Y-DNA haplogroups in European populations

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Y-haplogroups in Europe

Frequencies in some ethnic groups in Europe[edit]

The table below shows the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based on relevant studies, for various ethnic and other notable groups from Europe. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations shown in the first two columns; the third column gives the sample size studied; and the other columns give the percentage for each particular haplogroup (ethnic groups from the North Caucasus, although technically located in Europe, are considered in their own article where they are placed alongside populations of the South Caucasus for the purpose of conserving space).

Population Language[1] n R1b R1a I  E1b1b J G N T Others Reference
Albanians IE (Albanian) 223 18.39 4.04 13 35.43 23.77 2.69 0 0.9 1.79 Sarno2015[2]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 51 17.6 9.8 19.6 21.6 23.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 Semino2000[3]
Albanians (Kosovar) IE (Albanian) 114 21.10 4.42 I1=5.31
I2a2=2.65
47.37 J2=16.7 0 0 0 P[xQ,R1]=1.77 Pericic2005[4]
Albanians (Tirana) IE (Albanian) 30 13.3 13.3 16.7 23.3 20.0 3.3 Bosch2006[5]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 55 18.2 9.1 I1=3.6
I2a=14.5
I2b=3.6
25.5 J1=3.6
J2a=5.5
J2b=14.5
1.8 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Albanians (Macedonia) IE (Albanian) 64 18.8 1.6 I1=4.5
I2a=12.5
39.1 J1=6.3
J2=15.6
1.6 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Arkhangelsk (Russia) IE (Slavic), Uralic 28 0 17.9 50.0 3.6 0 0 28.6 0 0 Mirabal2009[7]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 29 65.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.9 L=3.4 Semino2000[3]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 103 3.9 Rootsi2004[8]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 76 9.2 1.1 Semino2004[9]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 413 29.1 1.7 3.6 5.1 J1=10.7
J2=25.5
9.4 0.2 8.5 Q=0.2 Herrara2012
Aromuns (Dukasi, Albania) IE (Italic) 39 2.6 2.6 17.9 17.9 48.7 10.3 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Andon Poci, Albania) IE (Italic) 19 36.8 0.0 42.1 15.8 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Kruševo, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 43 27.9 11.6 20.9 20.9 11.6 7.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Štip, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 65 23.1 21.5 16.9 18.5 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Romania) IE (Italic) 42 23.8 2.4 19.0 7.1 33.3 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic) 79 12.7 22.8 43.0 Nebel2001[10]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic) 442 4.1 19.7 38.0 9.7 0.2 Behar2004[11]
Austrians IE (Germanic, West) 219 32 14
Bashkirs (Perm) Altaic (Turkic) 43 86.0 9.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.3 0.0 Lobov[12]
Basque Basque (Basque) 67 88.1 0.0 7.5 2.2 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Semino2000[3]
Basque Basque (Basque) 109 92.7 0.9 3.7 0.9 Adams2008[13]
Bavarians IE (Germanic, West) 80 50.0 15.0 8.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 Rosser2000[14]
Belgians IE (Germanic/Italic) 92 63.0 4.0 2.0 Rosser2000[14]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 41 0.0 39.0 10.0 2.4 Rosser2000[14]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 147 19.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 68 4.4 45.6 25.0 4.4 1.5 8.8 Kharkov2005[15]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 306 4.2 51.0 4.6 3.3 9.5 Behar2003[16]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 26 7.7 3.8 Semino2004[9]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 43 3.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Bosniaks IE (Slavic, South) 69 1.4 24.6 42.0 10.1 0.0 Pericic2005[4]
British IE (Germanic, West) 32 68.8 9.4 Helgason2000[17]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 127 11.0 17.3 27.5 19.7 18.1 1.6 0.8 Karachanak2009[18]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 808 10.7 17.5 I*=0.4
I1=4.3
I2a=20.2
I2b=1.7
22.1 J1=3.4
J2=10.5
4.8 0.5 1.6 C=0.5
H=0.6
L=0.2
Q=0.4
R2a=0.1
Karachanak2013[19]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 100 14.0 16.0 34.0 21.0 9.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 others H 1.0 Begoña Martinez-Cruz2012[20]
