A Qing dynasty illustration of Xu Huang
|General of the Right (右將軍)|
220 – 227
|General Who Pacifies Bandits (平寇將軍)|
214 – 220
|Monarch||Emperor Xian of Han|
|General Who Sweeps Across the Wilderness|
207 – 214
|Monarch||Emperor Xian of Han|
|Chancellor||Cao Cao (from 208)|
Hongtong County, Shanxi
|Courtesy name||Gongming (公明)|
|Posthumous name||Marquis Zhuang (壯侯)|
|Peerage||Marquis of Yangping|
Xu Huang (pronunciation (help·info)) (died 227), courtesy name Gongming, was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He later served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period under the first two rulers, Cao Pi and Cao Rui, before his death at the start of Cao Rui's reign. Xu Huang is best noted for breaking the siege at the Battle of Fancheng in 219 by routing the enemy commander Guan Yu on the field.
- 1 Early life and service under Yang Feng
- 2 Cao Cao's campaigns in central and northern China
- 3 Battle of Jiangling
- 4 Cao Cao's northwestern campaigns
- 5 Hanzhong Campaign
- 6 Battle of Fancheng
- 7 Service under Cao Pi and Cao Rui
- 8 Appraisal
- 9 In Romance of the Three Kingdoms
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
Early life and service under Yang Feng
Xu Huang was born in Yang County (楊縣), Hedong Commandery, which is located southeast of present-day Hongtong County, Shanxi, in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He served as a minor official in the commandery office in his youth. Later, he became a subordinate of Yang Feng, a former White Wave Bandit who later became a general under the Han central government. Xu Huang later followed Yang Feng to attack rebels and was commissioned as a Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉) as a reward for his efforts.
Between 192 and 195, Li Jue and Guo Si controlled the Han central government and held the figurehead Emperor Xian hostage in the imperial capital, Chang'an (present-day Xi'an, Shaanxi). In 195, internal conflict broke out between Li Jue and Guo Si, whose respective factions started warring with each other in the streets of Chang'an. Yang Feng and Xu Huang were Li Jue's subordinates at the time. In the same year, Xu Huang managed to convince Yang Feng to escort Emperor Xian from Chang'an back to the old Han imperial capital, Luoyang. After Emperor Xian made it safely to Anyi County (安邑縣; west of present-day Xia County, Shanxi), he rewarded Xu Huang by granting him the peerage of a Marquis of a Chief Village (都亭侯).
After they returned to Luoyang with Emperor Xian, internal conflict broke out between the generals Han Xian and Dong Cheng, who were among those who escorted the emperor back to Luoyang. During this time, Xu Huang persuaded Yang Feng to summon the warlord Cao Cao to Luoyang to help them deal with the crisis and protect the emperor. In early 196, Cao Cao and his troops showed up in Luoyang and fetched Emperor Xian to their base in Xu (許; present-day Xuchang, Henan), which became the new Han imperial capital. Yang Feng initially wanted to heed Xu Huang's suggestion and join Cao Cao, but ultimately refused and went his own way. Xu Huang followed him.
Cao Cao's campaigns in central and northern China
Cao Cao sent Xu Huang with an army to attack rebels at Juan County (卷縣; west of present-day Yuanyang County, Henan) and Yuanwu County (原武縣; present-day Yuanyang County, Henan). Xu Huang defeated them and was promoted to Major-General (裨將軍).
During the battles between Cao Cao and Lü Bu in Xu Province in 198, Xu Huang attacked and defeated Lü Bu's subordinates Zhao Shu (趙庶) and Li Zou (李鄒). With aid from Shi Huan, he also defeated and killed Sui Gu (眭固) in Henei Commandery (河內郡; around present-day Jiaozuo, Henan).
In the year 200, during the Battle of Guandu between Cao Cao and Yuan Shao, Xu Huang participated in the early skirmishes at Boma (白馬; near Hua County, Henan) and Yan Ford (延津; present-day Yanjin County, Henan), where he defeated the warlord Liu Bei – who had joined Yuan Shao after losing Xu Province – and Yuan Shao's generals Yan Liang and Wen Chou. He was promoted to Lieutenant-General (偏將軍) for his achievements, and later joined Cao Hong in eliminating rebels led by Zhu Bi (祝臂) at Yinjiang (氵隱 疆; southwest of present-day Xuchang, Henan).
