Yōshoku

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In Japanese cuisine, yōshoku (洋食, western food) refers to a style of Western-influenced cooking which originated during the Meiji Restoration. These are primarily Japanized forms of European dishes, often featuring Western names, and usually written in katakana. It is an example of fusion cuisine.

History[edit]

At the beginning of the Meiji Restoration (1868 to 1912), national seclusion was eliminated and the Meiji Emperor declared Western ideas helpful for Japan's future progress. As part of the reforms, the Emperor lifted the ban on red meat and promoted Western cuisine, which was viewed as the cause of the Westerners' greater physical size. Yōshoku thus relies on meat as an ingredient, unlike the typical Japanese cuisine at the time.

The first recorded print appearance of the term dates back to 1872.[1] In the past, the term "yōshoku" was for Western cuisine, regardless of the country of origin (as opposed to French, English, Italian, etc.), but people became aware of differences between European cuisines and yōshoku due to the opening of many European restaurants serving more authentically European (non-Japanized) food in the 1980s.[2]

Japanese writer Kanagaki Robun (仮名垣魯文) also popularized the term seiyō ryōri in his Seiyō Ryōritsū (i.e. "western food handbook") in 1872.[3] Seiyō ryōri mostly refers to French and Italian cooking while Yōshoku is a generic term for Japanese dishes inspired by Western food that are distinct from the washoku tradition.[4] Another difference is that seiyō ryōri is eaten using a knife and fork, while Yōshoku is eaten using chopsticks and a spoon.[4]

Earlier dishes of European origin – notably those imported from Portugal in the 16th century such as tempura (inspired by the fritter-cooking techniques of the Portuguese residing in Nagasaki in the 16th century),[5] are not, strictly speaking, part of yoshoku, which refers only to Meiji-era food. However, some yōshoku restaurants serve tempura.

Yōshoku varies in how Japanized it is: while yōshoku may be eaten with a spoon (as in カレー, karē, curry), paired with bread or a plate of rice (called ライス, raisu) and written in katakana to reflect that they are foreign words, some have become sufficiently Japanized that they are often treated as normal Japanese food (washoku): served alongside rice and miso soup, and eaten with chopsticks.

An example of the latter is katsu, which is eaten with chopsticks and a bowl of rice (ご飯, gohan), and may even be served with traditional Japanese sauces such as ponzu or grated daikon, rather than katsu sauce. Reflecting this, katsu is often written in hiragana as かつ, as a native Japanese word, rather than as カツ (from カツレツ, katsuretsu, "cutlet").

Another, more contemporary, term for the Western food is mukokuseki (“no-nationality” cuisine).[6]

Overview[edit]

Jihei Ishii, author of the 1898 The Japanese Complete Cookbook (日本料理法大全), states that: "Yōshoku is Japanese food."[citation needed]

Created in the Meiji era, it may not have as long a history as Washoku (Japanese traditional dishes), yet there are yōshoku dishes which have themselves become traditional Japanese fare.[citation needed] Yōshoku is considered a field of Japanese cuisine, including such typical adapted meals as katsu, beefsteak, korokke, naporitan, Hayashi rice and curry rice (Japanese curry).[7] Many of these meals are even assumed to be washoku.[citation needed]

Yōshoku began by altering Western recipes for lack of information about foreign countries’ cuisine, or adaptions to suit local tastes, but over time, yōshoku also evolved dishes that were not at all based on European foods, such as chicken rice and omurice (omelette rice). Elaborate sauces were largely eliminated, replaced with tomato ketchup, demi-glace sauce and Worcester sauce.[citation needed]

During Japan's modernization, yōshoku was often too expensive for the common man. But after World War II, ingredients for yōshoku became more widely available and its popularity grew.[citation needed]

A yōshokuya (洋食屋) is a restaurant where yōshoku dishes are served. During Japan's rapid economic growth people began eating yōshoku in department store restaurants, but now family restaurants such as Denny's and Saizeriya are considered essential yōshoku establishments.[2] In addition, there are also a number of upscale yōshoku restaurants in Japan, such as Shiseido Parlor in Ginza and Taimeiken in Nihonbashi (two areas of Tokyo).[citation needed]

Typical yōshoku dishes[edit]

Mixed sandwiches

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nancy K. Stalker (2018). Devouring Japan: Global Perspectives on Japanese Culinary Identity. Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-19-024040-0.
  2. ^ a b Norimitsu Onishi (2008-03-26). "Spaghetti Stir-Fry and Hambagoo: Japan Looks West". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-11.
  3. ^ "西洋料理通. 巻上,附録 / 仮名垣魯文 編 ; 暁斎 画".
  4. ^ a b Aoki Yuriko (12 November 2019). "Yōshoku: A Japanese Take on Western-Style Cuisine Culture Food and Drink Guide to Japan". nippon.com. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  5. ^ Peter Hum (15 August 2019). "What makes restaurant food 'authentic,' and who gets to decide?". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  6. ^ Kansai: Rough Guides Snapshot Japan. Penguin. 2014. p. 131. ISBN 9780241014172.
  7. ^ a b c d Robbie Swinnerton (18 November 2014). "Toyoken: Narisawa's take on 'yoshoku' cuisine". The Japan Times. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  8. ^ Levin Tan (26 October 2018). "Memories of meals: RAMEN SHOP and the power of food films". japanesefilmfestival.net. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  9. ^ Mina Holland (7 October 2017). "Masterchef's Tim Anderson's kitchen – and his recipe for chicken katsu curry". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b Makiko Itoh (16 October 2015). "An idea simmering for centuries: Japanese 'white stew'". The Japan Times. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  11. ^ Makiko Itoh (22 April 2017). "The storied history of the potato in Japanese cooking". The Japan Times. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  12. ^ John Maher (29 August 2017). "The Addictive Animated Food of Miyazaki Films". Thrillist. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  13. ^ Makiko Itoh (20 January 2015). "Spaghetti Napolitan is Japan's unique take on pasta". The Japan Times. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  14. ^ Peter Allen (16 October 2019). "Steak Japanese Style: Chaliapin Steak". onthegas.org. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  15. ^ Karen Barnaby (17 September 2019). "Karen Barnaby: Try a Japanese sando to expand your sandwich repertoire". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  16. ^ Yukari Sakamoto (8 February 2018). "Our Complete Yoshoku Guide". metropolisjapan.com. Retrieved 12 May 2020.