Catalans IE (Italic) 24 79.2 0.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 8.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Catalans IE (Italic) 33 6.1 3.6 Semino2004[9]
Cantabrians (Pasiegos) IE (Italic) 56 42.9 Cruciani2004[21]
Chuvashes Altaic (Turkic) 79 3.8 31.6 11.3 0 24.2 0 27.8 0 Tambets2004[22]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 108 15.7 34.3 37.0 5.6 1.9 0.9 Pericic2005[4]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 189 38.1 Rootsi2004[8]
Cypriots IE (Greek) 45 9.0 2.0 27.0 Rosser2000[14]
Czechs IE (Slavic, West) 257 34.2 18.3 5.8 4.7 5.1 1.6 Luca2007[23]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 45 35.6 26.7 2.2 Semino2000[3]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 198 13.6 Rootsi2004[8]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 12 41.7 16.7 Helgason2000[17]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 194 38.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 35 2.9 Cruciani2004[21]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 27 70.4 3.7 Semino2000[3]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 26.7[8] 8.0[14] 0[9]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 410 50.2 3.3 32.9 2.9 5.1 4.1 0.2 Barjesteh2008[24]
English (Central) IE (Germanic, West) 215 61.9 5 25 Weale2002[25]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 207 9.0 3.0 1.0 40.6 Rosser2000[14]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 118 37.3 Laitinen2002[26]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 210 18.6 Rootsi2004[8]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 57 2.0 10.5 2.0 63.2 Rosser2000[14]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 38 0.0 7.9 28.9 63.2 [22]
French IE (Italic) 23 52.2 0 17.4 8.7 4.3 0 0 0 Semino2000[3]
French IE (Italic) 40 8.0 Rosser2000[14]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 56.0 7.0 29.0 2.0 6.0 Wilson2001[27]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 55.3 7.4 34.0 2.1 1.4 Weale2002[25]
Gagauz (Kongaz) Altaic (Turkic) 48 10.4 12.5 31.3 16.7 8.3 10.4 4.2 6.3 Varzari2006[28]
Gagauz (Etulia) Altaic (Turkic) 41 14.6 26.8 24.4 9.8 7.3 17.1 0.0 0.0 Varzari2006[28]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 48 47.9 8.1 22 Helgason2000[17]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 16 50 16 22 6.2 0 0 0 0 Semino2000[3]
Germans IE (Germanic) 1215 38.9 17.9 23.6 6.2 4.0 1.6 7.7 Kayser2005[29]
Greeks IE (Greek) 77 11.7 15.6 19.5 20.8 16.9 9.1 0.0 2.6 Firasat2007[30]
Greeks IE (Greek) 118 22.8 8.3 Helgason2000[17]
Greeks IE (Greek) 84/92 23.8 6.5 Semino2004[9]
Greeks IE (Greek) 171 13.5 11.1 15.8 31.6 19.9 4.7 1.8 King2008[31]
Greeks (Crete) IE (Greek) 193 17.0 8.8 13.0 8.8 38.9 10.9 2.1 King2008[31]
Greeks (Peloponnese) IE (Greek) 36 47 Semino2004[9]
Greeks (Thrace) IE (Greek) 41 12.2 22.0 19.5 19.5 19.5 4.9 Bosch2006[5]
Greeks (North) IE (Greek) 96 14.6 18.8 12.5 35.4 5.2 2.1 L=1 Zalloua2008[32]
Greeks (South) IE (Greek) 46 19.6 2.2 23.9 43.5 6.5 2.2 Zalloua2008[32]
Greeks (Macedonia) IE (Greek) 57 14.0 12.3 I1=8.8
I2a=21.0
22.9 J1=1.8
J2=14.1
1.8 1.8 Battaglia 2008[6]
Gypsy (Macedonia) IE (Indic) 57 1.8 1.8 5.3 29.8 1.8 0 H=59.6 Pericic2005[4]
Herzegovinians IE (Slavic, South) 141 3.6 12.1 63.8 8.5 0.7 Pericic2005[4]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 215 18.1 25.6 I1=7.91
I2a=16.74
I2b=2.79
I*=0.93
6.1 J2=6.51
J*[xJ2]=3.72
4.2 0.47 0.0 H=5.12
R2=0.47
R1*=1.40
Völgyi2008[33]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 45 13.3 60.0 11.1 8.9 2.2 2.2 0.0 0.0 L=2.2 Semino2000[3]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 56.6[6] 9.4[9] 2.0[9] 8.0[34] 1.0
Icelanders IE (Germanic, North) 181 41.4 23.8 34.2 Helgason2000[17]
Irish IE (Celtic) 222 81.5 0.5 Helgason2000[17]
Irish IE (Celtic) 257 2.0 Rosser2000[14]
Italians IE (Italic) 50 62.0 8.0 10.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Italians IE (Italic) 2.7[17] 13.0[14]
Italians (Calabria) IE (Italic) 32.4[3] 5.4[8] 16.3[4] 24.6[9]
Italians (Apulia) IE (Italic) 2.6[8] 13.9[9] 31.4[9]
Italians (Sardinia) IE (Italic) 22.1[3] 42.3[8] 5.0[9] 12.5[9]
Italians (Northern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 86 20.0 0.0 28.0 13.0 21.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Italians (Southern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 187 19.0 1.0 35.0 11.0 14.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Italians (North-central) IE (Italic) 62.0[3] 0.5[8] 10.4[4] 26.9[9]
