Y-DNA haplogroups in European populations

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left:Y-DNA frequencies in Europe (%), right:Detailed distribution of the prevailing Y-haplogroups in Europe
Distribution and percentage of the major haplogroups

Frequencies in some ethnic groups in Europe[edit]

The table below shows the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based on relevant studies, for various ethnic and other notable groups from Europe. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations shown in the first two columns; the third column gives the sample size studied; and the other columns give the percentage for each particular haplogroup (ethnic groups from the North Caucasus, although technically located in Europe, are considered in their own article where they are placed alongside populations of the South Caucasus for the purpose of conserving space) .

Multidimensional scaling showing genetic distance of Y-DNA haplogroups in European populations by:

A Bray–Curtis dissimilarity
B Chord distance

C Gower's dissimilarity

Note: The converted frequency of Haplogroup 2, including modern haplogroups I, G and sometimes J from some old studies conducted before 2004 may lead to unsubstantial frequencies below.

Population Language[1] n R1b R1a I  E1b1b J G N T Others Reference
Albanians IE (Albanian) 223 18.39 4.04 13 35.43 23.77 2.69 0 0.9 1.79 Sarno2015[2]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 51 17.6 9.8 19.6 21.6 23.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 Semino2000[3]
Albanians (Pristina) IE (Albanian) 114 21.10 4.42 I1=5.31
I2a2=2.65
47.37 J2=16.7 0 0 0 P[xQ,R1]=1.77 Pericic2005[4]
Albanians (Tirana) IE (Albanian) 30 13.3 13.3 16.7 23.3 20.0 3.3 Bosch2006[5]
Albanians (Tirana) IE (Albanian) 55 18.2 9.1 I1=3.6
I2a=14.5
I2b=3.6
25.5 J1=3.6
J2a=5.5
J2b=14.5
1.8 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Albanians (Macedonia) IE (Albanian) 64 18.8 1.6 I1=4.5
I2a=12.5
39.1 J1=6.3
J2=15.6
1.6 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Arkhangelsk (Russia) IE (Slavic), Uralic 28 0 17.9 50.0 3.6 0 0 28.6 0 0 Mirabal2009[7]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 29 65.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.9 L=3.4 Semino2000[3]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 103 3.9 Rootsi2004[8]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 76 9.2 1.1 Semino2004[9]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 413 29.1 1.7 3.6 5.1 J1=10.7
J2=25.5
9.4 0.2 8.5 Q=0.2 Herrara2012
Aromuns (Dukasi, Albania) IE (Italic) 39 2.6 2.6 17.9 17.9 48.7 10.3 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Andon Poci, Albania) IE (Italic) 19 36.8 0.0 42.1 15.8 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Kruševo, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 43 27.9 11.6 20.9 20.9 11.6 7.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Štip, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 65 23.1 21.5 16.9 18.5 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Aromuns (Romania) IE (Italic) 42 23.8 2.4 19.0 7.1 33.3 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic) 79 12.7 22.8 43.0 Nebel2001[10]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic) 442 4.1 19.7 38.0 9.7 0.2 Behar2004[11]
Austrians IE (Germanic, West) 219 32 14
