Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of East and Southeast Asia

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The tables below provide statistics on the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups most commonly found among ethnolinguistic groups and populations from East and South-East Asia.

Main table[edit]

Population Language n C D F K
(most likely K2a(xNO),
L, M, N, Q, R,
S and/or T)
N O1a O1b O2 P Q Others Source
Achang (Lianghe, Yunnan) Tibeto-Burman 40 5.0 0 2.5 ≥10.0 82.5 0 Shi 2005
Yang 2005
Aini (Xishuangbanna) Tibeto-Burman 52 11.5 0 3.8 O2a=
7.7
40.4 0 K(xO1a,O2a,O3,P)
=34.6, F(xK)=1.9
Wen 2004[1]
Ainu Ainu 16 12.5 87.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tajima 2004[2]
Andamanese Andamanese 37 0 73.0 5.4 0 0 2.7 5.4 10.8 0 Thangaraj 2002[3]
Bali (Indonesia) Austronesian 551 1.8 0 1.1 0 18.1 58.8 6.9 0.4 H=3.4 Karafet 2005[4]
Borneo (Indonesia) Austronesian 40 5.0 0 5 10 0 15 37.5 17.5 Kayser 2002[5]
Chin (Chin State) Tibeto-Burman 19 42.1 52.6 Peng 2014[6]
South China ST, HM 384 9.6 2.1 0.5 4.4 6.8 17.4 57.8 0.3 Karafet 2005[4]
Daur Mongolic 39 30.8 0 0 ≥7.7 ≥5.1 20.5 25.6 0 K2a(xN1,O)=2.6
O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=2.6
Xue 2006[7]
Deng (Zayü County) Tibeto-Burman 109 1.1 2.2 1.1 94.4 Kang 2012[8]
East Asia East Asians 988 19.9 4.8 1.9 6.4 5.4 16.3 33.7 R1a=2.8 Xue 2006[7]
Filipino Austronesian 50 0 0 10 0 46 38 Tajima 2004[2]
Filipino Austronesian 115 5 20 28 3 39 S=2 Scheinfeldt 2006[9]
Garo Tibeto-Burman 71 8.5 0 ≥11.3 59.2 7.0 H1a=1.4, F(xH,J2,K)=4.2
O(xO2a,O3)=4.2
K(xL,O,P)=4.2
Reddy 2007[10]
Han (China) Sinitic 166 6.0 0.6 1.2 9.0 9.6 16.3 55.4 0.6 Karafet 2005[4]
Han (Chengdu, Sichuan) Sinitic 34 11.8 0 0 2.9 14.7 17.6 52.9 0 Xue 2006[7]
Han (Meixian, Guangdong) Sinitic 35 8.6 0 2.9 2.9 20.0 14.3 51.4 0 Xue 2006[7]
Han (Harbin, Heilongjiang) Sinitic 35 14.3 0 0 5.7 2.9 8.6 65.7 0 J=2.9 Xue 2006[7]
Han (Lanzhou, Gansu) Sinitic 30 20.0 6.7 0 6.7 6.7 3.3 36.7 0 J=10.0
R1a1=6.7
O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=3.3
Xue 2006[7]
Han (Xi'an) Sinitic 34 23.53 8.82 5.88 8.82 8.82 38.24 2.94 R=2.94 Kim 2011[11]
Han (Yili, Xinjiang) Sinitic 32 6.3 3.1 9.4 0 9.4 12.5 46.9 R1a1=6.3
P(xR1a1)=3.1
Unknown(xA,C,DE,J,K)=2.9
Xue 2006[7]
Han (Taiwan) Sinitic 183 6.3 0.3 22.4 8.5 58.2 1.1 Tsai 2001[12]
Hani (China) Tibeto-Burman 34 17.6 0 0 11.8 0 50.0 17.6 0 Unknown(xA,C,DE,J,K)=2.9 Xue 2006[7]
Hezhe (China) Tungusic 45 28.9 0 0 17.8 0 6.7 44.4 0 K2a(xN1,O)=2.2 Xue 2006[7]
Hmong–Mien (China) Hmong–Mien 169 8.9 3.6 0 1.2 3.6 22.5 61.5 0 Karafet 2005[4]
Hui (Ningxia, China) Sino-Tibetan 54 1.9 R1b = 3.7; R1a = 11.1;