Yuan Shao had stored his supplies at a depot in Gushi (故市; southwest of present-day Yanjin County, Henan). Cao Cao sent Xu Huang and Shi Huan to attack this position. They defeated the defenders at Gushi and burnt down Yuan Shao's grain carts, forcing Yuan Shao to call for relief supplies in response to this raid. Xu Huang received the title of a Marquis of a Chief Village (都亭侯) for his contributions.
A few years later, Xu Huang joined Cao Cao on a campaign against the heirs of Yuan Shao, who had died in 202. In 203, Han Fan (韓範), the Prefect of Yiyang County (易陽縣; northeast of present-day Handan, Hebei), pretended to surrender to Cao Cao while buying time to strengthen his defences. Xu Huang then wrote a letter to Han Fan, tied it to an arrow and fired it into the county. Han Fan became convinced after reading Xu Huang's letter and decided to surrender Yiyang County without putting up resistance.
Before the fall of Yiyang County, Xu Huang went to see Cao Cao and asked him to refrain from massacring the population after Han Fan surrendered. The rationale of their final decision was entirely based on tactical consideration, which was to induce other enemy territories into voluntarily surrendering by setting an example. Cao Cao approved Xu Huang's suggestion.
Xu Huang later set up an ambush and routed the Yuans' forces at Maocheng (毛城), defeated Yuan Tan at the Battle of Nanpi, and suppressed a revolt in Pingyuan Commandery (平原郡; around present-day Dezhou, Shandong). He also participated in Cao Cao's campaign against Yuan Shang, Yuan Xi and the Wuhuan tribes which led to the Battle of White Wolf Mountain in 207. Xu Huang was further promoted to General Who Sweeps Across the Wilderness (橫野將軍) for his contributions in battle.
Battle of Jiangling
In 208, Xu Huang followed Cao Cao to pacify Jing Province (covering present-day Hubei and Hunan), and participated in the Battle of Red Cliffs in the winter of 208–209. When Cao Cao retreated north after his defeat at Red Cliffs, Xu Huang was ordered to stay behind with Cao Ren in Jiangling County to resist attacks by Sun Quan's forces.
During this time, Xu Huang was stationed at Fancheng (樊城; present-day Fancheng District, Xiangyang, Hubei) and he defeated opposing forces in Zhonglu (中廬), Linju (臨沮) and Yicheng (宜城) counties. During the Battle of Jiangling, he joined Man Chong in attacking Guan Yu at Han Ford (漢津), and Cao Ren in resisting attacks by Zhou Yu at Jiangling.
Cao Cao's northwestern campaigns
In 210, Xu Huang led his troops to attack rebels in Taiyuan Commandery (太原郡; around present-day Taiyuan, Shanxi), besieged them in Daling County (大陵縣; northeast of present-day Wenshui County, Shanxi), and defeated and killed the rebel leader Shang Yao (商曜).
In 211, when Han Sui and Ma Chao led a coalition of northwestern warlords to start an uprising in Liang Province (covering parts of present-day Shaanxi and Gansu), Cao Cao ordered Xu Huang to move to Fenyin County (汾陰縣; southwest of present-day Wanrong County, Shanxi) and pacify the people in Hedong Commandery. He also awarded Xu Huang gifts of cattle and alcohol, and allowed him to repair and clean up his ancestors' tombs.
When Cao Cao led his forces to Tong Pass to engage the coalition, he became worried that he could not cross the Wei River to attack the enemy so he consulted Xu Huang for advice. Xu Huang suggested to Cao Cao to send him north and cross the Yellow River via Puban Ford to circumvent Tong Pass from the west of the river.[a]
Cao Cao approved Xu Huang's plan and sent him and Zhu Ling to lead 4,000 troops across the river. They crossed Puban and started pitching camps, but before the defence fortification was completed, one of the coalition members, Liang Xing (梁興), discovered their presence and led some 5,000 troops to attack them. Xu Huang and Zhu Ling managed to hold off Liang Xing and allow Cao Cao and his remaining forces to cross the river.