Bashkirs (Perm) Altaic (Turkic) 43 86.0 9.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.3 0.0 Lobov[12]
Basque Basque (Basque) 67 88.1 0.0 7.5 2.2 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Semino2000[3]
Basque Basque (Basque) 109 92.7 0.9 3.7 0.9 Adams2008[13]
Bavarians IE (Germanic, West) 80 50.0 15.0 8.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 Rosser2000[14]
Belgians IE (Germanic/Italic) 92 63.0 4.0 2.0 Rosser2000[14]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 41 0.0 39.0 10.0 2.4 Rosser2000[14]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 147 19.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 68 4.4 45.6 25.0 4.4 1.5 8.8 Kharkov2005[15]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 306 4.2 51.0 4.6 3.3 9.5 Behar2003[16]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 26 7.7 3.8 Semino2004[9]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 43 3.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Bosnians (Zenica) IE (Slavic, South) 69 1 25 54 10 0.0 4 Pericic2005[4]
Bosniaks IE (Slavic, South) 85 4 15 I2a=44
I1=5
13 J2=10, J1=2 4 4 Marjanovcic2006
British IE (Germanic, West) 32 68.8 9.4 Helgason2000[17]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 127 11.0 17.3 27.5 19.7 18.1 1.6 0.8 Karachanak2009[18]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 808 10.7 17.5 I*=0.4
I1=4.3
I2a=21.9
E1b1b1a=19.6
E1b1b1c=1.9
other=0.6
J1=3.4
J2=10.5
4.8 0.5 1.6 C=0.5
H=0.6
L=0.2
Q=0.4
R2a=0.1
Karachanak2013[19]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 100 14.0 16.0 34.0 21.0 9.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 others H 1.0 Begoña Martinez-Cruz2012[20]
Bulgarians (Pomaks) IE (Slavic, South) 17 23 - I2a1=35
I1-18
18 J2=6 - - - [21]
Catalans IE (Italic) 24 79.2 0.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 8.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Catalans IE (Italic) 33 6.1 3.6 Semino2004[9]
Cantabrians (Pasiegos) IE (Italic) 56 42.9 Cruciani2004[22]
Chuvashes Altaic (Turkic) 79 3.8 31.6 11.3 0 24.2 0 27.8 0 Tambets2004[23]
Croats (Bosnia) IE (Slavic, South) 90 2 12 I2a1b=73 9 2 1 Battaglia2008
Croats (Split) IE (Slavic, South) 26 Underhill 2009
Croats (Zabok, Zagreb, Delnice, Donji Miholjac, Pazin) IE (Slavic, South) 88 16 33 I2=36
I1=3
V13=7 J2=2 1 Sarac2016[24]
Croats (Dubrovnik) IE (Slavic, South) 179 5 13 I2=54
I1=9
V13=6 J2=6
J1=1
2 2 Sarac2016[24]
Croats (Zadar) IE (Slavic, South) 25 0 4 I2=60
I1=12
V13=8 J2=12 4 Sarac2016[24]
Croats (Žumberak) IE (Slavic, South) 44 11 34 I2=20
I1=7
V13=18 J2=5 2 Sarac2016[24]
Croats (Osijek) IE (Slavic, South) 29 38 I2a1=28 V13=10 J2=10 14 Battaglia2008
Croats IE (Slavic, South) 1100 8 22 I2a=39
I1=6
11 J2=6
J1=1
3 1 1 H=2, Q=1 Mrsic2011[25]
Croats (Central proper) IE (Slavic, South) 220 24 I2a1=32
others=7
Mrsic2011[25]
Croats (North of north proper) IE (Slavic, South) 220 29 I2a1=25
others=7
Mrsic2011[25]
Croats (Slavonia) IE (Slavic, South) 220 19 I2a1=40
others=6
Mrsic2011[25]
Croats (Dalmatia) IE (Slavic, South) 220 19 I2a1=55
others=5
Mrsic2011[25]
Croats (Istria and south proper) IE (Slavic, South) 220 20 I2a1=37
others=9
Mrsic2011[25]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 189 38.1 Rootsi2004[8]
