Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic group

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The various ethnolinguistic groups found in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and/or South Asia demonstrate differing rates of particular Y-DNA haplogroups.

In the table below, the first two columns identify ethnolinguistic groups. Subsequent columns represent the sample size (n) of the study or studies cited, and the percentage of each haplogroup found in that particular sample.

(Data from studies conducted in the early 2000s may be inaccurate or a broad estimate, due to obsolete haplogroup naming systems – e.g. the former Haplogroup 2 included members of the relatively unrelated haplogroups known later as Haplogroup G and macrohaplogroup IJ [which comprises haplogroups I and J].)

Population Language family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Abazinians Northwest Caucasian 14 0[4] 14 14[4] 14 0[4] 14 0[4] 14 0[4] 14 7[4][5] 14 29[4]
Abkhaz Northwest Caucasian 12 8[4] 12 33.0[4] 12 33.3[4] 12 0[4] 12 0[4] 12 25[4][5] 12 0[4]
Albanians IE (Albanians) 18.2[6] 9.1[6] 21.7[6] 24.4[6] 23.5[6] 1.8[6]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 51 17.6[7] 51 9.8[7] 51 19.6[7] 51 21.6[7] 51 23.5[7] 51 2.0[7] 51 0.0[7] 51 0.0[7] 51 0.0[7]
Kosovo Albanians (Pristina) IE (Albanian) 114 21.1[8] 114 4.4[8] 114 7.9[8] 114 47.4[8] 114 16.7[8]
Albanians (Tirana) IE (Albanian) 30 13.3[9] 30 13.3[9] 30 16.7[9] 30 23.3[9] 30 0.0[9] 30 20.0[9] 30 3.3[9]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 55 18.2[6] 55 9.1[6] 55 21.8[6] 55 25.5[6] 55 0.0[6] 55 23.6[6] 55 1.8[6] 55 0.0[6] 55 0.0[6] 55 0.0[6]
Albanians (Macedonia) IE (Albanian) 64 18.8[6] 64 1.6[6] 64 17.2[6] 64 39.1[6] 64 0.0[6] 64 21.9[6] 64 1.6[6] 64 0.0[6] 64 0.0[6] 64 0.0[6]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 106 23.6[10]
Altaians Turkic, Siberia 142 9.2[11]
Altaians (Northern) Turkic, Siberian 50 6.0[12] 50 38.0 50 0.0 50 0.0 50 2.0 50 0.0 50 10.0
Altaians (Southern) Turkic, Siberia 96 1.0[12] 96 53.1 96 2.1 96 1.0 96 4.2 96 11.5
Ambalakarar Dravidian (Southern) 29 0.0[13] 29 13.8[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 6.9[13] 29 3.4[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 20.7[13]
Amhara Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 45.8[14] 48 33.3[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 4.2[14] 48 0.0[14]
Andalusians IE (Romance) 29 65.5[7] 29 0.0[7] 103 3.9[10] 76 9.2[15] 93 1.1[15] 29 0.0[7] 29 0.0[7] 29 6.9[7] 29 3.4[7]
Andis Northeast Caucasian 49 6.1[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 26.5[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 55.1[16] 49 6.1[16] 49 0.0[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 0.0[16]
Arabs (Algeria) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 35 13.0[17] 35 0.0[17] 32 50[15] 35 35[17]
Arabs (Algeria - Oran) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 102 10.8[18] 102 1[18] 102 50.9[18] 102 12.8[18] 102 27.4[18]
Arabs (Bedouin) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 32 0.0[19] 32 9.4[19] 32 6.3[19] 32 18.7[19] 32 65.6[19] 32 0.0[19]
Egyptians Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 147 4.1[20] 147 2.7[20] 147 0.7[20] 147 36.7[20] 147 2.8[20] 147 32.0[20] 147 8.8[20] 147 0.0[20] 147 8.2[20]
Arabs (Israel) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 143 8.4[19] 143 1.4[19] 143 6.3[19] 143 20.3[19] 143 55.2[19] 143 0.0[19]
Arabs (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 44 3.8[8] 44 0.0[8] 44 0.0[8] 49 85.5[15] 49 2.4[15]
Arabs (Oman) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 121 1.7[20] 121 9.1[20] 121 0.0[20] 121 15.7[20] 121 7.4[20] 121 47.9[20] 121 1.7[20] 121 8.3[20] 121 0.8[20]