Italians (South) IE (Italic) 68 25.0 3.0 6.0 26.0 15.0 3.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Italians (Sicily) IE (Italic) 8.8 27.3 23.8 Semino2004[9]
Italians (East Sicily) IE (Italic) 87 20.0 2.3 5.0 29.0 5.0 5.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Italians (West Sicily) IE (Italic) 125 27.0 2.4 11.0 19.0 13.0 3.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Komi Uralic (Finnic) 94 16.0 33.0 5.3 35.1 [22]
Komi (Izhemsky) Uralic (Finnic) 54 0.0 29.6 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 68.5 0.0 Mirabal2009[7]
Komi (Priluzsky) Uralic (Finnic) 49 2.0 32.7 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 61.2 0.0 Mirabal2009[7]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 114 39.5 0.9 42.1 Laitinen2002[26]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 34 15.0[14] 41[14] 7.0[14] 32[14] Rosser 2000[14]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 38 5.0 [14]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 114 36.0 0.9 43.0 Laitinen2002[26]
ethnic Macedonians IE (Slavic, South) 211 11.4 14.2 31.3 18.0 16.0 3.8 0.5 1.9 L=0.5 Noveski2010[35]
ethnic Macedonians IE (Slavic, South) 79 5.1 15.2 34.2 24.1 12.7 5.1 Pericic2005[4]
Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 52 13.5 13.5 28.8 23.1 11.5 3.8 Bosch2006[5]
Maltese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 187 22.0 5.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 111 2.7 47.7 8.1 41.4 [22]
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 48 10.4 29.2 0.0 6.3 50.0 Rosser2000[14]
Moldavians (Carahasani) IE (Italic) 72 16.7 34.7 25.0 12.5 9.7 0.0 1.4 0.0 Varzari2006[28]
Moldavians (Sofia) IE (Italic) 54 16.7 20.4 35.2 13.0 5.6 1.9 3.7 1.9 Varzari2006[28]
Mordvins (Erzya) Uralic (Finnic) 46 39.1 Malaspina2003[36]
Mordvins (Moksha) Uralic (Finnic) 46 21.7 Malaspina2003[36]
Mordvins Uralic (Finnic) 83 13.3 26.5 19.3 19.3 [22]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 25.9[17] 17.9[17] 40.3[8]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 52 30.8 1.9 1.9 3.8 0.0 Rosser2000[14]
Orcadians IE (Germanic, West) 71 66.0 19.7 Wilson2001[27]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 16.4[3] 56.4[3] 17.8[8] 4.0[9] 1.0[9]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 93 13.4 55.9 16.1 3.2 [22]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 913 11.6 57.0 17.3 4.5 2.5 3.7 3.3 Kayser2005[29]
Portuguese IE (Italic) 303 5.3 Rootsi2004[8]
Portuguese (South) IE (Italic) 57 56.0 2.0 17.0 Rosser2000[14]
Portuguese (North) IE (Italic) 328 62.0 0 11.0 Rosser2000[14]
Romanians IE (Italic) 54 13.0 20.4 48.1 7.4 5.6 5.6 0.0 0.0 Varzari2006[28]
Romanians IE (Italic) 361 22.2 Rootsi2004[8]
Romanians (Constanţa) IE (Italic) 31 16.1 9.7 41.9 9.7 6.5 12.9 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Romanians (Ploieşti) IE (Italic) 36 8.3 5.6 38.9 16.7 19.4 8.3 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Romanians IE (Italic) 179 10.1 20.1 I1=5.6
I2a1= 17.3
Other I2= 5.0
19.6 J1=2.2
J2a=7.3
J2b = 8.9
2.2 0.6 0.6 Q=0.6 Martinez-Cruz 2012[20]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 122 6.6 46.7 6.6 4.1 18.0 Rosser2000[14]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 61 21.3 42.6 13.1 16.4 [22]
Russians (Kursk) IE (Slavic, East) 40 7.5 52.5 15.0 10.0 2.5 0 12.5 0 0 Mirabal2009[7]
Russians (Northern) IE (Slavic, East) 380 6.1 33.4 14.5 0.3 1.8 1.3 41.3 0.0 Balanovsky2008[37]
Russians (Central) IE (Slavic, East) 364 7.7 47.0 16.5 5.2 3.3 0.0 17.0 0.8 Balanovsky2008[37]
Russians (Adygea) IE (Slavic, East) 78 24.4 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Bashkortostan) IE (Slavic, East) 50 6.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Belgorod region) IE (Slavic, East) 143 2.8 59.4 16.7 Balanovsky[37]
Russians (Cossacks) IE (Slavic, East) 97 22.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Kostroma region) IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (North, Pinega) IE (Slavic, East) 127 4.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Smolensk region) IE (Slavic, East) 120 10.8 Rootsi2004[8]
Sami (Sweden) Uralic (Finnic) 38 7.9 15.8 31.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 44.7 0.0 Karlsson2006[38]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 127 3.9 11.0 47.2 [22]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 31.4 Rootsi2004[8]
Scots IE (Celtic) 750 72.5 8.5 14 [39]
Sephardic Jews IE (Italic) 78 29.5 3.9 11.5 19.2 28.2 Nebel2001[10]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 1250+ 4.08 20.08 I1=9.15