After Cao Cao's victory at Tong Pass, he sent Xu Huang and Xiahou Yuan to pacify the various Di tribes in Yumi County (隃麋縣; east of present-day Qianyang County, Shaanxi) and Qian County (汧縣; south of present-day Long County, Shaanxi). Xu Huang and Xiahou Yuan later rendezvoused with Cao Cao's main army at Anding Commandery (安定郡; around present-day Zhenyuan County, Gansu). After Cao Cao had returned to Ye (in present-day Handan, Hebei), he sent Xu Huang and Xiahou Yuan again to suppress revolts in Fu County (鄜縣; southwest of present-day Huangling County, Shaanxi) and Xiayang County (夏陽縣; southwest of present-day Hancheng, Shaanxi), where they defeated Liang Xing and forced some 3,000 civilian households into submission.
When Cao Cao embarked on another campaign in western China to attack the warlord Zhang Lu in Hanzhong, he sent Xu Huang with a separate force to pacify the Di tribes living in Du (櫝) and Chouyi (仇夷) mountains. Xu Huang succeeded and was promoted to General Who Pacifies Bandits (平寇將軍). Later, Xu Huang also lifted rebels' siege on Zhang Shun (張順), one of Cao Cao's officers, and defeated the rebel leader Chen Fu (陳福) and destroyed some 30 rebel camps.
Cao Cao returned to Ye (in present-day Handan, Hebei) after his victory over Zhang Lu at the Battle of Yangping in 215. He left Xu Huang and Xiahou Yuan behind to defend Hanzhong Commandery against attacks by Liu Bei.
During this time, Liu Bei sent Chen Shi to lead troops to cut off Xiahou Yuan's supply routes at Mamingge (馬鳴閣), Hanzhong's main communication line. Xu Huang led a separate detachment to launch a fierce attack on Chen Shi and defeated him. The casualty rate on Chen Shi's side was very high as many of his soldiers were forced to jump off the cliff during the attack.
Cao Cao was delighted when he heard of the victory and he gave orders to Xu Huang: "This pass is a crucial gateway into Hanzhong. Liu Bei intends to isolate the pass and then move on to conquer Hanzhong. You have done well in foiling the enemy's attempt." Cao Cao then personally led reinforcements to Hanzhong Commandery to counter Liu Bei's advances.
Battle of Fancheng
Xu Huang's most glorious moment in his military career came at the Battle of Fancheng in 219. When Fancheng (樊城; in present-day Xiangyang, Hubei) and Xiangyang were besieged by Liu Bei's general Guan Yu, Cao Cao first sent Yu Jin to lead a relief force to lift the siege but Yu Jin's seven armies were destroyed by a flood. Cao Cao then ordered Xu Huang to lead a second relief force to lift the siege. Cao Ren, the general defending Fancheng, and Lü Chang (呂常), who defended Xiangyang, were both under siege for months.
Knowing that most of his soldiers were composed of new recruits without training, Xu Huang did not go straight into battle but camped behind the enemy at Yanglingbei (陽陵陂; northwest of present-day Xiangyang, Hubei) to impose a deterrent effect. In the meantime, Cao Cao sent subordinates Xu Shang (徐商) and Lü Jian (呂建) to assist Xu Huang and instructed Xu Huang to advance only when Xu Shang, Lü Jian and all other reinforcements had arrived.
At the time, Guan Yu had set up a camp at Yancheng (偃城; north of present-day Xiangyang, Hubei). When Xu Huang showed up, he ordered his troops to pretend to dig trenches around Yancheng to fool the enemy into thinking that they were trying to cut off the supply routes leading to Yancheng. The enemy fell for his ruse, burnt down their camp and abandoned their position, thus allowing Xu Huang to gain a foothold at Yancheng. After capturing Yancheng, Xu Huang pressed on and set up two linked camps about 30 zhangs away from Guan Yu's encirclement. Before Xu Huang attacked, Cao Cao sent Yin Shu (殷署), Zhu Gai (朱蓋) and other officers to lead another 12 military units to support him.
