- XEX-based tweaked-codebook mode with ciphertext stealing (XTS mode) is one of the more popular modes of operation for whole-disk encryption.
- XEX is a common form of key whitening.
- XEX is part of some smart card proposals.
In 1984, to protect DES against exhaustive search attacks, Ron Rivest proposed DESX: XOR a prewhitening key to the plaintext, encrypt the result with DES using a secret key, and then XOR a postwhitening key to the encrypted result to produce the final ciphertext.
In 1991, motivated by Rivest's DESX construction, Even and Mansour proposed a much simpler scheme (the "two-key Even–Mansour scheme"), which they suggested was perhaps the simplest possible block cipher: XOR the plaintext with a prewhitening key, apply a publicly known unkeyed permutation (in practice, a pseudorandom permutation) to the result, and then XOR a postwhitening key to the permuted result to produce the final ciphertext.
Orr Dunkelman, Nathan Keller, and Adi Shamir later proved it was possible to simplify the Even–Mansour scheme even further and still retain the same provable security, producing the "single-key Even–Mansour scheme": XOR the plaintext with the key, apply a publicly known unkeyed permutation to the result, and then XOR the same key to the permuted result to produce the final ciphertext.
In 2004, Rogaway presented the XEX scheme.
Many whole-disk encryption systems – BestCrypt, dm-crypt, FreeOTFE, TrueCrypt, DiskCryptor, FreeBSD's geli, OpenBSD softraid disk encryption software, and Mac OS X Lion's FileVault 2 – support XEX-based tweaked-codebook mode with ciphertext stealing (XTS mode).
- Barış Ege, Elif Bilge Kavun, and Tolga Yalçın. "Memory Encryption for Smart Cards". 2011.
- Emmanuel Prouff. "Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications". 2011, p. 201.
- Orr Dunkelman, Nathan Keller, and Adi Shamir. "Minimalism in Cryptography: The Even–Mansour Scheme Revisited".
- Joan Daemen, Laboratorium Esat. "Limitations of the Even–Mansour Construction". 1992. doi: 10.1007/3-540-57332-1_46
- Craig Gentry and Zulfikar Ramzan. "Eliminating Random Permutation Oracles in the Even–Mansour Cipher". 2004.
- Orr Dunkelman; Nathan Keller; and Adi Shamir. "Eurocrypt 2012: Minimalism in Cryptography: The Even-Mansour Scheme Revisited".
- Rogaway, Phillip (2004-09-24). "Efficient Instantiations of Tweakable Blockciphers and Refinements to Modes OCB and PMAC" (PDF).