I2 = 34.2

13.72 J1=1.79

J2a=2.29

J2b=1.39

G1=0.4

G2=3.18

2.39 0.0 2016[40]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 179 4.5 14.5 48 17.3 5.6 2.2 3.3 L=0.6 Mirabal,V.2010[41]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 113 10.6 15.9 36.3 21.2 8 Pericic2005[4]
Serbs (Aleksandrovac, Serbia) IE (Slavic, South) 85 1.17 21.1 41.1 15.2 9.40 10.5 0.0 0.0 Todorovic2013
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 103 7.8 20.4 37.9 18.4 7.8 5.8 1.9 Regueiro2012[42]
Serbs (Bosnia) IE (Slavic, South) 81 6.2 13.6 40.7 22.2 9.9 1.2 6.2 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Slovenians IE (Slavic, South) 75 21.3 38.7 30.7 2.7 4.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 70 37.1 7.1 5.7 0.0 0.0 Rosser2000[14]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 55 38.2 Rootsi2004[8]
Spanish IE (Italic) 126 68.0 2.0 10.0 Rosser2000[14]
Ibiza islanders IE (Italic) 54 57.4 0.0 1.9 7.4 13.0 16.7 Zalloua2008[32]
Majorca islanders IE (Italic) 62 66.1 0.0 8.1 6.2 6.2 1.6 Zalloua2008[32]
Minorca islanders IE (Italic) 37 73.0 2.7 2.7 18.9 0.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Spanish (South) IE (Italic) 162 65.0 2.0 6.0 9.0 4.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Valencians IE (Italic) 73 64.0 3.0 10.0 11.0 1.0 1.0 Zalloua2008[32]
Swedes (Northern) IE (Germanic, North) 48 22.9 18.8 2.1 2.1 8.3 Rosser2000[14]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 110 20.0 17.3 Helgason2000[17]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 225 40 Rootsi2004[8]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 160 13.1 24.4 37.5 1.3 0.0 14.4 Lappalainen2008[43]
Swiss IE (German/Italic) 144 7.6 Rootsi2004[8]
Tatars Altaic (Turkic) 126 8.7 24.1 4.0 33.0 [22]
Turks Altaic (Turkic) 59 11.9 20.3 6.8 13.6 30.5 8.5 3.8 1.7 Q=2 Gokcumen 2008
Semino2004[44]
Cinnioglu 2004[45]
Udmurt Uralic (Finnic) 87 2.3 10.3 1.1 85.1 [22]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 759 7.9 43.2 27.2 7.4 3.8 3 5.4 1.3 0.8 Kushniarevich2015[46]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 21.9[8] 8.6[9] 7.3[9]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9 41.5 24.5 9.4 0.0 5.7 0.0 Varzari2006[28]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 88 89.0 1.0 3.0 Wilson2001[27]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 196 8.1 Rootsi2004[8]