Guan Yu's encirclement was made up of five camps – one main camp leading the siege and four supporting camps. Xu Huang deliberately spread news that he was going to attack the main camp to trick Guan Yu into strengthening his defences at the main camp. In the meantime, he secretly sent his forces to attack the four supporting camps and succeeded in destroying them. When Guan Yu saw that the four camps were down, he personally led 5,000 troops to engage the enemy. Xu Huang launched a fierce attack on Guan Yu and succeeded in defeating him and lifting the siege on Fancheng. During Xu Huang's attack, many of Guan Yu's soldiers panicked and fled towards the nearby Han River, where they drowned.
When Cao Cao heard of the victory, he praised Xu Huang: "The enemy formation was very thick, yet you managed to achieve victory and destroyed their camps and killed so many of their men. I have fought in battles for over 30 years, but I have never heard of any person in history who attempted to break a siege by launching a direct attack on the enemy's encirclement. The situation at Fancheng and Xiangyang was much worse than that at Ju and Jimo.[b] Your achievements are comparable to those of Sun Wu and Rangju."[c]
The Shu Ji (蜀記) recorded an incident about Xu Huang meeting Guan Yu on the battlefield. Xu Huang had a close personal friendship with Guan Yu. They often chatted about other things apart from military affairs. When they met again at Fancheng, Xu Huang gave an order to his men: "Whoever manages to take Guan Yunchang's head will be rewarded with 1,000 jin of gold." Guan Yu was shocked and he asked Xu Huang: "Brother, what are you talking about?" Xu Huang replied: "This is an affair of the State."
Upon Xu Huang's return, Cao Cao went seven li out of Xuchang to greet him, giving him full credit for securing Fancheng and Xiangyang. Throughout the field reception, the soldiers of other commanders shifted about in order to get a better view of Cao Cao, but Xu Huang's men stood stationary in neat files. Seeing this, Cao Cao remarked: "General Xu has truly inherited the style of Zhou Yafu."
Service under Cao Pi and Cao Rui
Following Cao Cao's death in March 220, his son Cao Pi succeeded him and inherited his vassal king title as the King of Wei (魏王). Xu Huang continued to be heavily trusted by Cao Pi, and he was appointed General of the Right (右將軍) and enfeoffed as the Marquis of Lu District (逯鄉侯).
In late 220, Cao Pi usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, ended the Eastern Han dynasty, and established the state of Cao Wei (or Wei) with himself as the new emperor. After his coronation, Cao Pi promoted Xu Huang from a district marquis to a county marquis under the title "Marquis of Yang" (楊侯).
Later, Cao Pi ordered Xu Huang and Xiahou Shang to lead an army to attack Shangyong Commandery (上庸郡; in present-day northwestern Hubei). After completing his mission, Xu Huang moved to the garrison at Yangping County (陽平縣; present-day Shen County, Shandong), so his marquis title was changed to "Marquis of Yangping" (陽平侯).
Cao Pi died in 226 and was succeeded by his son Cao Rui as the emperor of Wei. During that time, Xu Huang successfully repelled an invasion on Xiangyang by the Wu general Zhuge Jin. For his contributions, he was awarded another 200 taxable households in his marquisate, bringing the total number to 3,100.
When Xu Huang became seriously ill later, he gave instructions that he was to be given a simple burial after his death. He died in 227 and was granted the posthumous title "Marquis Zhuang" (壯侯), which literally means "robust marquis".
Xu Huang's son, Xu Gai (徐蓋), inherited his father's peerage as the Marquis of Yangping. After Xu Gai died, his son Xu Ba (徐霸) succeeded him as the next Marquis of Yangping. Cao Rui later divided their marquisate and awarded marquis titles to two descendants of Xu Huang.
Chen Shou concluded Xu Huang's biography in the Sanguozhi with a brief appraisal:
"Xu Huang led a humble and simple life and he was very self-disciplined. When he went into battle and realised he could not win, he would still encourage his men to fight on in pursuit of glory and they did not rest or have meals until they had won. He often sighed: 'The people in the past complained that they did not have a chance to meet and serve a wise lord. Now, I am privileged to have encountered one, so I should do my best to serve him instead of seeking to increase my personal fame!' He did not maintain a wide social network throughout his life."
In Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Xu Huang is a character in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which romanticises the events before and during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He makes his first appearance in Chapter 13 as a subordinate of Yang Feng. Xu Huang and Yang Feng escort Emperor Xian back to Luoyang after the emperor escapes from Li Jue and Guo Si's clutches in Chang'an.