Czechs IE (Slavic, West) 257 34.2 18.3 5.8 4.7 5.1 1.6 Luca2007[26]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 45 35.6 26.7 2.2 Semino2000[3]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 198 13.6 Rootsi2004[8]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 12 41.7 16.7 Helgason2000[17]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 194 38.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 35 2.9 Cruciani2004[22]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 27 70.4 3.7 Semino2000[3]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 410 50.2 3.3 32.9 2.9 5.1 4.1 0.2 Barjesteh2008[27]
English (Central) IE (Germanic, West) 215 61.9 5 25 Weale2002[28]
English IE (Germanic, West) 1830 U106=19
L21=12
U152=6
DF27=6
DF19=1
others=13
4 I1=16
I2=9
3 J2=3
J1=1
5 FTDNA 2016[29]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 207 9.0 3.0 1.0 40.6 Rosser2000[14]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 118 37.3 Laitinen2002[30]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 210 18.6 Rootsi2004[8]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 57 2.0 10.5 2.0 63.2 Rosser2000[14]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 38 0.0 7.9 28.9 63.2 [23]
French IE (Italic) 23 52.2 0 17.4 8.7 4.3 0 0 0 Semino2000[3]
French IE (Italic) 40 8.0 Rosser2000[14]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 56.0 7.0 29.0 2.0 6.0 Wilson2001[31]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 55.3 7.4 34.0 2.1 1.4 Weale2002[28]
Gagauz (Kongaz) Altaic (Turkic) 48 10.4 12.5 31.3 16.7 8.3 10.4 4.2 6.3 Varzari2006[32]
Gagauz (Etulia) Altaic (Turkic) 41 14.6 26.8 24.4 9.8 7.3 17.1 0.0 0.0 Varzari2006[32]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 48 47.9 8.1 22 Helgason2000[17]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 16 50 16 22 6.2 0 0 0 0 Semino2000[3]
Germans IE (Germanic) 1215 38.9 17.9 23.6 6.2 4.0 1.6 7.7 Kayser2005[33]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 3,000+ U106=18
L21=5
U152=9
DF27, DF19=9
others=3
12 I1=13
I2=7
V13=5 J2=5
J1=1
5 1 Gabel 2013[34]
Greeks IE (Greek) 77 11.7 15.6 19.5 20.8 16.9 9.1 0.0 2.6 Firasat2007[35]
Greeks IE (Greek) 118 22.8 8.3 Helgason2000[17]
Greeks (continental) IE (Greek) 154 13 12 18 24 J2=18, J1=2 5 8 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Agrino) IE (Greek) 21 19 5 24 10 J2=24
J1=5
5 10 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Ioannina) IE (Greek) 24 17 8 8 29 J2=17
J1=4
4 13 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Patrai) IE (Greek) 18 11 6 11 44 J2=17 0 11 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Kardhitsa) IE (Greek) 25 8 20 12 28 J2=12
J1=4
12 4 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Serrai) IE (Greek) 25 12 8 36 24 J2=16 4 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Thessaloniki) IE (Greek) 20 5 25 20 20 15 5 10 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Larissa) IE (Greek) 21 19 9 14 14 J2=29 5 10 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Heraklion) IE (Greek) 42 7 0 14 26 J2=38, J1=2 10 2 Di Giacommo 2003[36]
Greeks (Nikomedeia, Lerna/Franchthi, Sesklo/Dimini) IE (Greek) 171 13.5 11.1 15.8 31.6 19.9 4.7 1.8 King2008[37]
Greeks (Crete) IE (Greek) 193 17.0 8.8 13.0 8.8 38.9 10.9 2.1 King2008[37]
Greeks (Peloponnese) IE (Greek) 36 47 Semino2004[9]
Greeks (Thrace) IE (Greek) 41 12.2 22.0 19.5 19.5 19.5 4.9 Bosch2006[5]
Greeks (North) IE (Greek) 96 14.6 18.8 12.5 35.4 5.2 2.1 L=1 Zalloua2008[38]