J = 9.3; L = 1.9
Karafet 2001[13]
East Indonesia Austronesian, Papuan 344 61.9 0 10.5 2.6 7.3 S=11, M=4 Mona 2009[14]
Japan Japanese 118 5.1 46.6 1.7[15] Karafet 1999[16]
Japan (Tokyo) Japanese 57 C-M8=7.0
C-M217=3.5
36.8 0 0 0 O-M176=31.6
O-K18=3.5
17.5 0 1000 Genomes Project (JPT, "Japanese in Tokyo, Japan")
Japan (Kantō) Japanese 137 3.6 48.2 0 0 2.2 30.7 14.5 0.7 Nonaka 2007[17]
Western Japan Japanese 97 7.2 26.8 4.1 37.1 23.9 0 Nonaka 2007[17]
Java Austronesian 53 1.9 0 1.9 0 22.6 41.5 22.6 R1=3.8 Kayser 2002[5]
Khalkh Mongolic 85 56.5 3.5 2.4[18] 0 0 18.8 J=2.4, N1c=4.7
P(xR1a1)=4.7
R1a1=3.5
K(xN1c,O,P)=3.5
Katoh 2004[19]
Korea Korean 317 9.1 4.0 4.1 30.3 44.5 0.6 Shin 2001[20]
Korea Korean 110 15.5 0 5.5 2.7 28.2 45.5 K(xNO)=1.8 Kim 2007[21]
Koreans (China) Korean 25 12.0 0 4.0 4.0 0 32.0 40.0 0 BT(xC,DE,J,K)=8.0 Xue 2006[7]
Koreans (Korea) Korean 43 16.3 2.3 2.3 0 30.2 39.5 P(xR1a1)=2.3
J=2.3
Xue 2006[7]
Koreans (Seoul-Gyeonggi) Korean 110 13.6 0.9 1.8 0.9 28.2 50.9 2.7 L=0.9 Kim 2011[11]
Koreans (Gangwon) Korean 63 12.7 6.4 1.6 39.7 38.1 1.6 Kim 2011[11]
Koreans (Chungcheong) Korean 72 11.1 1.4 4.2 1.4 30.6 50 1.4 Kim 2011[11]
Koreans (Jeolla) Korean 90 13.3 3.3 4.4 1.1 33.3 43.3 L=1.1 Kim 2011[11]
Koreans (Gyeongsang) Korean 84 16.7 2.4 4.8 2.4 33.3 36.9 1.2 L=1.2
R=1.2
Kim 2011[11]
Koreans (Jeju) Korean 87 8.1 1.2 6.9 5.8 32.2 43.7 1.2 R=1.2 Kim 2011[11]
Lhoba (Mainling County) Tibeto-Burman 61 0 20.8 0 34.6 33.8 0.8 J=0.8, R=7.7
O(xO3)=1.5
Kang 2012[8]
Island South East Asia Austronesian 312 15.7 24.4 23.7 14.1 18.6 M1=5.4 Capelli 2001[22]
Island South East Asia Austronesian, Papuan 272 9.9 8.8 20.2 18.7 22.1 S=4, M=3 Kayser 2006[23]
Manchu Sinitic, Tungusic 101 16.8 2.0 3.0 33.7 42.6 O*(xO1,O2b,O3)
=1.0, P*(xR1a)=1.0
Katoh 2004[19]
Manchu Sinitic, Tungusic 35 25.7 2.9 2.9 14.3 2.9 14.3 37.1 0 Xue 2006[7]
Mongolia Mongolic 149 8.1 G=0.7; J=2.7 Hammer 2005[24]
Mongolia Mongolic 65 53.0 1.5 1.5 10.6 0 1.5 10.6 4.5 R1=9.1 Xue 2006[7]
Inner Mongolia Mongolic, Sinitic 45 46.7 0 4.4 13.3 0 2.2 28.9 0 Xue 2006[7]
Naga (Myanmar) Tibeto-Burman 15 100 Peng 2014[6]
Oroqen Tungusic 31 61.3 0 3.2 6.5 6.5 19.4 0 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=3.2 Xue 2006[7]
Qiang Tibeto-Burman 33 0 18.2 0 0 15.2 15.2 36.4 BT(xC,DE,J,K)=9.1
P(xR1a1)=6.1
Xue 2006[7]
Sibe Tungusic 41 26.8 2.4 4.9 17.1 7.3 2.4 26.8 J=7.3
P(xR1a1)=2.4
BT(xC,DE,J,K)=2.4
Xue 2006[7]
Sumatra Austronesian 57 5.3 1.8 14 3.5 0 17.5 14.0 29.8 S=3 Kayser 2006[23]
Taiwanese aborigines Austronesian 246 0.4 0 0 0 66.3 10.6 11.0 Capelli 2001[22]
Tibet Tibeto-Burman 156 2.6 51.6 0 4.5 0 0 33.9 3.2 H=1.9, R1a=1.9 Gayden 2007[25]
