short, mild and dry winters. The warmest month is July, with a 24-hour average of 27.8 °C (82.0 °F), and oddly, the coolest month is February, averaging 12.4 °C (54.3 °F); the annual mean is 20.42 °C (68.8 °F). Extremes since 1951 have ranged from 1.5 °C (35 °F) on 29 December 1991 to 39.2 °C (103 °F) on 20 July 2007. Spring, both by humidity and percentage of sunshine, is the dampest season but typhoons in late summer and early autumn can make the latter period wetter overall. Summer and autumn are marked by comparatively sunny conditions, while autumn is warm and dry. The annual rainfall is 1,350 millimetres (53 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in March to 56% in July, the city receives 1,853 hours of bright sunshine annually. Frost occurs very rarely, and the last snowfall in the city took place in January 1893, when snow also fell at Guangzhou, Macau, in the inland parts of Hong Kong and in the hills of Taipei.
|Climate data for Xiamen (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||17.0
|Average low °C (°F)||9.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||34.2
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||7.1||12.0||15.4||14.6||15.2||14.8||9.9||10.9||9.0||3.2||4.0||4.9||121.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||80||83||82||84||86||82||82||78||71||70||70||78.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||133.3||88.3||89.6||105.6||132.6||163.8||234.6||211.6||178.9||188.4||163.0||163.5||1,853.2|
|Percent possible sunshine||40||28||24||28||32||40||56||53||49||52||50||50||41.8|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
According to the 2010 Census, Xiamen has a population of 3,531,347 inhabitants, almost 1.8 times the population counted for the last census in 2000 (which was of 2,053,070 inhabitants). The annual average population growth was of 5.57% for the period 2000–2010., however this masks the population explosion in Jimei District, which quadrupled since the prior census; Huli District's population more than doubled, The resident population was 1,967,800 in 2013 yearend, and with a population of 3.73 million (those residing at least half a year). The total resident population is said to be 4,255,000 in December 2014, without specifying what counts as a resident.
The sub-provincial city of Xiamen has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu). The information here presented uses data from 2010 Census.
|Map||Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population
|Huli District||湖里区||Húlǐ Qū||931,291||73.77||14,782|
|Siming District||思明区||Sīmíng Qū||929,998||83.99||12,740|
|Haicang District||海沧区||Hǎicāng qū||288,739||186.46||1,863|
|Jimei District||集美区||Jíměi Qū||580,857||274.29||2,105|
|Tong'an District||同安区||Tóng'ān Qū||496,129||669.36||754|
|Xiang'an District||翔安区||Xiáng'ān Qū||304,333||411.50||865|
The districts of Siming and Huli form the Special Economic Zone.
In May 2003, Gulangyu District and Kaiyuan District were merged into Siming District, Xinglin District (杏林区) was merged into Jimei District, and Xiang'an District was created out of a section of Tong'an District.
Xiamen has a diverse and well-developed economy. Primary economic activities include fishing, shipbuilding, food processing, tanning, textiles, machine tool manufacturing, chemical industries, telecommunications and financial services. The city has economic and trade relations with 162 countries and regions worldwide, and benefits from foreign investment, particularly capital from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
In 2008, a total of 356 projects with foreign direct investment had been approved in the city, with a contractual foreign investment amount of US$1.896 billion and an actual foreign investment amount of US$2.042 billion. In 1992, Xiamen was ranked among the top 10 Chinese cities in relation to comprehensive strengths with its GDP increasing by an average of over 20% annually. In 2008, Xiamen's GDP amounted to 156 billion Yuan, an increase of 11.1% over the previous year; and the per-capita GDP was 62,651 yuan (US$9,017). Further economic reforms were introduced, and this brought the total volume of imports and exports in 2008 to US$45.4 billion, while that of exports totalled US$29.4 billion.
Xiamen is also the host of the China International Fair for Investment and Trade held annually in early September to attract foreign direct investment into the Chinese mainland.
Xiamen has excellent road, rail, air and port infrastructure. In the last few years, Xiamen has invested more than RMB30 billion in infrastructure construction.
