Xuanzang (Journey to the West)
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Depiction of Xuanzang
The four heroes of Journey to the West, Xuánzàng on the second from the left, riding on Yulong. Painted decotation in the Long Corridor at the Summer Palace in Beijing, China
|Literal meaning||three collections|
|Literal meaning||Tang Monk|
He is mainly referred to as Tang Sanzang in the novel. The title Sanzang refers to his mission to seek the Sanzangjing, or the "Three Collections of (Buddhist) Scriptures". In some English translations of Journey to the West, the title is rendered as Tripitaka which is the original Sanskrit term for the Sanzangjing. He is also widely known as Tang Seng, which is a courtesy name that, like the former name, Tang Sanzang, reflects his status as an oath brother of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty.
In the novel, Xuanzang is a Chinese Buddhist monk who had renounced his family to join the Sangha from childhood. He is actually a reincarnation of Golden Cicada (simplified Chinese: 金蝉子; traditional Chinese: 金蟬子; pinyin: Jīn Chánzǐ), a disciple of the Buddha. He is sent on a mission to Tianzhu (an ancient Chinese name for India) to fetch a set of Buddhist scriptures back to China for the purpose of spreading Buddhism in his native land. He becomes sworn brothers with Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, and the emperor sees him off from the capital Chang'an and orders two escorts to accompany him.
Xuanzang is helpless in defending himself and his two escorts are killed during his first encounter with demons after his departure from Chang'an. The bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin) helps Xuanzang find three powerful supernatural beings - Sun Wukong, Zhu Bajie and Sha Wujing - to aid and protect him on his journey. The three become Xuanzang's disciples and will receive enlightenment and redemption for their past sins once the pilgrimage is complete. Along the journey, Xuanzang is constantly terrorised by monsters and demons because of a legend which says that one can attain immortality by consuming his flesh because he is a reincarnation of a holy being.
At the end of the novel, Xuanzang is appointed as the Buddha of Sandalwood Merit(Traditional Chinese: 旃檀功德佛, Pinyin: zhantan gongde fo).
Xuanzang is modeled after the historical Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk of the same name, whose life was the book's inspiration; the real Xuanzang made a perilous journey on foot from China to India (and back) to obtain Buddhist sutras.
In contrast to the historical Xuanzang, a wise and learned scholar (he was in his late 20s when he left for India), the fictional Xuanzang is presented as a young monk who is extremely naive, showing idealistic compassion without wisdom. Xuanzang is usually quick to fall for the facades of demons who have disguised themselves as innocent humans, whereas Sun Wukong can see through them with his magic powers (specifically fire eyes that can see through the said disguises). This frequently leads to tension when Sun Wukong attacks and kills apparently innocent humans when the demon has in fact simply abandoned the corpse and run away. One such popular instance was when the White Bone Demon (白骨夫人, Chinese: Bai Gu Fu Ren) disguised three times as family members — first, a young woman. After Wukong "killed" the woman, the demon escaped, but Wukong was punished by Xuanzang for it. The second was the young woman's elderly mother, looking for her daughter. The third was the young woman's elderly father, searching for his wife and child. Upon the "death" of the father by Wukong's hands, Wukong finally killed the demon before she got away. Xuanzang, convinced that Wukong had actually killed three innocent people, sent him away, despite protests. Xuanzang usually punishes him by chanting the words of the headache spell (緊箍咒) given to Xuanzang by the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin) to control Wukong, which causes the latter's headband to contract and give him acute headaches.
As Sun Wukong is often worshiped as a protector god, so is Xuanzang. Ksitigarbha, a highly revered bodhisattva in East Asian Buddhism, is occasionally mistaken for Xuanzang because the former is often portrayed like Xuanzang - dressed in a similarly-patterned kasaya, wearing a Buddhist crown, and wielding a khakkhara.