Arabs (Qatar) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 72 1.4[21] 72 6.9[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 5.6[21] 72 2.8[21] 72 66.7[21] 72 2.8[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 2.8[21]
Arabs (Saudi Arabia) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 157 1.9[22] 157 5.1[22] 157 0.0[22] 157 7.6[22] 157 7.6[22] 157 40.0[22] 157 3.2[22] 157 0.0[22] 157 5.1[22] 157 1.9[22]
Arabs (UAE) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 164 4.3[21] 164 7.3[21] 164 11.6[21] 164 5.5[21] 164 45.1[21] 164 4.3[21] 164 0.0[21] 164 4.9[21] 164 3.0[21]
Arabs (Yemen) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 12.9[21] 62 3.2[21] 62 82.3[21] 62 1.6[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21]
Arabs (Syria) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 20 15.0[7] 20 10.0[7] 20 5.0[7] 20 10.0[7] 20 30.0[7] 20 0.0[7] 20 0.0[7] 20 0.0[7] 20 0.0[7]
Arabs (Lebanon) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 31 6.4[7] 31 9.7[7] 31 3.2[7] 31 25.8[7] 31 45.2[7] 31 3.2[7] 31 0.0[7] 31 0.0[7] 31 3.2[7]
Arabs (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 102 15.7[23] 102 3.9[23] 102 16.7[23] 102 47.1[23]
Arabs (Tunisia) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 148 6.8[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 49.3[17] 148 1.4[17] 148 35.8[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 0.7[17] 148 0.0[17]
Arabs (Libya) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 63 3[24] 63 1.5[24] 63 1.5[24] 63 52.0[24] 63 0.0[24] 63 24.0[24] 63 8.0[24] 63 5.0[24] 63 1.5[24]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 89 24.7[25] 89 5.6[25] 100 5.0[4] 89 3.4[25] 89 29.2[25] 100 11.0[4] 89 3.4[25]
Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Armenians IE (Armenian) 734 32.4[26] 734 5.3[26] 734 5.4[26] 734 1.6[26]
Aromuns (Dukasi, Albania) IE (Romance) 39 2.6[9] 39 2.6[9] 39 17.9[9] 39 17.9[9] 39 0.0[9] 39 48.7[9] 39 10.3[9] 39 0.0[9] 39 0.0[9] 39 0.0[9]
Aromuns (Andon Poci, Albania) IE (Romance) 19 36.8[9] 19 0.0[9] 19 42.1[9] 19 15.8[9] 19 0.0[9] 19 5.3[9] 19 0.0[9] 19 0.0[9] 19 0.0[9] 19 0.0[9]
Aromuns (Kruševo, Macedonia) IE (Romance) 43 27.9[9] 43 11.6[9] 43 20.9[9] 43 20.9[9] 43 0.0[9] 43 11.6[9] 43 7.0[9] 43 0.0[9] 43 0.0[9] 43 0.0[9]
Aromuns (Štip, Macedonia) IE (Romance) 65 23.1[9] 65 21.5[9] 65 16.9[9] 65 18.5[9] 65 0.0[9] 65 20.0[9] 65 0.0[9] 65 0.0[9] 65 0.0[9] 65 0.0[9]
Aromuns (Romania) IE (Romance) 42 23.8[9] 42 2.4[9] 42 19.0[9] 42 7.1[9] 42 0.0[9] 42 33.3[9] 42 0.0[9]
Ashkenazi Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 79 12.7[19] 79 22.8[19] 79 43.0[19] 79 0.0[19]
Ashkenazi Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 442 4.1[27] 442 19.7[27] 442 0.2[27] 442 38.0[27] 442 9.7[27] 442 0.2[27] 442 0.2[27]
Austrians IE (Germanic, West) 219 32 219 14
Avars Northeast Caucasian 42 2.4[16] 42 2.4[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 7.1[16] 42 71.4[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 4.8[16] 42 9.5[16]
Azerbaijanis Turkic, Oghuz 72 11.1[28] 72 6.9[28] 97 4.1[29]
Bagvalal Northeast Caucasian 28 67.9[16] 28 3.6[16] 28 7.1[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 21.4[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16]
Balkarian Turkic, Kipchak 39 2.6[15] 16 25.0[15]
Balkarians Turkic, Kipchak 38 13.2[6] 38 13.2[6] 38 2.6[6] 38 2.6[6] 38 0.0[6] 38 23.7[6] 38 28.9[6] 38 0.0[6] 38 0.0[6] 38 5.3[6]
Baloch IE (Iranian, NW) 25 8.0[13] 25 28.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 24.0[13]
Bashkirs (Perm) Turkic, Kipchak 43 86.0[30] 43 9.3 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 2.3 43 2.3 43 0.0 43 0.0
Basque (France, Spain) Basque (Basque) 67 88.1[7] 67 0.0[7] 67 7.5[7] 67 2.2[7] 67 3.0[7] 67 0.0[7] 67 0.0[7] 67 0.0[7] 67 0.0[7]
German Bavarians IE (Germanic, West) 80 50.0[25] 80 15.0[25] 80 8.0[25] 80 5.0[25] 80 0.0[25] 80 0.0[25]