Greeks (South) IE (Greek) 46 19.6 2.2 23.9 43.5 6.5 2.2
Greeks (Euboea) IE (Greek) 96 9 10 I2a2=5
I2a1=4
I1=1
I2*=2
20 J1=3
J2=25
9 [39]
Greeks (Corinthia) IE (Greek) 110 9 17 I2a1=11
I2a2=2
I2*=2
I1=1
27 J1=6
J2=16
3 [39]
Greeks (Macedonia) IE (Greek) 57 14.0 M458=8.8
others=4
I1=8.8
I2a=17.5
I2*=3.5
22.9 J1=1.8
J2=14.1
1.8 1.8 Battaglia 2008[6][40]
Greeks (Athens) IE (Greek) 92 20 M458=5
others=11
I1=2
I2a=7
I2*=1
E1b1b1a=20
E1b1b1c=2
J1=2
J2=21
3 4 C=1, L=1 Battaglia 2008[6]
Greeks (Athens) IE (Greek) 132 15 6 27 IJ+G=49, K*=4 Waelle 2001[41]
Greeks (Cyprus) IE (Greek) 629 P312=2
others=9
Z280=2
M458=1
Z93=1
4 E1b1b1a=12
E1b1b1c=11
J2=34
J1=7
13 3 L=2, H=1 Voskarides 2016[42]
Gypsy (Macedonia) IE (Indic) 57 1.8 1.8 5.3 29.8 1.8 0 H=59.6 Pericic2005[4]
Herzegovinians (Siroki Brijeg, Mostar) IE (Slavic, South) 141 4 12 71 9 2 Pericic2005[4]
Hungarians (Hungary) Uralic (Ugric) 215 18.1 25.6 I1=7.91
I2a=16.74
I2b=2.79
I*=0.93
6.1 J2=6.51
J*[xJ2]=3.72
4.2 0.47 0.0 H=5.12
R2=0.47
R1*=1.40
Völgyi2008[43]
Hungarians (Paloc) Uralic (Ugric) 45 13.3 60.0 11.1 8.9 2.2 2.2 0.0 0.0 L=2.2 Semino2000[3]
Hungarians (Romania) Uralic (Ugric) 97 20 19 I1=17
I2=5
9 J2=11
J1=10
5 1 [44]
Hungarians (Great Hungarian Plain) Uralic (Ugric) 100 15 30 I2a1=13
I1=8
I=3
10 J2=13
J1=3
3 [44]
Icelanders IE (Germanic, North) 181 41.4 23.8 34.2 Helgason2000[17]
Irish IE (Germanic/Celtic) 222 81.5 0.5 Helgason2000[17]
Irish IE (Germanic/Celtic) 257 2.0 Rosser2000[14]
Italians IE (Italic) 50 62.0 8.0 10.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Italians IE (Italic) 2.7[17] 13.0[14]
Italians (Calabria) IE (Italic) 32.4[3] 5.4[8] 16.3[4] 24.6[9]
Italians (Apulia) IE (Italic) 2.6[8] 13.9[9] 31.4[9]
Italians (Sardinia) IE (Italic) 22.1[3] 42.3[8] 5.0[9] 12.5[9]
Italians (Northern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 86 20.0 0.0 28.0 13.0 21.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Italians (Southern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 187 19.0 1.0 35.0 11.0 14.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Italians IE (Italic) 884 U152=19
U106=4
L21=2
M167=1
other P312=5
others=8
3 I2a1=5
other I2=2
I1=4
E1b1b1a=10
E1b1b1c=3
E1b1b1b=1
J2=14
J1=4
12 2 L=2 Boattini2013[45]
Italians (South) IE (Italic) 68 25.0 3.0 6.0 26.0 15.0 3.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Italians (Sicily) IE (Italic) 8.8 27.3 23.8 Semino2004[9]
Italians (East Sicily) IE (Italic) 87 20.0 2.3 5.0 29.0 5.0 5.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Italians (West Sicily) IE (Italic) 125 27.0 2.4 11.0 19.0 13.0 3.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Komi Uralic (Finnic) 94 16.0 33.0 5.3 35.1 [23]
Komi (Izhemsky) Uralic (Finnic) 54 0.0 29.6 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 68.5 0.0 Mirabal2009[7]
Komi (Priluzsky) Uralic (Finnic) 49 2.0 32.7 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 61.2 0.0 Mirabal2009[7]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 114 39.5 0.9 42.1 Laitinen2002[30]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 38 5.0 [14]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 114 36.0 0.9 43.0 Laitinen2002[30]
ethnic Macedonians IE (Slavic, South) 211 11.4 14.2 31.3 18.0 16.0 3.8 0.5 1.9 L=0.5 Noveski2010[46]
ethnic Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 79 5.1 15.2 34.2 24.1 12.7 5.1 Pericic2005[4]
Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 52 13.5 13.5 28.8 23.1 11.5 3.8 Bosch2006[5]
Maltese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 187 22.0 5.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 111 2.7 47.7 8.1 41.4 [23]
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 48 10.4 29.2 0.0 6.3 50.0 Rosser2000[14]
Moldovans IE (Italic) 70 6 35 10 I+G=37 Stefan2001[47]
Moldavians (Carahasani) IE (Italic) 72 16.7 34.7 25.0 12.5 9.7 0.0 1.4 0.0 Varzari2006[32]
Moldavians (Sofia) IE (Italic) 54 16.7 20.4 35.2 13.0 5.6 1.9 3.7 1.9 Varzari2006[32]
Mordvins (Erzya) Uralic (Finnic) 46 39.1 Malaspina2003[48]
Mordvins (Moksha) Uralic (Finnic) 46 21.7 Malaspina2003[48]
Mordvins Uralic (Finnic) 83 13.3 26.5 19.3 19.3 [23]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 906 24 25 I1=37
I2=5
V13=1 1 1 N1c1a=2 Q=3 FTDNA[49]
Orcadians IE (Germanic, West) 71 66.0 19.7 Wilson2001[31]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 16.4[3] 56.4[3] 17.8[8] 4.0[9] 1.0[9]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 93 13.4 55.9 16.1 3.2 [23]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 913 11.6 57.0 17.3 4.5 2.5 3.7 3.3 Kayser2005[33]
Portuguese IE (Italic) 303 5.3 Rootsi2004[8]
Portuguese (South) IE (Italic) 57 56.0 2.0 17.0 Rosser2000[14]
Portuguese (North) IE (Italic) 328 62.0 0 11.0 Rosser2000[14]
Romanians (Buhusi, Piatra Neamt) IE (Italic) 54 13.0 20.4 48.1 7.4 5.6 5.6 0.0 0.0 Varzari2006[32]
Romanians IE (Italic) 361 22.2 Rootsi2004[8]
Romanians (Constanţa) IE (Italic) 31 16.1 9.7 41.9 9.7 6.5 12.9 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Romanians (Ploieşti) IE (Italic) 36 8.3 5.6 38.9 16.7 19.4 8.3 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[5]
Romanians IE (Italic) 179 10.1 20.1 I1=5.6
I2a1= 17.3
Other I2= 5.0
19.6 J1=2.2
J2a=7.3
J2b = 8.9
2.2 0.6 0.6 Q=0.6 Martinez-Cruz 2012[20]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 122 6.6 46.7 6.6 4.1 18.0 Rosser2000[14]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 61 21.3 42.6 13.1 16.4 [23]
Russians (Kursk) IE (Slavic, East) 40 7.5 52.5 15.0 10.0 2.5 0 12.5 0 0 Mirabal2009[7]
Russians (Northern) IE (Slavic, East) 380 6.1 33.4 14.5 0.3 1.8 1.3 41.3 0.0 Balanovsky2008[50]
Russians (Central) IE (Slavic, East) 364 7.7 47.0 16.5 5.2 3.3 0.0 17.0 0.8 Balanovsky2008[50]
Russians (Adygea) IE (Slavic, East) 78 24.4 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Bashkortostan) IE (Slavic, East) 50 6.0 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Belgorod region) IE (Slavic, East) 143 2.8 59.4 16.7 Balanovsky[50]
Russians (Cossacks) IE (Slavic, East) 97 22.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Kostroma region) IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (North, Pinega) IE (Slavic, East) 127 4.7 Rootsi2004[8]
Russians (Smolensk region) IE (Slavic, East) 120 10.8 Rootsi2004[8]
Ruthenians (Vojvodina) IE (Slavic) 44 [51]
Sami (Sweden) Uralic (Finnic) 38 7.9 15.8 31.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 44.7 0.0 Karlsson2006[52]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 127 3.9 11.0 47.2 [23]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 31.4 Rootsi2004[8]
Scots IE (Celtic) 750 72.5 8.5 14 [53]
Sephardic Jews IE (Italic) 78 29.5 3.9 11.5 19.2 28.2 Nebel2001[10]
Serbs and South Slavs IE (Slavic, South) 1092 5 20 I1=9

