Xylyl bromide, also known as methylbenzyl bromide or T-stoff ("Substance-T"), is any member or a mixture of organic chemical compounds with the molecular formula C6H4(CH3)(CH2Br). The mixture was formerly used as a tear gas. All members and the mixture are colourless liquids, although commercial or older samples appear yellowish.
Use as a weapon
Xylyl bromide is an irritant and lachrymatory agent. It has been incorporated in chemical weapons since the early months of World War I. Some commentators say the first use was in August 1914, when the French attacked German soldiers with tear gas grenades, but the agent used in that incident was more likely to be ethyl bromoacetate, which the French had tested before the war.
The first extensive use of xylyl bromide was the firing by German forces of 18,000 "T-shells" at Russian positions in the Battle of Bolimów in January 1915. The shells were modified 15 cm (6 inch) artillery shells containing an explosive charge and c. 3 kg (7 lb) xylyl bromide. The attack was a complete failure because the winter weather was too cold to permit an effective aerosol, and the agent was either blown back towards the German lines, fell harmlessly to the ground, or was insufficiently concentrated to cause damage. A similar attack at Nieuwpoort in March 1915 was also unsuccessful. Nevertheless, because of its ease of manufacture xylyl bromide was widely used in World War I, in particular as a component of the Germans' Weisskreuz (white cross) mixture.
- CAS RN NIST record) : o-xylyl bromide (2-methylbenzyl bromide, systematic name 1-(bromomethyl)-2-methylbenzene) (
- CAS RN NIST record) : m-xylyl bromide (3-methylbenzyl bromide, systematic name 1-(bromomethyl)-3-methylbenzene) (
- CAS RN NIST record) : p-xylyl bromide (4-methylbenzyl bromide, systematic name 1-(bromomethyl)-4-methylbenzene) (
In the absence of clarification, the name "xylyl bromide" may refer to any one of these isomers or a mixture of all three.
- Chris Trueman. "Poison Gas and World war One". History Learning Site. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- Michael Duffy (August 22, 2009). "Weapons of War - Poison Gas". firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- Corey J Hilmas, Jeffery K Smart, Benjamin A Hill (2008). "Chapter 2: History of Chemical Warfare (pdf)". Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare (PDF). Borden Institute. pp. 12–14.