Various foreign banks that have established representative offices in Xiamen.
There are more than 600 financial institutions in operation in Xiamen.
Xiamen Export Processing Zone is located in the south part of Haicang Development Zone only 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from Haicang Port Area, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Gaoqi International Airport and 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from Haicang railway station. It has a favorable geographical location and well-developed transportation network, especially sea transportation. It has a total planned area of 2.4 square kilometres (0.93 sq mi) with 1.46 square kilometres (0.56 sq mi) for the first phase. Industries encouraged in the zone include Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Heavy Industry, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Research and Development, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading and Distribution.
Xiamen Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone is situated to the southeast of Xiamen Island, at the tip of the Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Delta in South Fujian bordering Zhangzhou City to the west, Jimei District to the north, and overlooking Xiamen Island across the narrow water. The 100-square-kilometer Haicang Taiwanese Investment Zone is the largest national Taiwanese investment zone authorized by the State Council in 1989. It is situated close to Xiamen Port.
Xinglin Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established on 20 May 1989 by the State Council. The planned area is 19.36 square kilometres (7.47 sq mi) and the current area is 12.5 km2. The zone is located in Jimei, Xiamen. The main industries set up in the zone are chemistry, machinery, textile and electronics. The zone is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport and 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the 319 National Highway.
Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone was approved by the State Council as one of China's national level high-tech industrial development zones in March 1999. In 2001, the zone became the first to achieve 10 billion yuan per square kilometer target output level. It is located close to Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport.
In 1992, Xiamen Xiangyu Free Trade Zone is established and approved by The State Council. The overall planning area is 0.63 square kilometres (0.24 sq mi). In 2008, there are 1100 enterprises in this park. Industries encouraged in the zone include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Garment and Textiles Production, Trading and Distribution, Research and Development, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics.
Gaoji Causeway, four main road bridges, the Jimei, Xiamen, Xinglin and Haicang Bridges, and one undersea tunnel, Xiangan Tunnel, link Xiamen Island with the mainland.
The main forms of public transportation in Xiamen are bus and bus rapid transit (BRT). Xiamen's BRT system features a dedicated bus-only closed road system with stations and ticketing system similar to light rail. Most of the 115 kilometres (71 mi) BRT network consist of bus lanes along expressways and elevated BRT viaducts on Xiamen Island. BRT routes have no traffic lights and travel speed is limited by design to 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph). Five BRT routes are currently in service: BRT-1 Route, BRT-2 Route, Huandao Avenue BRT Route, Chenggong Avenue BRT Route and Connecting BRT Route. The fare is 0.6 RMB per km for the air-conditioned buses. The BRT is supplemented by 20 shuttle bus services that connect nearby places to the BRT stations. The shuttle bus service has a flat rate of 0.5 RMB. Fare discount is available when pre-paid e-card is used.
Taxis can be easily hailed in most areas of the city. Bicycles are commonly used by residents, especially on Xiamen Island. Unlike many Chinese cities, motorcycles, mopeds, tricycles, and wooden handcarts are not permitted in Xiamen. The city has upheld the ban on these vehicles since the 1990s. Electric bikes are permitted with proper licensing and obedience of traffic laws. On the small island of Gulangyu off Xiamen Island, automobiles are also banned.
Xiamen Metro has been under construction since 2013 and the first line is scheduled to start operation in 2017. A system of three lines has been approved so far, with plans to eventually expand to six lines including service to surrounding suburban areas.
The Fuzhou-Xiamen and Zhangzhou-Xiamen Express Highways link Xiamen with the highway network of Fujian and the neighboring provinces of Guangdong, Jiangxi and Zhejiang. There are also container freight services available between Xiamen and Shenzhen and Hong Kong.
Xiamen is served by the Yingtan-Xiamen Railway, Longyan-Xiamen Railway and the Fuzhou-Xiamen High-Speed Railway, which are connected to China's national railway network. Direct passenger trains are available from Xiamen to Shanghai, Nanjing, Hefei, Fuzhou, Nanchang and Yingtan. The completion of the Xiamen-Shenzhen High-Speed Railway in late 2013 expanded train services to destinations to the west and southwest.