Belgians IE (Germanic/Romance) 92 63.0[25] 92 4.0[25] 92 2.0[25]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 41 0.0[25] 41 39.0[25] 147 19.0[10] 41 10.0[25] 41 2.4[25]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 68 4.4[31] 68 45.6[31] 68 25.0[31] 68 4.4[31] 68 1.5[31] 68 8.8[31]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 306 4.2[32] 306 51.0[32] 306 4.6[32] 306 3.3[32] 306 9.5[32]
Bearnais IE (Romance) 26 7.7[10] 43 3.7[15] 26 3.8[15]
Beja Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic) 42 4.8[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 52.4[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 38.1[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23]
Berbers (Moyen Atlas) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 69 87.1[29]
Berbers (Marrakesh) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 29 92.9[29]
Berbers (Mozabite) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 20 80.0[29]
Berbers (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 64 88.2[15] 64 0[15] 103 0[15]
Berbers (north-central Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 63 88.8[15] 63 0[15]
Berbers (southern Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 40 89[15] 40 0[15]
Borgu (Sudan) Nilo-Saharan (Maban) 26 11.5[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 53.8[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23]
Bosnians (Zenica) IE (Slavic, South) 69 1.4[8] 69 24.6[8] 69 42.0[8] 69 10.1[8] 69 0.0[8]
Brahmins (Konkanastha) IE (Indic) 25 0.0[13] 25 48.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 4.0[13]
Brahui Dravidian (Northern) 110 39.1[33] 110 0.0[33] 110 2.7[33] 110 28.2[33] 110 0.9[33] 110 7.3[33]
Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Brahui Dravidian (Northern) 25 0.0[13] 25 24.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 28.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13]
British IE (Germanic, West) 32 68.8[34] 32 9.4[34]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 11.1[35] 6.4[35] 30.2[35] 20.6[35] 17.5[35] 0.8[35]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 11.0[36] 17.3[36] 27.5[36] 20.5[36] 18.1[36] 0.8[36] 0.8[36]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 14[37] 16[37] 34[37] 21[37] 9[37] 2[37] 1[37] 2[37]
Burusho Burushaski (isolate) 97 1.0[38] 97 27.8[38] 97 0.0[38] 97 0.0[38] 97 8.2[38] 97 1.0[38] 97 0.0[38] 97 0.0[38] 97 16.5[38]
Catalans IE (Romance) 24 79.2[7] 24 0.0[39] 32 4.2[39] 33 6.1[15] 28 3.6[15] 24 8.0[39]
Cantabrians (Pasiegos) IE (Romance) 56 42.9[29]
Chamalins Northeast Caucasian 27 0.0[16] 27 7.4[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 70.4[16] 27 18.5[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 3.7[16]
Chechens Northeast Caucasian 19 5.0[4] 19 5.0[4]
Chuvashes Turkic, Oghuz 79 3.8[40] 79 31.6[40] 79 11.3[40] 79 0[40] 79 0[40] 79 24.2[40] 79 0[40] 79 27.8[40] 79 0[40] 79 0[40]
Copts (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Ancient Egyptian) 33 15.2[23] 33 21.2[23] 33 45.5[23]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 108 15.7[8] 108 34.3[8] 108 37.0[8][41] 108 5.6[8] 108 0.0[8] 108 1.9[8] 108 0.9[8]
Croat (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 189 38.1[10]
Cypriots IE (Greek) 45 9.0[25] 45 2.0[25] 45 27.0[25]
Czechs IE (Slavic, West) 257 34.2[42] 257 18.3[42] 257 5.8[42] 257 4.7[42] 257 5.1[42] 257 1.6[42]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 45 35.6[7] 45 26.7[7] 198 13.6[10] 45 2.2[7]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 12 41.7[34] 12 16.7[34] 194 38.7[10] 35 2.9[29]
Dargins Northeast Caucasian 68 2.9[16] 68 0.0[16] 68 94.1[16] 68 2.9[16] 68 0.0[16] 68 0.0[16] 68 0.0[16]
Dargins Northeast Caucasian 26 4.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 58.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 0.0[4]
