Xiangxiang dialect

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Xiangxiang dialect
湘乡话
Native toChina
RegionXiangxiang, Hunan province
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Xiangxiang dialect (Chinese: 湘乡话; pinyin: Xiāngxiāng huà) is a dialect of Xiang Chinese, spoken in Xiangxiang, Hunan province, China. It is part of a group of dialects called the Central Xiang dialects[1].

Geographic Distribution[edit]

The linguistic maps below are derived from the Digital Language Atlas of China[2], which is derived from the Language Atlas of China[3], the first atlas to comprehensively catalog and chart the distribution of Chinese dialects[4]. This atlas refers to the two main dialects in Xiangxiang City and its surroundings as Changyi (长益片 / 長益片) and Loushao (娄邵片 / 婁邵片).

The division of Xiang into New Xiang and Old Xiang was introduced by Yuan Jiahua[5], but has been superseded by the Language Atlas of China classifications[6].


Dialect map of Hunan Province according to the Language Atlas of China[2]

Dialects of Hunan Province

The Language Atlas of China serves as the starting point for many efforts to further detail, map and classify Xiang dialects, including the many studies of Bao Houxing and Chen Hui[7][8].

Dialect map of Hunan Province according to Chen and Bao (2007)[9]

Hunan Dialects per Chen and Bao

Linguistic map of Xianxiang City and surrounding counties[3]

Linguistic map of Xiangxiang City and surrounding counties

Sample Locations of Xiangxiang Dialect Studies[1][3][10][11]

Sample Locations of Xiangxiang Dialect Studies

History and Strategic Value[edit]

The Xiang dialect group forms a transitional zone between northern and southern Chinese dialects[5].

Prehistorically, the main inhabitants were Ba_(state), Nanman, Baiyue and other tribes whose languages cannot be studied. During the Warring States Period, large numbers of Chu migrated into Hunan. Their language blended with that of the original natives to produce a new dialect Nanchu (Southern Chu). The culture of Xiangxiang at the center of Hunan is considered to be mainly Chu. The language of Shaoshan, Loudi, Shuangfeng and Xiangxiang (Old Xiangxiang) is considered as originating from a synthesis of Chu and the languages of original natives. [12]

Migrations into Hunan can be divided into three periods. Before the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, migrants came mainly from the North. Between the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period and the Ming dynasty, migrants came mainly from Jiangxi. After the middle of the Ming dynasty, migration gradually became more diverse. Migrants who came from the North mainly in northern Hunan followed by western Hunan. For this reason northern and western Hunan are Mandarin districts. Migrants from Jiangxi concentrated mainly in southeastern Hunan and present day Shaoyang and Xinhua districts. They came for two reasons' The first is that Jiangxi became too crowded and its people sought expansion. The second is that Hunan suffered greatly during the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty, when there was mass slaughter[1], and needed to replenish its population. In the early Ming dynasty, large numbers of migrants came from Jiangxiand settled in present day Yueyang, Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, and Hengyang districts. After the middle of the Ming dynasty, migrants came more diverse, and came more for economic and commerce.[12]

Phonology[edit]

Comparison with Standard Chinese[edit]

Comparison of Xiangxiang Area Loushao and Changyi Dialects with Standard Chinese
Feature Standard Chinese Xiangxiang Locations Ninxiang Location
Dictionary[13] Chao[14] Chengguan[1] Yueshan[11] Jinsou[10] Baitian[10] Huitang[10]
Consonants
and Initials
21 23 29 28 24 26 24
Vowels
and Finals
35 37 37 38 42 37 38
Tones 4 4 7 5 6 6 6

General[edit]

These phonetic charts use IPA phonetic symbols with the addition of curly-tail alveolo-palatal symbols[15] and follow the format set forth by Chao[14].