Frequencies in geographical Europe[edit]

Listed here are the average frequencies of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in indigenous people of geographical Europe (including only European part of Russia and Turkey).[47]

Haplogroup Total Europe Western Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Eastern Europe
R1b 33.5% 50.5% 53.0% 41.5% 9.0%
R1a 21.0% 9.5% 9.5% 6.0% 43.5%
I2 9.5% 6.5% 6.0% 9.5% 13.5%
I1 8.5% 13.0% 18.0% 3.5% 5.5%
E1b1b 7.0% 6.0% 2.0% 12.5% 5.5%
J2 6.5% 5.0% 2.5% 13.0% 5.0%
N 5.5% 0.5% 6.5% 0.5% 12.5%
G 3.5% 5.5% 1.0% 6.0% 2.0%
T 1.0% 1.0% 0.5% 2.5% 1.0%
J1 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 2.5% 0.5%
Q 1.0% 0.5% 2.0% 0.5% 1.5%
Others 1.5% 1.5% 0.5% 2.0% 1.0%

Chronological development of haplogroups[edit]

Haplogroup Possible time of origin Possible place of origin Possible TMRCA[48][49]
E 50-55,000 years ago[50][51] East Africa[52] or Asia[53] 27-59,000 years ago
F 38-56,000 years ago
IJ 30-46,000 years ago
K 40-54,000 years ago
E-M215 (E1b1b) 31-46,000 years ago[54] 39-55,000 years ago
P 27-41,000 years ago
J 19-44,500 years ago[55]
R 20-34,000 years ago
I 15-30,000 years ago
R-M173 13-26,000 years ago
I-M438 28-33,000 years ago[56] 16,000-20,000 years ago
E-M35 20,000-30,000 years ago[54] 15–21,000 years ago
J-M267 15-34,000[55] years ago
R-M420 (R1a) 22,000 years ago[57] 8-10,000 years ago
R-M343 (R1b) 22,000 years ago[58] West Asia[59]
N at least 21,000 years ago (STR age)[60]
I-M253 11-21,000[61] or 28-33,000 years ago[56] 3-5,000 years ago
J-M172 15,000-22,000[55] years ago 19-24,000 years ago[62]
E-M78 15-20,000[54] or 17,500-20,000 years ago[63] Northeast Africa[63] at least 17,000 years ago[63]
E-V12 12,500-18,000 years ago[63]
R-M17 13 ,000[57] or 18,000 years ago[64] India
I-L460 present 13,000 years ago[65]
I-M223 11-18,000 years ago[61]
E-V13 7-17,000 years ago[63] West Asia[63] 4,000-4,700 years ago (Europe)
6,800-17,000 years ago (Asia)[63]
R-Z280 11-14,000 years ago[66]
N-M46 at least 12,000 years ago (STR age)[60]
R-M458 11,000 years ago[66]
I-P37 6-16,000,[61] present 10,000 years ago[67]
I-M423 present 10,000 years ago[67]
I-M26 2-17,000,[61] present 8,000 years ago[67]
R-M269 5,500-8,000 years ago[68]
R-L11, R-S116 3-5,000 years ago

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IE = Indo-European
  2. ^ Sarno S, Tofanelli S (2015). "Shared language, diverging genetic histories: high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variability in Calabrian and Sicilian Arbereshe". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.138. PMID 26130483. 
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