Dolgans Turkic, Siberia 67 1.5[40] 67 16.4[40] 67 1.5[40] 67 34.3[40]
Druze (Arabs) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 28 14.3[29]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 27 70.4[7] 27 3.7[7] 30 26.7[10] 84 8.0[25] 34 0[15]
Egyptians Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 92 5.4[43] 92 0.0[43] 92 1.1[43] 92 43.5[43] 92 3.3[43] 92 22.8[43] 92 2.2[43] 92 0.0[43] 92 7.6[43] 92 0.0[43]
Egyptians (North) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 43 9.3[44] 43 2.3[44] 43 0.0[44] 43 53.5[44] 44 18.2[17] 43 7.0[44] 43 2.3[44] 43 0.0[44]
Egyptians (South) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 29 13.8[44] 29 0.0[44] 29 3.4[44] 29 31.0[44] 29 24.1[17] 29 17.2[44] 29 10.3[44] 29 0.0[44]
English (Central) IE (Germanic, West) 215 61.9[45] 215 3.3[45]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 207 9.0[25] 118 37.3[46] 210 18.6[10] 207 3.0[25] 207 1.0[25] 207 40.6[25]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 57 2.0[25] 57 10.5[25] 57 2.0[25] 57 63.2[25]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 38 0.0[40] 38 7.9[40] 38 28.9[40] 38 63.2[40]
French IE (Romance) 23 52.2[7] 23 0[7] 23 17.4[10] 40 8.0[25]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 56.0[47] 94 7.0[47] 94 29.0[47] 94 2.0[47] 94 6.0[47]
Frieslanders (Netherlands) IE (Germanic, West) 94 55.3[45] 94 7.4[45] 94 34.0[45] 94 2.1[45] 94 1.4[45]
Fur Nilo-Saharan (Fur) 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 59.4[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 6.3[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Gagauz (Kongaz) Turkic, Oghuz 48 10.4[48] 48 12.5[48] 48 31.3[48] 48 16.7[48] 48 8.3[48] 48 10.4[48] 48 4.2[48] 48 6.3[48]
Gagauz (Etulia) Turkic, Oghuz 41 14.6[48] 41 26.8[48] 41 24.4[48] 41 9.8[48] 41 7.3[48] 41 17.1[48] 41 0.0[48] 41 0.0[48]
Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Germans (West) IE (German) 48 47.9[7][34] 48 8.1[7][34] 16 37.5[10] 16 6.2[7]
Germans (East) IE (German)
Germans (Berlin) IE (German) 103 23.3[49] 103 22.3[49] 103 32[49] 103 9.7[49] 103 1.3[49]
Georgians Kartvelian languages 63 14.3[7] 63 7.9[7] 63 0.0[7] 64 2.0[25] 63 36.5[7] 63 30.1[7] 63 1.6[7] 63 1.6[7]
Georgians Kartvelian languages 66 9.1[6] 66 10.6[6] 66 1.5[6] 66 3.0[6] 66 0.0[6] 66 36.4[6] 66 31.8[6] 66 0.0[6] 66 1.5[6] 66 1.5[6]
Greeks IE (Greek) 19.6[6] 16.3[6] 9.9[6] 21.8[6] 22.9[6] 3.3[6] 4.3[6] 1.1[6]
Greeks IE (Greek) 77 11.7[38] 77 15.6[38] 77 19.5[38] 77 20.8[38] 77 77 16.9[38] 77 9.1[38] 77 0.0[38] 77 2.6[38]
Greeks IE (Greek) 118 22.8[7][34] 118 8.3[7][34] 261 13.8[10] 84 23.8[15] 92 6.5[15]
Greeks IE (Greek) 171 13.5[50] 171 11.1 171 15.8 171 31.6 171 19.9 171 4.7 171 1.8
Greeks (Crete) IE (Greek) 193 17.0[50] 193 8.8 193 13.0 193 8.8 193 38.9 193 10.9 193 2.1
Greeks (Peloponnese) IE (Greek) 36 47[15]
Greeks (Thrace) IE (Greek) 41 12.2[9] 41 22.0[9] 41 19.5[9] 41 19.5[9] 41 0.0[9] 41 19.5[9] 41 4.9[9]
Greeks (North) IE (Greek) 96 14.6[44] 96 18.8[44] 96 12.5[44] 96 35.4[44] 96 5.2[44] 96 2.1[44] 96 1.0[44]
Greeks (South) IE (Greek) 46 19.6[44] 46 2.2[44] 46 23.9[44] 46 43.5[44] 46 6.5[44] 46 2.2[44] 46 0.0[44]
Hausa (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Chadic) 32 40.6[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 3.1[23] 32 12.5[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Herzegovinians (Mostar, Široki Brijeg) IE (Slavic, South) 141 3.6[8] 141 12.1[8] 141 63.8[8] 141 8.5[8] 141 0.7[8]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 45 18[7] 113 30[40] 162 17[10] 53 8[15] 49 9[15] 103 3[51] 103 1.0
Icelanders IE (Germanic, North) 181 41.4[34] 181 23.8[34] 181 34.2[34]
Ingush Northeast Caucasian 27 5.0[4]
