Xuande Emperor

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Xuande Emperor
明宣宗画像.jpg
5th Emperor of the Ming dynasty
Reign 27 June 1425 – 31 January 1435
Coronation 27 June 1425
Predecessor Hongxi Emperor
Successor Zhengtong Emperor
Born (1399-03-16)16 March 1399
Beijing
Died 31 January 1435(1435-01-31) (aged 35)
Burial Jingling, Ming tombs, Beijing
Full name
Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基)
Era name and dates
Xuande (): 8 February 1426 – 17 January 1436
Posthumous name
Emperor Xiantian Chongdao Yingming Shensheng Qinwen Zhaowu Kuanren Chunxiao Zhang
憲天崇道英明神聖欽文昭武寬仁純孝章皇帝
Temple name
Ming Xuanzong
明宣宗
House House of Zhu
Father Hongxi Emperor
Mother Empress Chengxiaozhao
Xuande Emperor
Chinese 宣德帝
Ming dynasty Xuande mark and period (1426–35) imperial blue and white vase. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

The Xuande Emperor (Chinese: 宣德帝; pinyin: Xuāndédì; 16 March 1399[1] – 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435. His era name "Xuande" means "Proclamation of Virtue".

Life[edit]

Zhu Zhanji was the eldest son of the Hongxi Emperor and Empress Chengxiaozhao. He was described as a crown prince who was endowed with the quality of an excellent monarch in a section surrounded by superstition, of his biography. His grandfather, Yongle Emperor, had high hopes that he might play an important part to assist his father.[2]

He was fond of poetry and literature. Although he continued to refer to Beijing as the secondary capital on all official documents, he maintained it as his residence and continued to rule there in the style of his grandfather, the Yongle Emperor. He permitted Zheng He to lead the seventh and last of his maritime expeditions.

The Xuande Emperor's uncle, Zhu Gaoxu (the Prince of Han), had been a favorite of the Yongle Emperor for his military successes, but he disobeyed imperial instructions and in 1417 had been exiled to the small fief of Le'an in Shandong. When Zhu Gaoxu revolted, the Xuande Emperor took 20,000 soldiers and attacked him at Le'an. Zhu Gaoxu surrendered soon afterward, was reduced to the status of a commoner. Six hundred rebelling officials were executed, and 2,200 were banished. The emperor did not wish to execute his uncle at the start, but later events angered the emperor so much that Zhu Gaoxu was executed through fire torture. All his sons were executed as well. It is very likely that Zhu Gaoxu's arrogance, well detailed in many historic texts, offended the emperor. A theory states that when the emperor went to visit his uncle, Zhu Gaoxu intentionally tripped him.

In 1428, the Xuande Emperor granted King Hashi of Chūzan the family name Shang (尚, Shō in Japanese), gave him the title of Liuqiu Wang (琉球王, Jap: Ryūkyū-Ō, King of Ryūkyū), and gifted him a red lacquered tablet with Chung Shan (中山, Chūzan in Japanese) inscribed in gold, which was then placed on the Chūzonmon gate near Shuri Castle.[3]

The Xuande Emperor wanted to withdraw his troops from Việt Nam, but some of his advisors disagreed. After Ming garrisons suffered heavy casualties, the emperor sent Liu Sheng with an army. These were badly defeated by the Vietnamese. The Ming forces withdrew and the Xuande Emperor eventually recognized the independence of Việt Nam. In the north, the Xuande Emperor was inspecting the border with 3,000 cavalry troops in 1428 and was able to retaliate against a raid by the Mongols of the Northern Yuan dynasty. The Ming government let Arughtai's Eastern Mongols battle with Toghon's Oirat tribes of the west. The Ming imperial court received horses annually from Arughtai, but he was defeated by the Oirats in 1431 and was killed in 1434 when Toghon took over eastern Mongolia. The Ming government then maintained friendly relations with the Oirats. China's diplomatic relations with Japan improved in 1432. Relations with Korea were generally good with the exception of the Koreans resenting having to send virgins occasionally to the Xuande Emperor's imperial harem.

A privy council of eunuchs strengthened centralized power by controlling the Jinyiwei (secret police), and their influence continued to grow. In 1428, the notorious censor Liu Guan was sentenced to penal servitude and was replaced by the incorruptible Gu Zuo (d. 1446), who dismissed 43 members of the Beijing and Nanjing censorates for incompetence. Some censors were demoted, imprisoned, and banished, but none were executed. Replacements were put on probation as the censorate investigated the entire Ming administration including the military. The same year the emperor reformed the rules governing military conscription and the treatment of deserters. Yet the hereditary military continued to be inefficient and to suffer from poor morale. Huge inequalities in tax burdens had caused many farmers in some areas to leave their farms in the past forty years. In 1430, the Xuande Emperor ordered tax reductions on all imperial lands and sent out "touring pacifiers" to coordinate provincial administration, exercising civilian control over the military. They attempted to eliminate the irregularities and the corruption of the revenue collectors. The emperor often ordered retrials that allowed thousands of innocent people to be released.

The Xuande Emperor died of illness in 1435 after ruling for ten years. He ruled over a remarkably peaceful period with no significant external or internal problems. Later historians have considered his reign to be the height of the Ming dynasty's golden age.

The emperor as an artist[edit]

"Gibbons at play", painting by the Xuande Emperor (1427)
A porcelain ding vessel from the Xuande era of the Ming dynasty.