The Xiamen Railway Station on the island of Xiamen is connected to the mainland by a railway bridge.
The Xiamen North Railway Station is located in Jimei District.
The Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport on the island of Xiamen is a main air hub in East China with flights to over 90 domestic and international destinations. Among airports in China, Xiamen ranked among the top 11 for passenger traffic, top 8 for cargo traffic and top 10 for air traffic. It can handle 27 million passengers annually. The airport is the headquarters hub of Xiamen Airlines.
Xiamen has direct flights to most cities in China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and major cities in east Asia like Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul. Intercontinental flights to Amsterdam, Sydney, Melbourne, Seattle have been started from 2011. Xiamen also hold a strong network to southeast Asia cities like, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Jakarta, Cebu and Singapore, to server the large communities of southern Fujian's overseas diaspora and the increasing tourism flows.
Gaoqi Airport is located on the northern coast of Xiamen Island.
Xiamen has passenger ferry service to cities along the coast of China as well as the neighbouring island of Kinmen (Jinmen) to the east, which is administered by the Republic of China on Taiwan. These ferries are all served from the Wutong Ferry Terminal to Shuitou Pier, Kinmen on the north-east side of the Xiamen Island (quite distant from downtown Xiamen), ferries to Jinmen take 60 minutes. There are facilities in both directions allowing for quick transfers between Xiamen Gaoqi Airport (for Mainland destinations) and Kinmen Airport (for Taiwanese destinations), which is very popular with large tour groups.
The Heping Wharf Ferry Terminal on the south-west side of Xiamen Island offers short 5 minute boat rides to the island of Gulangyu however this is only accessible by Xiamen residents. Tourists and non-locals must now take a longer 20 minute ferry ride from the main International Ferry Terminal, also called the Dongdu International Terminal, on the south-west side of Xiamen Island., as of October 20, 2014 with a fare increase from 8RMB to 35RMB. This has been in order to reduce tourist numbers accessing the island in an effort to conserve it. This terminal used to have ferries, taking 90 minutes, to Kinmen Island but were ceased in 2014.
The Port of Xiamen is a large deepwater port situated on the northern part of Xiamen Island. It has an excellent natural harbour and well connected to the mainland by road and rail. The Port of Xiamen has since the early 1980s been one of the busiest in China. In 2013, the Port of Xiamen ranked among the top 17 ports in the world for container freight.
The natural coastline in the port area is 64.5 kilometres (40.1 mi) while the water is over 12 m in depth. There are 81 berths for vessels of large, medium or small tonnage, including 16 deep-water berths, of which 6 operate containers of over 10,000 tonnes. Among other cargoes handled, Xiamen is the world's largest supply base for raw tungsten materials. It is the world's largest sunglasses manufacturing base, exporting 120 million pairs each year.
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Xiamen and its surrounding countryside is known for its scenery and tree-lined beaches. Gulangyu, also known as Piano Island, is a popular weekend getaway with views of the city and features many Victorian-era style European edifices. Xiamen's Botanical Garden is a nature lover's paradise. The Buddhist Nanputuo Temple, dating back to the Tang Dynasty, is a national treasure. Xiamen is also famous for its history as a frontline in the Chinese Civil War with Taiwan over Jinmen (also known as Kinmen or Quemoy) 50 years ago. One attraction for tourists is to view Kinmen, a group of islands a few kilometres away and under Taiwanese control, from Xiamen island.