Iranians (North Iran) IE (Iranian, West) 33 15.2[52] 33 6.1[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 33.3[52] 33 15.2[52] 33 6.1[52] 33 0.0[52] 33 3.0[52]
Iranians (South Iran) IE (Iranian, West) 117 6.0[52] 117 16.2[52] 117 0.0[52] 117 5.1[52] 117 1.7[52] 117 35.0[52] 117 12.8[52] 117 0.9[52] 117 3.4[52] 117 6.0[52]
Irish IE (Celtic) 222 81.5[34] 222 0.5[34] 257 2.0[25]
Italians IE (Romance) 50 62.0[39] 332 2.7[34] 50 8.0[39] 99 13.0[25] 50 10.0[39]
Italians (Calabria) IE (Romance) 37 32.4[7] 148 5.4[10] 80 16.3[8] 57 1.8[15]
Italians (Apulia) IE (Romance) 78 2.6[10] 86 13.9[15] 86 31.4[15]
Italians (Sardinia) IE (Romance) 77 22.1[7] 142 42.3[10] 139 5.0[15] 144 12.5[15]
Italians (Northern Sardinia) IE (Romance) 86 20.0[44] 86 0.0[44] 86 28.0[44] 86 13.0[44] 86 21.0[44] 86 0.0[44] 86 0.0[44]
Italians (Southern Sardinia) IE (Romance) 187 19.0[44] 187 1.0[44] 187 35.0[44] 187 11.0[44] 187 14.0[44] 187 0.0[44] 187 0.0[44]
Italians (North-central) IE (Romance) 50 62.0[7] 390 0.5[10] 212 10.4[8] 52 26.9[15]
Italians (South) IE (Romance) 68 20.0[44] 68 3.0[44] 68 6.0[44] 68 26.0[44] 68 15.0[44] 68 3.0[44] 68 0.0[44]
Italians (Sicily) IE (Romance) 51 8.8 55 27.3[15] 42 23.8[15]
Italians (East Sicily) IE (Romance) 87 20.0[44] 87 2.3[44] 87 5.0[44] 87 29.0[44] 87 5.0[44] 87 5.0[44] 87 0.0[44]
Italians (West Sicily) IE (Romance) 125 27.0[44] 125 2.4[44] 125 11.0[44] 125 19.0[44] 125 13.0[44] 125 3.0[44] 125 0.0[44]
Iyengar Dravidian (Southern) 30 0.0[13] 30 30.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 20.0[13] 30 13.3[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 16.7[13]
Iyer Dravidian (Southern) 29 0.0[13] 29 27.6[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13] 29 10.3[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13]
Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Kabardinian Northwest Caucasian 29.0[4]
Kalash (Pakistan) IE (Dardic) 44 18.2[38] 44 0.0[38] 44 0.0[38] 44 9.1[38] 44 18.2[38] 44 0.0[38] 44 0.0[38] 44 25.0[38]
Karakalpaks Turkic, Kipchak 44 9.1[53] 44 18.2[53] 44 0.0[53] 44 0.0[53] 44 4.5[53]
Kazakhs Turkic, Kipchak 54 5.6[53] 54 3.7[53] 54 0.0[53] 54 0.0[53] 38 0.0 54 1.9[53] 54 0.0[53]
Khants Uralic (Ugric) 47 19.1[40] 47 4.3[40] 47 0.0[40] 47 76.6[40]
Komi Uralic (Finnic) 94 16.0[40] 94 33.0 94 5.3 94 35.1
Komi (Izhemsky) Uralic (Finnic) 54 0.0[54] 54 29.6[54] 54 1.9[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 68.5[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54]
Komi (Priluzsky) Uralic (Finnic) 49 2.0[54] 49 32.7[54] 49 4.1[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 61.2[54] 49 0.0[54] 49 0.0[54]
Kumyks Turkic, Kipchak 76 19.7[16] 76 13.2[16] 76 0.0[16] 76 2.6[16] 76 46.1[16] 76 11.8[16] 76 0.0[16] 76 1.3[16] 76 0.0[16]
Kurds (Northern Iraq) IE (Iranian, NW) 95 16.8[19] 95 11.6[19] 95 16.8[19] 95 7.4[19] 95 40.0[19] 95 4.2[19] 95 3.2[19]
Kyrgyz Turkic, Kipchak 52 1.9[53] 52 63.5[53] 52 1.9[53] 52 0.0[53] 41 4.9 41 2.4 52 0.0[53]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 34 15.0[25] 114 39.5[25] 86 7.0[10] 114 0.9[46] 114 42.1[46]
Lebanese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 914 8.1[55] 914 2.5[44] 914 4.8[44] 914 16.2[44] 914 0.7[44] 914 46.1[44] 914 6.6[44] 914 0.1[44] 914 4.7[44] 914 5.2[44]
Lezgins Northeast Caucasian 31 16.1[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 9.7[16] 31 6.5[16] 31 58.1[16] 31 9.7[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 0.0[16]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 38 5.0[25] 114 36.0[46] 114 0.9[46] 114 43.0[46]
ethnic Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 79 5.1[8] 79 15.2[8] 79 34.2[8] 79 24.1[8] 79 12.7[7][8][15] 79 5.1[8]
Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 52 13.5[9] 52 13.5[9] 52 28.8[9] 52 23.1[9] 52 11.5[9] 52 3.8[9]
Macedonian Romani (Skopje) IE (Indic) 57 1.8[8] 57 1.8[8] 57 3.5[8] 57 29.8[8] 57 1.8[8]
