Xiang Lang

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Xiang Lang
Minister of Shu Han
Born (Unknown)
Died 247[1]
Traditional Chinese 向朗
Simplified Chinese 向朗
Pinyin Xiàng Lǎng
Wade–Giles Hsiang Lang
Courtesy name Juda (traditional Chinese: 巨達; simplified Chinese: 巨达; pinyin: Jùdá; Wade–Giles: Chü-ta)

Xiang Lang (died 247),[1] courtesy name Juda, was a minister of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. He previously served under the warlords Liu Biao and Liu Bei (founder of Shu) in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. He was an uncle of Xiang Chong, a Shu general.

Early life[edit]

In his youth, Xiang Lang was a pupil of Sima Hui alongside Han Song, Pang Tong, Xu Shu and Zhuge Liang. Known for his intelligence, he was made Chief of Linju by Liu Biao. Upon Liu Biao's death, Xiang Lang went to serve under Liu Bei.


After Liu Bei conquered the lands south of the Yangtze River, he appointed Xiang Lang to be in charge of all military and civil affairs of the four counties of Mushan, Yidao, Yiling and Zigui. Once Yi Province was captured, Xiang Lang became Grand Administrator of Baxi, before being transferred to Zangke and then to Fangling. He became Colonel of the Infantry when Liu Bei's son, Liu Shan, succeeded Liu Bei.

Due to a personal friendship with Ma Su, Xiang Lang did not report Ma when he attempted to escape following his defeat in the Battle of Jieting. This angered Zhuge Liang, who, as a result, dismissed Xiang Lang from office. As years passed, Xiang Lang gained rank within the imperial household, and Liu Shan granted him the title of Marquis of Xianming Commune.

Upon being dismissed from office, Xiang Lang spent close to the next 30 years studying classical texts in depth. Well into his 80s, he still proofread and edited literature and was the foremost book-collector of his time. Xiang Lang also received many guests who wished to discuss history and encouraged many young scholars.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b The Sanguozhi mentioned that Xiang Lang died in the 10th year of the Yanxi era (238-257) in Liu Shan's reign. Quote from Sanguozhi vol. 41: (延熈十年卒。)