When Cao Cao comes to Luoyang to fetch the emperor to his base in Xuchang, Yang Feng sends Xu Huang to stop him. Cao Cao knows on first sight that Xu Huang is an extraordinary man so he orders Xu Chu to duel with Xu Huang. Neither side can gain an advantage over each other after 50 bouts, and by then, Cao Cao is very impressed by Xu Huang's skill. Not wanting either of the two men to get hurt, Cao Cao calls for Xu Chu to retreat. Man Chong, one of Cao Cao's subordinates, knows that his lord wants to recruit Xu Huang so he volunteers to persuade Xu Huang to defect to their side. That very night, Man Chong disguises himself as a common soldier, sneaks into Xu Huang's tent and manages to convince him to switch allegiance to Cao Cao. Man Chong then suggests that Xu Huang slays Yang Feng to prove his loyalty to Cao Cao, but Xu Huang refuses to kill his former superior out of respect for him.
In the novel, Xu Huang meets his end during the Xincheng Rebellion when he is struck by an arrow in the forehead fired by the rebel leader Meng Da. His men immediately take him back to camp, where the physician removes the arrow and tries to heal him, but Xu Huang eventually dies later that night. The novel states that he is 59 years old at the time of his death. This figure, however, is not supported by any evidence from historical records.
In popular culture
Xu Huang is featured as a playable character in Koei's Dynasty Warriors and Warriors Orochi video game series. He also appears in all instalments of Koei's Romance of the Three Kingdoms strategy game series.
- Pei Songzhi pointed out that Chen Shou made a mistake when he quoted Xu Huang referring to himself as "your subject" (臣) in front of Cao Cao because Cao Cao was not a vassal king yet at the time.
- Cao Cao was referring to the military exploits of Tian Dan, a general of the Qi state in the Spring and Autumn period. In 284 BCE, Tian Dan successfully defended the city of Ju (莒; formerly the Ju state, which was annexed by Qi) from an attack by the Yan state. He defeated Yan forces again later in 279 BCE at the siege of Jimo (即墨) by using the "Fire Cattle Columns" strategy.
- "Rangju" refers to Tian Rangju, a general of the Qi state in the Spring and Autumn period who was famous for his military discipline.
- (太和元年薨， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (評曰：太祖建茲武功，而時之良將，五子為先。于禁最號毅重，然弗克其終。張郃以巧變為稱，樂進以驍果顯名，而鑒其行事，未副所聞。或注記有遺漏，未如張遼、徐晃之備詳也。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (徐晃字公明，河東楊人也。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (為郡吏，從車騎將軍楊奉討賊有功，拜騎都尉。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vols. 60-61.
- (李傕、郭汜之亂長安也，晃說奉，令與天子還洛陽，奉從其計。天子渡河至安邑，封晃都亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vol. 62.
- (及到洛陽，韓暹、董承日爭鬬，晃說奉令歸太祖；奉欲從之，後悔。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖討奉於梁，晃遂歸太祖。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖授晃兵，使擊卷、原武賊，破之，拜裨將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (從征呂布，別降布將趙庶、李鄒等。與史渙斬眭固於河內。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vol. 63.
- (從破劉備，又從破顏良，拔白馬，進至延津，破文醜，拜偏將軍。與曹洪擊彊賊祝臂，破之， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (... 又與史渙擊袁紹運車於故市，功最多，封都亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vol. 64.
- (太祖旣圍鄴，破邯鄲，易陽令韓範偽以城降而拒守，太祖遣晃攻之。晃至，飛矢城中，為陳成敗。范悔，晃輒降之。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (既而言於太祖曰：「二袁未破，諸城未下者傾耳而聽，今日滅易陽，明日皆以死守，恐河北無定時也。原公降易陽以示諸城，則莫不望風。」太祖善之。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (別討毛城，設伏兵掩擊，破三屯。從破袁譚於南皮，討平原叛賊，克之。從征蹋頓，拜橫野將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vol. 65.
- (從征荊州，別屯樊，討中廬、臨沮、宜城賊。又與滿寵討關羽於漢津，與曹仁擊周瑜於江陵。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vol. 66.