Maltese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 187 22.0[44] 187 5.0[44] 187 9.0[44] 187 6.0[44] 187 9.0[44] 187 0.0[44] 187 0.0[44]
Maratha IE (Indic) 20 0.0[13] 20 10.0[13] 20 0.0[13] 20 0.0[13] 20 15.0[13] 20 15.0[13]
Moldavians (Karahasani) IE (Romance) 72 16.7[48] 72 34.7[48] 72 25.0[48] 72 12.5[48] 72 9.7[48] 72 0.0[48] 72 1.4[48] 72 0.0[48]
Moldavians (Sofia) IE (Romance) 54 16.7[48] 54 20.4[48] 54 35.2[48] 54 13.0[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 1.9[48] 54 3.7[48] 54 1.9[48]
Erzya Uralic (Finnic) 46 39.1[56]
Moksha Uralic (Finnic) 46 21.7[56]
Moksha Uralic (Finnic) 83 13.3[40] 83 26.5 83 19.3 83 19.3
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 111 2.7[40] 111 47.7 111 8.1 111 41.4
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 48 10.4[25] 48 29.2 48 0.0 48 6.3 48 50.0
Masalit Nilo-Saharan (Maban) 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 71.9[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 6.3[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 112 25.9[34] 112 17.9[34] 72 40.3[10]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 52 30.8[25] 52 1.9[25] 52 1.9[25] 52 3.8[25] 52 0.0[25] 52 0.0[25]
Nubians (Sudan) Nilo-Saharan (Eastern Sudanic) 39 10.3[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 5.1[23] 39 23.1[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 43.6[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 0.0[23]
Orcadians IE (Celtic/Germanic) 71 66.0[47] 71 19.7[47]
Oromo Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic) 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 79.5[14] 78 3.8[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 5.1[14] 78 0.0[14]
Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Ossetians IE (Iranian, NE) 47 42.6[25] 47 2.1[25] 47 6.0[25] 47 34.0[25] 60.0[57]
Pallan Dravidian (Southern) 29 3.4[13] 29 24.1[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 13.8[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13]
Pashtuns IE (Iranian, SE) 96 4.2[38] 96 44.8[38] 96 0.0[38] 96 2.1[38] 96 6.3[38] 96 11.5[38] 96 0.0[38] 96 1.0[38] 96 12.5[38]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 55 16.4[7] 55 56.4[7] 191 17.8[10] 99 4.0[15] 97 1.0[15]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 93 13.4[40] 93 55.9[40] 93 16.1[40] 93 3.2[40]
Portuguese IE (Romance) 303 5.3[10]
Portuguese (South) IE (Romance) 57 56.0[25] 57 2.0[25] 57 17.0[25]
Portuguese (North) IE (Romance) 328 62.0[25] 328 0[25] 328 11.0[25]
Rajputs IE (Indic) 29 0.0[13] 29 31.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13] 29 6.9[13]
Romani (Gypsy) IE (Indic) 60[8]
Romanians IE (Romance) 54 13.0[48] 54 20.4[48] 54 48.1[48] 54 7.4[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 0.0[48] 54 0.0[48]
Romanians IE (Romance) 361 22.2[10]
Romanians (Constanţa) IE (Romance) 31 16.1[9] 31 9.7[9] 31 41.9[9] 31 9.7[9] 31 0.0[9] 31 6.5[9] 31 12.9[9] 31 0.0[9] 31 0.0[9] 31 0.0[9]
Romanians (Ploieşti) IE (Romance) 36 8.3[9] 36 5.6[9] 36 38.9[9] 36 16.7[9] 36 0.0[9] 36 19.4[9] 36 8.3[9] 36 0.0[9] 36 0.0[9] 36 0.0[9]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 122 6.6[25] 122 46.7[25] 122 6.6[25] 122 4.1[25] 122 18.0[25]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 414 6.8[58] 414 48.3[58] 414 15.9[58] 414 4.8[58] 414 0.0[58] 414 1.4[58] 414 1.2[58] 414 14.0[58]
Russians (Northern)(Arkhangelsk region) IE (Slavic, East) 114 14.0[59] 114 40.0[59] 114 5.3[59] 114 0.0[59] 114 0.0[59] 114 0.9[59] 114 1.3[59] 114 39.3[59] 114 114
Russians (Central) IE (Slavic, East) 364 7.7[59] 364 47.0[59] 364 16.5[59] 364 5.0[59] 364 0.0[59] 364 3.3[59] 364 0.0[59] 364 16.0[59] 364
Russians (Southerns) IE (Slavic, East) 484 4.8[59] 484 56.9[59] 484 21.0[59] 484 1.8[59] 484 0.0[59] 484 3.5[59] 484 1.0[59] 484 10.0[59]
Russians