Tibetans (Lhasa, Tibet) Tibeto-Burman 46 8.7 41.3 4.3 0 0 0 2.2 39.1 4.3 Wen 2004[1]
Tibetans (Zhongdian, Yunnan) Tibeto-Burman 50 4.0 36.0 12.0 0 4.0 44.0 0 Wen 2004[26]
Tibetans (Yushu, Qinghai) Tibeto-Burman 92 14.1 22.8 14.1 21.7 1.1 19.6 6.5 Wen 2004[1]
Tibetans (Guide, Qinghai) Tibeto-Burman 39 2.6 48.7 5.1[27] 7.7 0 10.3 J=5.1, R1a1=2.6
P(xR1a1)=2.6
Zhou 2008[28]
Tibetans Tibeto-Burman 35 0 42.9 0 8.6 0 0 40.0 0 R1a1=8.6 Xue 2006[7]
Tibeto-Burman Tibeto-Burman 964 8.4 18.5 5.4 17.7 3.1 6.3 38.7 Wen 2004[1]
Tujia (Hunan) Tibeto-Burman 155 15.5 1.3 12.9 9.7 3.9 53.5 1.9 Wen 2004[1]
Uyghur Turkic 70 7.1 1.4 7.1 8.6 1.4 0 11.4 others=63 Xue 2006[7]
Vietnam Austroasiatic 70 4.3 2.9 0 2.9 5.7 32.9 40.0 7.1 J=2.9 Karafet 2005[4]
Yao (Bama, Guangxi) Hmong–Mien 35 17.1 2.9 0 2.9 40.0 34.3 0 K2a(xN1,O)=2.9 Xue 2006[7]
Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) Hmong–Mien 35 2.9 0 0 0 5.7 8.6 82.9 0 Xue 2006[7]
Yi (Sichuan, Yunnan) Tibeto-Burman 125 5.6 0.8 18 28.0 0.8 7.2 28.8 Wen 2004[1]
Zakhchin Mongolic 60 46.7 3.3 1.7[29] N1c=
3.3
0 O2b=
3.3
8.3 R1a1=13.3
O(xO1a,O2b,O3)
=8.3, J=1.7
P(xR1a1)=5.0
K(xN1c,O,P)=5.0
Katoh 2004[19]
Zhuang (Yongbei) Tai–Kadai 23 8.7 4.35 4.35 17.39 30.44 17.4 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=21.704 Chen 2006[30]
Zhuang (Youjiang) Tai–Kadai 5 40 20 20 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=20 Chen 2006[30]
Zhuang (Tianlin) Tai–Kadai 22 4.55 72.73 9.1 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=13.64 Chen 2006[30]
Bouyei (Guibian) Tai–Kadai 4 25 25 25 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=25 Chen 2006[30]
Zhuang (Hongshuihe) Tai–Kadai 39 2.56 5.13 5.13 10.26 12.82 41.02 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=23.08 Chen 2006[30]
Zhuang (Guibei) Tai–Kadai 21 4.76 4.76 4.76 4.76 9.52 28.58 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=38.1 Chen 2006[30]
Zhuang (Yongnan) Tai–Kadai 19 5.26 10.53 21.06 42.1 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=15.79 Chen 2006[30]
Tay (Zuojiang) Tai–Kadai 15 6.67 40 20 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=33.33 Chen 2006[30]
Zhuang (Shangsi) Tai–Kadai 15 20 66.67 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=13.33 Chen 2006[30]
Nung (Dejing) Tai–Kadai 3 O*(xO1a,O2,O3)=100 Chen 2006[30]
Japan Japanese 259 8.5 34.7 0 1.5 0 31.7 20.1 0.4 K2a(xN,O)=2.3 Hammer 2005[24]
Japan Japanese 263 5.3 39.2 0 0.8 3.4 34.2 16.7 0.4 0 Nonaka 2007[17]
South Korea Korean 506 12.6 1.6 0 4.5 1.8 32.4 44.3 1.4 L=0.6, R=0.4 Kim 2011[11]
South Korea Korean 706 12.9 2.5 0 3.8 3.1 33.4 42.1 1.8 R=0.1, J1=0.1 Park 2012[31]