- ([建安]十五年，討太原反者，圍大陵，拔之，斬賊帥商曜。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (韓遂、馬超等反關右，遣晃屯汾陰以撫河東，賜牛酒，令上先人墓。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (臣松之云：案晃于時未應稱臣，傳寫者誤也。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖至潼關，恐不得渡，召問晃。晃曰：「公盛兵於此，而賊不復別守蒲阪，知其無謀也。今假臣精兵渡蒲阪津，為軍先置，以截其裏，賊可擒也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖曰：「善。」使晃以步騎四千人渡津。作塹柵未成，賊梁興夜將步騎五千餘人攻晃，晃擊走之，太祖軍得渡。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (遂破超等，使晃與夏侯淵平隃麋、汧諸氐，與太祖會安定。太祖還鄴，使晃與夏侯淵平鄜、夏陽餘賊，斬梁興，降三千餘戶。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (從征張魯。別遣晃討攻櫝、仇夷諸山氐，皆降之。遷平寇將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (解將軍張順圍。擊賊陳福等三十餘屯，皆破之。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖還鄴，留晃與夏侯淵拒劉備於陽平。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (備遣陳式等十餘營絕馬鳴閣道，晃別征破之，賊自投山谷，多死者。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖聞，甚喜，假晃節，令曰：「此閣道，漢中之險要咽喉也。劉備欲斷絕外內，以取漢中。將軍一舉，克奪賊計，善之善者也。」太祖遂自至陽平，引出漢中諸軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (復遣晃助曹仁討關羽，屯宛。會漢水暴隘，于禁等沒。羽圍仁於樊，又圍將軍呂常於襄陽。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (晃所將多新卒，以羽難與爭鋒，遂前至陽陵陂屯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖復還，遣將軍徐商、呂建等詣晃，令曰：「須兵馬集至，乃俱前。」) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (賊屯偃城。晃到，詭道作都塹，示欲截其後，賊燒屯走。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (晃得偃城，兩面連營，稍前，去賊圍三丈所。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (未攻，太祖前後遣殷署、朱蓋等凡十二營詣晃。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (賊圍頭有屯，又別屯四冢。晃揚聲當攻圍頭屯，而密攻四冢。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (羽見四冢欲壞，自將步騎五千出戰，晃擊之，退走，遂追陷與俱入圍，破之，或自投沔水死。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖令曰：「賊圍塹鹿角十重，將軍致戰全勝，遂陷賊圍，多斬首虜。吾用兵三十餘年，及所聞古之善用兵者，未有長驅徑入敵圍者也。且樊、襄陽之在圍，過於莒、即墨，將軍之功，踰孫武、穰苴。」) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (蜀記曰：羽與晃宿相愛，遙共語，但說平生，不及軍事。須臾，晃下馬宣令：「得關雲長頭，賞金千斤。」羽驚怖，謂晃曰：「大兄，是何言邪！」晃曰：「此國之事耳。」) Shu Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 36.
- (晃振旅還摩陂，太祖迎晃七里，置酒大會。太祖舉巵酒勸晃，且勞之曰：「全樊、襄陽，將軍之功也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (時諸軍皆集，太祖案行諸營，士卒咸離陣觀，而晃軍營整齊，將士駐陣不動。太祖歎曰：「徐將軍可謂有周亞夫之風矣。」) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vol. 69.
- (文帝即王位，以晃為右將軍，進封逯鄉侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (及踐阼，進封楊侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (與夏侯尚討劉備於上庸，破之。以晃鎮陽平，徙封陽平侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sima (1084), vol. 70.
- (明帝即位，拒吳將諸葛瑾於襄陽。增邑二百，并前三千一百戶。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (病篤，遺令歛以時服。 ... 太和元年薨，謚曰壯侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (子蓋嗣。蓋薨，子霸嗣。明帝分晃戶，封晃子孫二人列侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (性儉約畏慎，將軍常遠斥候，先為不可勝，然後戰，追奔爭利，士不暇食。常歎曰：「古人患不遭明君，今幸遇之，常以功自效，何用私譽為！」終不廣交援。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Sanguo Yanyi ch. 13.
- Sanguo Yanyi ch. 94.
- Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050.
- Luo, Guanzhong (14th century). Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo Yanyi).
- Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
- Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.