(Oryol region)

IE (Slavic, East) 110 3.6[59] 110 62.7[59] 110 22.7[59] 110 0.9[59] 110 0.0[59] 110 0.9[59] 110 0.0[59] 110 5.4[59]
Russians

(Voronezh region)

IE (Slavic, East) 96 5.2[59] 96 59.4[59] 96 20.8[59] 96 1.0[59] 96 0.0[59] 96 3.1[59] 96 2.1[59] 96 6.3[59]
Russians

(Tver region)

IE (Slavic, East) 73 6.8[59] 73 56.2[59] 73 15.0[59] 73 4.1[59] 73 0.0[59] 73 4.1[59] 73 0.0[59] 73 11.0[59]
Russians (Kuban Cossacks) IE (Slavic, East) 90 8.8[59] 90 47.3[59] 90 24.2[59] 90 3.3[59] 90 0.0[59] 90 4.4[59] 90 1.1[59] 90 7.7[59]
Russians (Novgorod region) IE (Slavic, East) 38 8.1[58] 38 54.1[58] 38 10.8[58]
Sami (Sweden) Uralic (Finnic) 38 7.9[60] 38 15.8[60] 38 31.6[60] 38 0.0[60] 38 0.0[60] 38 0.0[60] 38 0.0[60] 38 44.7[60] 38 0.0[60] 38 0.0[60]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 127 3.9[40] 127 11.0[40] 35 31.4[10] 14[61] 127 47.2[40]
Saharawis (Western Sahara) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 29 79.3[15] 29 3.4[15] 29 17.2[15]
Scots IE (Celtic) 61 77.1[34] 61 6.6[34] 178 11.2[10]
Serbs (Serbia) IE (Slavic, South) 113 10.6[8] 113 15.9[8] 113 36.3[8] 113 21.2[8] 113 8[8]
Serbs (Bosnia) IE (Slavic, South) 81 6.2[6] 81 13.6[6] 81 40.7[6] 81 22.2[6] 81 0.0[6] 81 9.9[6] 81 1.2[6] 81 6.2[6] 81 0.0[6] 81 0.0[6]
Slovenians IE (Slavic, South) 75 21.3[6] 75 38.7[6] 75 30.7[6] 75 2.7[6] 75 0.0[6] 75 4.0[6] 75 2.7[6] 75 0.0[6] 75 0.0[6] 75 0.0[6]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 70 37.1[25] 70 7.1[25] 70 5.7[25] 70 0.0[25] 70 0.0[25] 70 0.0[25]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 55 38.2[10]
Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Somalis Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic) 201 0.0[62] 201 1.0[62] 201 0.0[62] 201 81.1[62] 201 1.5[62] 201 3.0[62] 201 0.5[62] 201 0.0[62] 201 10.4[62] 201 0.0[62]
Spanish IE (Romance) 126 68.0[25] 126 2.0[25] 126 10.0[25]
Spanish (Ibiza) IE (Romance) 54 57.4[44] 54 0.0[44] 54 1.9[44] 54 7.4[44] 54 13.0[44] 54 16.7[44] 54 0.0[44]
Spanish (Majorca) IE (Romance) 62 66.1[44] 62 0.0[44] 62 8.1[44] 62 6.2[44] 62 6.2[44] 62 1.6[44] 62 0.0[44]
Spanish (Minorca) IE (Romance) 37 73.0[44] 37 2.7[44] 37 2.7[44] 37 18.9[44] 37 0.0[44] 37 0.0[44] 37 0.0[44]
Spanish (South) IE (Romance) 162 65.0[44] 162 2.0[44] 162 6.0[44] 162 9.0[44] 162 4.0[44] 162 0.0[44] 162 0.0[44]
Spanish (Valencia) IE (Romance) 73 64.0[44] 73 3.0[44] 73 10.0[44] 73 11.0[44] 73 1.0[44] 73 1.0[44] 73 0.0[44]
Swedes (Northern) IE (Germanic, North) 48 22.9[25] 48 18.8[25] 57 26.3[10] 48 2.1[25] 48 2.1[25] 48 8.3[25]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 110 20.0[34] 110 17.3[34] 225 40[10]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 160 13.1[63] 160 24.4[63] 160 37.5[63] 160 1.3[63] 160 0.0[63] 160 14.4[63]
Swiss IE (German/Romance) 144 7.6[10]
Tabassarans Northeast Caucasian 43 39.5[16] 43 2.3[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 51.2[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16]
Tatars Turkic, Kipchak 126 8.7[40] 126 34.1[40] 126 4.0 126 23.0
Turkmens Turkic, Oghuz 30 36.7[53] 30 6.7[53] 30 0.0[53] 30 0.0[53] 21 23.8 21 9.5 30 0.0[53]
Turks Turkic, Oghuz 523 16.1[64] 523 6.9[64] 741 5.1[10] 523 11.3[64] 523 33.5[64] 523 10.9[64] 523 3.8[64] 523 2.5[64] 523 4.2[64]
Turks Turkic, Oghuz 167 20.4[25] 167 4.8[25] 167 10.2[25] 167 32.9[25] 167 2.4[25]
Turks Turkic, Oghuz 59 20.3[62] 59 11.9[62] 59 6.8[62] 59 13.6[62] 59 30.5[62] 59 8.5[62] 59 1.7[62] 59 0.0[62]
Turks (Central Anatolia) Turkic, Oghuz 61 6.6[8]
Turks (Istanbul) Turkic, Oghuz 46 13.0[15] 73 24.7[15]
Turks (Konya) Turkic, Oghuz 117 14.5[15] 129 31.8[15]
Turks (Cypriot) Turkic, Oghuz 46 13.0[29]
Turks (Southeastern) Turkic, Oghuz 24 4.2[29]
Turks (Erzurum) Turkic, Oghuz 25 4.0[29]