I2=34

14 J1=2

J2=9

4 3 - Q=1 Serb DNA Project 2016[54]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 267 3 26 I1=9

I2a = 30

15 9 5 2 Serb DNA Project 2014[55]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 179 4.5 14.5 I2a=38.5 17.3 5.6 2.2 3.3 H=2.2, Q=1.7, L=0.6 Mirabal,V.2010[56]
Serbs (Vojvodina) IE (Slavic, South) 185 10.3 15.1 I2a1=29.7
I1=5.4
16.2 J2=11.4 3.2 H=2.7, Q=1.1, others=4.9 Veselinovic 2008[57]
Serbs (Belgrade) IE (Slavic, South) 113 10.6 15.9 36.3 21.2 8 Pericic2005[4]
Serbs (Aleksandrovac, Serbia) IE (Slavic, South) 85 1.17 21.1 41.1 15.2 9.40 10.5 0.0 0.0 Todorovic2013
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 103 7.8 20.4 37.9 18.4 7.8 5.8 1.9 Regueiro2012[58]
Serbs (Bosnia) IE (Slavic, South) 81 6.2 13.6 40.7 22.2 9.9 1.2 6.2 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Slovaks (Vojvodina) IE (Slavic, West) 42 [51]
Slovenians IE (Slavic, South) 75 21.3 38.7 30.7 2.7 4.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[6]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 70 37.1 7.1 5.7 0.0 0.0 Rosser2000[14]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 55 38.2 Rootsi2004[8]
Spanish IE (Italic) 126 68.0 2.0 10.0 Rosser2000[14]
Ibiza islanders IE (Italic) 54 57.4 0.0 1.9 7.4 13.0 16.7 Zalloua2008[38]
Majorca islanders IE (Italic) 62 66.1 0.0 8.1 6.2 6.2 1.6 Zalloua2008[38]
Minorca islanders IE (Italic) 37 73.0 2.7 2.7 18.9 0.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Spanish (South) IE (Italic) 162 65.0 2.0 6.0 9.0 4.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Valencians IE (Italic) 73 64.0 3.0 10.0 11.0 1.0 1.0 Zalloua2008[38]
Swedes (Northern) IE (Germanic, North) 48 22.9 18.8 2.1 2.1 8.3 Rosser2000[14]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 1800+ U106=7
L21=2
DF27, U152=1
V88=1
L238=1
other=9
18 I1=42
I2a2a=3
V27=1 J2=1 G2a=1
others=2
N1c=5
others=2
- Q=3 FTDNA 2016[59]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 110 20.0 17.3 Helgason2000[17]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 225 40 Rootsi2004[8]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 160 13.1 24.4 37.5 1.3 0.0 14.4 Lappalainen2008[60]
Swiss IE (German/Italic) 144 7.6 Rootsi2004[8]
Tatars Altaic (Turkic) 126 8.7 24.1 4.0 33.0 [23]
Turks Altaic (Turkic) 523 16 7 5 11 33 11 4 K2=2 L=4, Q=2, C=1, R2=1, H=1, A+DE*+R*+O = 2 Cinnioglu 2004[61]
Turks (Istanbul) Altaic (Turkic) 81 15 9 10 12 27 7 2 K2=4 L=5, C=4, DE*=5 Cinnioglu 2004
Turks (Bulgaria) Altaic (Turkic) 63 8 10 I2=13
I1=6
13 J2=18
J1=6
6 5 H=11, Q=3 Zaharova 2001
Udmurt Uralic (Finnic) 87 2.3 10.3 1.1 85.1 [23]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 759 7.9 43.2 27.2 7.4 3.8 3 5.4 1.3 0.8 Kushniarevich2015[62]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 21.9[8] 8.6[9] 7.3[9]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9 41.5 24.5 9.4 0.0 5.7 0.0 Varzari2006[32]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 88 89.0 1.0 3.0 Wilson2001[31]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 196 8.1 Rootsi2004[8]

Chronological development of haplogroups[edit]

Haplogroup Possible time of origin Possible place of origin Possible TMRCA[63][64]
E 50-55,000 years ago[65][66] East Africa[67] or Asia[68] 27-59,000 years ago
F 38-56,000 years ago
IJ 30-46,000 years ago
K 40-54,000 years ago
E-M215 (E1b1b) 31-46,000 years ago[69] 39-55,000 years ago
P 27-41,000 years ago
J 19-44,500 years ago[70]
R 20-34,000 years ago
I 15-30,000 years ago
R-M173 13-26,000 years ago
I-M438 28-33,000 years ago[71] 16,000-20,000 years ago
E-M35 20,000-30,000 years ago[69] 15–21,000 years ago
J-M267 15-34,000[70] years ago
R-M420 (R1a) 22,000 years ago[72] India 8-10,000 years ago
R-M343 (R1b) 22,000 years ago[73] West Asia[74]
N at least 21,000 years ago (STR age)[75]
I-M253 11-21,000[76] or 28-33,000 years ago[71] 3-5,000 years ago
J-M172 15,000-22,000[70] years ago 19-24,000 years ago[77]
E-M78 15-20,000[69] or 17,500-20,000 years ago[78] Northeast Africa[78] at least 17,000 years ago[78]
E-V12 12,500-18,000 years ago[78]
R-M17 13 ,000[72] or 18,000 years ago[79] India
I-L460 present 13,000 years ago[80]
I-M223 11-18,000 years ago[76]
E-V13 7-17,000 years ago[78] West Asia[78] 4,000-4,700 years ago (Europe)
6,800-17,000 years ago (Asia)[78]
R-Z280 11-14,000 years ago[81]
N-M46 at least 12,000 years ago (STR age)[75]
R-M458 11,000 years ago[81]
I-P37 6-16,000,[76] present 10,000 years ago[82]
I-M423 present 10,000 years ago[82]
I-M26 2-17,000,[76] present 8,000 years ago[82]
R-M269 5,500-8,000 years ago[83]
R-L11, R-S116 3-5,000 years ago

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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