Water Garden Expo Park has a planning area of about 6.76 km2 (2.61 sq mi) (land area of 3.03 km2 (1.17 sq mi)), which consists of five exhibition park islands, four ecological landscapes islands and two peninsulas, including the main pavilion, Chinese Education Park, Marine Culture Island, Spa Island and other functional areas and related facilities
The local vernacular is Amoy, a dialect of Southern Min, also called Hokkien. Amoy is widely used and understood across the southern region of Fujian province as well as overseas. While it is widely spoken in and around Xiamen, the Amoy dialect has no official status, and the official language of all government business is Mandarin. Xiamen is famous for South Music, Xiamen Philharmonic Orchestra, puppet show, Gezi Opera, temple celebration events, and the world-famous singer, Ivy,
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Gulangyu in Xiamen is an island of 1.78 square kilometres (0.69 sq mi). It is also called "Piano Island" by locals. Piano music drifts from the villas and lingers throughout the island's narrow streets, many famous Chinese musicians hail from Xiamen. Every May there's an international music festival, and piano competitions and music festivals are also frequently held. On Huangyan Lu, on the way to Sunlight Rock, there's a concert hall where classical concerts are regularly held on weekends.
Xiamen Wushipu oil painting village has been named as “the second of the world oil painting industry base” and the second batch of national cultural (art) industry base” by the China artist association and the culture property department of Culture Ministry.
Xiamen has strong industry advantage in hand painted oil painting, which has two main manufacturing bases here, Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting Village and Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village. 80% market shares in European and American market is taken up by products exported from Xiamen. As the main manufacturing base of hand painted oil painting in China, Xiamen Wushipu Oil Painting Village has more than 5,000 artists. It has the ability to produce all kinds of oil paintings with different specifications and styles. With the support of Xiamen Municipal Government, it has formed a powerful industrial chain, provided related accessories such as frames, brushes and paint colors and formed stable target customers composed by hotels, villas, high-class departments, galleries and so on. As another mail manufacturing base of oil painting, Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village has more than 3,000 painters. The scale of Xiamen Haicang Oil Painting Village has developed rapidly in recent years, which is from originally 28 enterprises to more than 250 enterprises at the moment. The combination of manufacturing, sales and distribution makes it become industrial base of commercial oil painting.
Xiamen is served by Xiamen Media Group, which broadcasts news and entertainment such as movies and television series by AM/FM radio, close circuit television and satellite television. Media in Xiamen were temporarily blocked by the Government in June 2007 when about 10,000 people participated in protests against the building of a paraxylene factory by Tenglong Aromatic PX (Xiamen) Co. Ltd., which is owned by Taiwanese businessman Chen Yu-hao. The incident, however, was solved smoothly later that year.
Colleges and universities
The first two universities below were founded by Tan Kah Kee.
- Xiamen University (厦门大学) (founded 1921, Project 985, Project 211)
- Jimei University (集美大学)
- Huaqiao University (华侨大学)
- Xiamen academy of arts and design, Fuzhou University (福州大学厦门工艺美术学院)
- Chinese Language and Culture College of Huaqiao University (华侨大学华文学院)
- Xiamen University of Technology (厦门理工学院)
- Xiamen Medical College (厦门医学院)
- Xiamen University Tan Kah Kee College (厦门大学嘉庚学院)
- Jimei University Chengyi College (集美大学诚毅学院)
- Xiamen City University (厦门城市职业学院)
- Xiamen Oceanography Vocational College (厦门海洋职业技术学院)
- Xiamen Nanyang College (厦门南洋学院)
- Xiamen Performing Arts College (厦门演艺职业学院)
- Xiamen Software College (厦门软件学院)
Xiamen is headquarters of the 31st Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies under the Nanjing Military Region, which is responsible for the defense of the eastern China, including any military action in the Taiwan Strait.
- Han Kuo-Huang, ethnomusicologist
- Koxinga, a Ming loyalist
- Lai Changxing, businessman
- Raymond Lam, TVB actor and singer
- Yin Chengzong, pianist
- Henry Sy, Sr., businessman, founder of SM Group and chairman of SM Prime Holdings
- Tan Kah Kee, businessman, community leader, and philanthropist in colonial Singapore, and a Communist leader in the People's Republic of China.
- Lin Qiaozhi, a Chinese physician
- Walter Houser Brattain, American inventor of the transistor; co-recipient of 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics.
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