Udmurt Uralic (Finnic) 87 2.3[40] 87 10.3[40] 87 1.1[40] 87 85.1[40]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 50 2.0[7] 50 54.0[7] 50 18.0[7] 50 4.0[7] 50 6.0[7] 50 4.0[7] 50 6.0[7] 50 2.0[7] 50 0.0[7]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9[48] 53 41.5[48] 53 24.5[48] 93 7.5[8] 53 9.4[48] 53 0.0[48] 53 5.7[48] 53 0.0[48]
Uyghurs (Kazakhstan) Turkic, Karluk 41 0.0[53] 41 22.0[53] 41 2.4[53] 41 0.0[53] 41 0.0[53] 33 27.3[65] 41 2.4[53] 41 0.0[53] 41 2.4[53]
Uyghurs (Xinjiang) Turkic, Karluk) 68 17.6[66] 68 22.1[66] 68 0.0[66] 68 0.0[66] 68 0.0[66] 68 10.3[66] 68 4.4[66] 67 6.0[67] 67 0.0[67] 68 4.4[66]
Uyghurs (Ürümqi) Turkic, Karluk) 49 8.2[68] 49 28.6[68] 49 0.0[68] 49 0.0[68] 49 18.4[68]
Uyghurs (Northwest China) Turkic) 50 16.0[69] 50 34.0[69] 50 2.0[69]
Uyghurs (Ürümqi) Turkic, Karluk) 31 19.4[70] 31 22.6[70] 31 6.5[70] 31 25.8[70] 31 9.7[70] 31 0.0[70] 31 0.0[70]
Uyghurs (Yili) Turkic, Karluk) 39 15.4[70] 39 15.4[70] 39 0.0[70] 39 0.0[70] 39 7.7[70]
Uzbeks Turkic, Karluk) 366 9.8[53] 366 25.1[53] 366 2.2[53] 366 2.5[53] 28 21.4[65] 28 0.0[65] 366 3.0[53]
Vanniyar Dravidian (Southern) 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 20.0[13]
Vellalar Dravidian (Southern) 31 0.0[13] 31 12.9[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 38.7[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 16.1[13]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 88 89.0[47] 88 1.0[47] 196 8.1[10] 88 3.0[47]
Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H
Yagnobis IE (Iranian, NE) 31 32.3[53] 31 16.1[53] 31 0.0[53] 31 0.0[53] 31 32.3[53] 31 0.0[53] 31 9.7[53]
Yakuts Turkic, Siberia 155 1.9[40] 155 1.9[40] 155 1.3[40] 155 88.4[40]
Yakuts Turkic, Siberia 10 80.0[11]
Population Language[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L n H


Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
N O
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i IE = Indo-European
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i First column gives the amount of total Sample Size studied
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Second column gives the Percentage of the particular haplogroup among the Sample Size
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Nasidze et al., (2004)Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus
  5. ^ a b Although the chart here says J, this group has mainly only J2
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri; et al. (24 December 2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (6): 820–30. PMC 2947100Freely accessible. PMID 19107149. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Semino A, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic *** sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective" (PDF). Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. PMID 11073453. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 25, 2003. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Peričić M, Lauc LB, Klaric IM, Rootsi S, Janicijevic B, Rudan I, Terzic R, Colak I, Kvesic A, Popovic D, Sijacki A, Behluli I, Dordevic D, Efremovska L, Bajec DD, Stefanovic BD, Villems R, Rudan P (October 2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (10): 1964–75. PMID 15944443. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185.  Haplogroup frequency data in table 1
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci Bosch, E.; Calafell, F.; González-Neira, A.; Flaiz, C; Mateu, E; Scheil, HG; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; et al. (2006). "Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns". Annals of Human Genetics. 70 (Pt 4): 459–87. PMID 16759179. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x. 
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  11. ^ a b Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe. Derenko et al.
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