Xingu River ray

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Xingu River ray
White-blotched River Stingray Potamotrygon leopoldi 2284px.jpg
Potamotrygon leopoldi.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Potamotrygonidae
Genus: Potamotrygon
Species: P. leopoldi
Binomial name
Potamotrygon leopoldi
Castex & Castello, 1970

The Xingu River ray, white-blotched river stingray, or polka-dot stingray (Potamotrygon leopoldi) is a species of freshwater fish in the family Potamotrygonidae. It is endemic to the Xingu River basin in Brazil and prefers rocky bottoms.[1] It is sometimes kept in aquaria.[1]

Appearance and relatives[edit]

P. leopoldi reaches up to 40 cm (16 in) in disc width,[2] 75 cm (30 in) in total length and 20 kg (44 lb) in weight.[3] Females grow larger than males.[4] It is closely related to the similar P. henlei from the Tocantins River basin and P. albimaculata from the Tapajós River basin.[5] Compared to P. henlei, P. leopoldi is deeper black above and its underparts are mostly brownish-dusky (large white center to underparts of P. henlei).[5][6] Compared to P. albimaculata, P. leopoldi has fewer and larger yellowish-white spots above.[5][6]

Potamotrygon leopoldi


  1. ^ a b c Charvet-Almeida, P., Rosa, R.S. & Pinto de Almeida, M. (2009). "Potamotrygon leopoldi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T39403A10226180. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T39403A10226180.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018. 
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). "Potamotrygon leopoldi" in FishBase. February 2017 version.
  3. ^ Fishing World-records: Potamotrygon leopoldi. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  4. ^ "Polka-dot stingray, Potamotrygon leopoldi". Animals. Dallas World Aquarium. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Carvalho, M.R.d. (2016): Description of two extraordinary new species of freshwater stingrays of the genus Potamotrygon endemic to the rio Tapajós basin, Brazil (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), with notes on other Tapajós stingrays. Zootaxa, 4167 (1): 1–63.
  6. ^ a b Ramos, H.A.C. (May 2017), Commercial species of freshwater stingrays in Brazil, Department of Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and Forests, Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and Ministry of the Environment, pp. 1–33