The Xuande Emperor was known as an accomplished painter, particularly skilled at painting animals. Some of his art work is preserved in the National Palace Museum, Taipei and Arthur M. Sackler Museum (a division of Harvard Art Museum) in Cambridge. Robert D. Mowry, the curator of Chinese art at the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, described him as "the only Ming emperor who displayed genuine artistic talent and interest."[4]

Also, the Xuande mark and period (1426-35) is often considered one of the most sophisticated periods in the history of Chinese Blue and White porcelain crafts. [5]

Ancestry[edit]

Family[edit]

Consorts and their Respective Issue:

  1. Shanxiang, Empress Gongrang Zhang of the Hu clan (恭让章皇后 胡善祥; 1402 – 1443)[6][7]
    1. 1st daughter: Princess of Shunde (顺德公主; 1420 – 1443)[8]
    2. 2nd daughter (died young): Princess of Yongqing (永清公主; d. 1433)
  2. Empress Xiaogong Zhang of the Sun clan (孝恭章皇后 孙氏; 1399 – 1462)[9][10]
    1. 3rd daughter: Princess of Changde (常德公主; 1424 – 1470)[11]
    2. 1st son: Zhu Qizhen, Yingzong (英宗 祁镇; 29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464)[12]
  3. Empress Dowager Xiaoyi of the Wu clan (孝翼皇太后 吴氏; 1397 – 16 January 1462)[13][14]
    1. 2nd son: Zhu Qiyu, Daizong (代宗 祁钰; 21 September 1428 – 14 March 1457)[15]
  4. Noble Consort Duanjing of the He clan (端静贵妃 何氏; d. 1435)[16][17]
  5. Consort Chunjing Xian of the Zhao clan (纯静贤妃 赵氏; d. 1435)[18]
  6. Consort Zhenshun Hui of the He clan (贞顺惠妃 吴氏; d. 1435)[19]
  7. Consort Zhuangjing Shu of the Jiao clan (庄静淑妃 焦氏; d. 1435)[20]
  8. Consort Zhuangshun Jing of the Cao clan (庄顺敬妃 曹氏; d. 1435)[21]
  9. Consort Zhenhui Shun of the Xu clan (贞惠顺妃 徐氏; d. 1435)[22]
  10. Consort Gongding Li of the Yuan clan (恭定丽妃 袁氏; d. 1435)[23]
  11. Consort Zhenjing Gong of the Zhu clan (贞静恭妃 诸氏; d. 1435)[24]
  12. Consort Gongshun Chong of the Li clan (恭顺充妃 李氏; d. 1435)[25]
  13. Consort Suxi Cheng of the He clan (肃僖成妃 何氏; d. 1435)[26]
  14. Consort Shu of the Liu clan (淑妃 刘氏)

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ 《宣宗章皇帝實錄》. “仁宗昭皇帝嫡長子,母今太皇太后,以己卯歲二月九日生上於北京。” (in Chinese)
  2. ^ History of Ming, Vol.9
  3. ^ Kerr, George. Okinawa: History of an Island People. 1958, Tokyo, Charles E. Tuttle Company. Page 90.
  4. ^ "Imperial Salukis: Speedy hounds, portrayed by a Chinese emperor". Harvard Magazine, May–June 2007.
  5. ^ Yi Ching, Leung. "2016 Top 20 Chinese porcelain auctions (Sotheby's/ Christie's)". www.zentopia-culture.com/. Leung Yi Ching. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  6. ^ daughter of Hu Rong (荣) and Lady Liu (刘)
  7. ^ Crown Princess (1424), Empress (1425–1428), Empress Gongrang Zhang (1463)
  8. ^ m. 1437: Shi Jing (石璟)
  9. ^ daughter of Sun Zhong (忠), Count of Huichang (会昌) and Dong Yuanzhen (董元贞)
  10. ^ Noble Consort (1424), Empress (1428), Empress Dowager (1435), Empress Dowager Shangsheng (上圣; 1449), Empress Dowager Shenglie (圣烈; 1457), Empress Xiaogong Zhang (1462)
  11. ^ m. 1440: Xue Huan (薛桓)
  12. ^ Crown Prince (1428), Emperor (1435), Retired Emperor (1449), Emperor (1457), Yingzong (1464)
  13. ^ daughter of Wu Yanming (彦名) and Lady Shen (神)
  14. ^ Consort Xian (贤; 1428), Empress Dowager (1449), Consort Xuanmiao Xian (宣庙; 1457), Consort Rongsi Xian (荣思; 1462), Empress Dowager Xiaoyi (1644)
  15. ^ Prince of Cheng (郕; 1435), Emperor (1449), Prince Li of Cheng (戾; 1457), Emperor Jing (景; 1464), Daizong (1644)
  16. ^ Consort Hui (惠; 1426), Noble Consort Duanjing (1435)
  17. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  18. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  19. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  20. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  21. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  22. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  23. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  24. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  25. ^ forced to commit self-immolation
  26. ^ forced to commit self-immolation

References[edit]

For details on the Xuande Emperor see The Cambridge History of China Vol 7, pages 285 to 304. This article is essentially a summary of those pages.

Further reading[edit]

  • "Early Ming China" by Edward Dreyer (1982).
  • "Chinese Government in Ming Times" by Charles Hucker (1969).
Xuande Emperor
Born: 25 February 1398 Died: 31 January 1435
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Hongxi Emperor
Emperor of China
1425–1435
Succeeded by
The Zhengtong Emperor