Consonants[edit]

Consonants of the Xiangxiang dialect[1]
  bilabial alveolar denti-alveolar alveolo-palatal retroflex velar
nasal m n   ȵ   ŋ
plosives voiced b d       ɡ
voiceless unaspirated p t       k
voiceless aspirated      
fricatives voiced           ɣ
voiceless     s ɕ ʂ x
affricates voiced     dz  
voiceless unaspirated     ts  
voiceless aspirated     tsʰ tɕʰ tʂʰ  
lateral approximants   l        

Tones[edit]

Phonemically, Xiangxiang dialect has seven tones[1].

Tone chart of the Xiangxiang dialect
Tone number Tone name Tone contour Description
1 yin ping (陰平) ˥ (55) high
2 yang ping (陽平) ˩˧ (13) extra low rising
2' ci yang ping (次陽平) ˨˧ (23) low rising
3 shang sheng (上聲) ˨˩ (21) low
5 yin qu (陰去) ˦˥ (45) high rising
5' ci yin qu (次陰去) ˧˥ (35) high rising
6 yang qu (陽去) ˧ (33) mid

Jinsou Town[10][edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonants of the Xiangxiang dialect, Jinsou Town
  bilabial alveolar denti-alveolar alveolo-palatal retroflex velar Laryngeal
nasal m n   ȵ   ŋ  
plosives voiced b d       ɡ  
voiceless unaspirated p t       k Ø
voiceless aspirated        
fricatives voiced           ɣ  
voiceless     s ɕ ʂ   x
affricates voiced     dz    
voiceless unaspirated     ts    
voiceless aspirated     tsʰ tɕʰ tʂʰ  
lateral approximants   l          

Yueshan Town[edit]

Tones[edit]

Tone chart of the Xiangxiang dialect, Yueshan Town[11]
Tone number Tone name Tone contour Description
1 yin ping (陰平) ˥ (55) high
2 yang ping (陽平) ˩˧ (13) low rising
3 shang sheng (上聲) ˨˩ (21) low
4 yin qu (陰去) ˦˥ (45) high rising
5 yang qu (陽去) ˨ (22) mid


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Coblin, W. South (2011). Comparative Phonology of the Central Xiāng Dialects. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. ISBN 978-986-02-9803-1.
  2. ^ a b Crissman, Lawrence W. "Digital Language Atlas of China". Harvard Dataverse. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Lavely, William; Berman, Lex. "Language Atlas of China". Language Atlas of China. Harvard Dataverse. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  4. ^ Cao, Zhiyun; Liu, Xiaohai (14 December 2012). "The Introduction of Linguistic Atlas of Chinese Dialects". Papers from the First International Conference on Asian Geolinguistics: 141–151. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b Wu, Yunji (2011). A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects. De Gruyter Mouton. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  6. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Languages: A Look Through the Prism of the Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects (Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs). De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 9783110219142. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  7. ^ Bao, Houxing; Chen, Hui (24 August 2005). "Xiangyu de Fenqu". Fangyan. 2005 (3): 261–270.
  8. ^ Li, Kang-cheng (July 2014). "Comparative Study Reviews of Chinese Dialects in Hunan in Recent Thirty Years". Journal of Hunan University of Science & Technology (Social Science Edition). 17 (4): 136–143. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  9. ^ Chen, Hui; Bao, Houxing (March 2007). "Hunansheng de Hanyu Fangyan (Manuscript)". Fangyan: 250–259. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e 文, 丹 (2004). 湖南宁乡与湘乡边界东段的方言状况. Changsha, China: Hunan Normal University. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Nakajima, Motoki (1990). Report on Xiang Dialects part 2. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. ISBN 4-87297-025-X. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  12. ^ a b Jiang, Junfeng (June 2006). A Phonological Study of Xiangxiang Dialect (PhD). Hunan Normal University. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  13. ^ Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (6 ed.). Beijing: The Commercial Press. 2015. ISBN 978-7100084673.
  14. ^ a b Chao, Yuen Ren (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520002199.
  15. ^ Cook, Richard S. "On the status of the curly-tail alveolo-palatal (舌面前)symbols" (PDF). STEDT. Department of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 3 December 2018.

Bibliography[edit]

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