Malaysia

Austronesian 50 6 6 8 0 8 32 30 M=2 Scheinfeldt 2006[9]
Thai Tai–Kadai 34 2.9 2.9 0 0 8.8 35.3 O(xO1,O3)=44.1 Tajima 2004[2]

Austro-Tai peoples[edit]

The following table of Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup frequencies of Austro-Tai peoples (i.e., Tai-Kadai peoples and Austronesian peoples) is from Li, et al. (2008).[32]

Ethnolinguistic group Language branch n C D
(xD1)
D1 F(xK) M K

(most likely K2a(xN,O)),
K2b (which includes M, P, Q, R & S)
and/or LT
O
(xO1a,
O1b1a1a,O2)
O1a(xO1a2) O1a2 (M110/M50) O1b1a1a
(xO1b1a1a1a1a)
O1b1a1a1a1a (M111/M88) O2
(xO2a1a1a1a1,
O2a2a1a2,
O2a2b1a1)
O2a1a1a1a1 (M121) O2a2a1a2 (M7) O2a2b1
(xO2a2b1a1)
O2a2b1a1 (M117) P (inc. Q & R)
Bolyu Austroasiatic (Pakanic) 30 3.3 3.3 10.0 10.0 3.3 23.3 30.0 6.7 10.0
Buyang (Yerong) Tai-Kadai (Kra) 16 62.5 6.3 18.8 12.5
Qau (Bijie) Tai-Kadai (Kra) 13 15.4 7.7 23.1 15.4 30.8 7.7
Blue Gelao (Longlin) Tai-Kadai (Kra) 30 3.3 13.3 60.0 16.7 3.3 3.3
Lachi Tai-Kadai (Kra) 30 3.3 3.3 13.3 13.3 16.7 6.7 10.0 3.3 6.7 23.3
Mulao (Majiang) Tai-Kadai (Kra) 30 10.0 3.3 13.3 3.3 3.3 63.3 3.3
Red Gelao (Dafang) Tai-Kadai (Kra) 31 3.2 6.5 22.6 22.6 16.1 12.9 16.1
White Gelao (Malipo) Tai-Kadai (Kra) 14 35.7 14.3 42.9 7.1
Hlai (Qi, Tongza) Tai-Kadai (Hlai) 34 35.3 32.4 29.4 2.9
Jiamao Tai-Kadai (Hlai) 27 25.9 51.9 22.2
Paha Tai-Kadai (Kra) 32 3.1 6.3 6.3 9.4 3.1 71.9
Cun Tai-Kadai (Hlai) 31 3.2 6.5 9.7 38.7 38.7 3.2
Qabiao Tai-Kadai (Kra) 25 32.0 4.0 60.0 4.0
Caolan Tai-Kadai (Central Tai) 30 10.0 10.0 53.3 3.3 20.0 3.3
Zhuang, Northern (Wuming) Tai-Kadai (Northern Tai) 22 13.6 4.6 72.7 4.6 4.6
Zhuang, Southern (Chongzuo) Tai-Kadai (Central Tai) 15 13.3 20.0 60.0 6.7
Lingao Tai-Kadai (Be) 30 3.3 16.7 26.7 13.3 3.3 10.0 26.7
E Tai-Kadai (Northern Tai) 31 3.2 3.2 9.7 16.1 6.5 54.8 3.2 3.2
Lakkia Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 23 4.4 52.2 4.4 8.7 26.1 4.4
Kam (Sanjiang) Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 38 21.1 5.3 10.5 39.5 10.5 2.6 10.5
Sui (Rongshui) Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 50 8.0 10.0 18.0 44.0 20.0
Mak & Ai-Cham Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 40 2.5 87.5 5.0 2.5 2.5
Mulam Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 40 2.5 12.5 7.5 5.0 5.0 25.0 30.0 7.5 5.0
Maonan Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 32 9.4 9.4 15.6 56.3 9.4
Biao Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 34 2.9 5.9 14.7 17.7 52.9 5.9
Then Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 30 3.3 3.3 33.3 50.0 6.7 3.3
Tanka (Lingshui) Sinitic 40 20.0 5.0 2.5 7.5 17.5 7.5 5.0 17.5 2.5 15.0
Cao Miao Tai-Kadai (Kam–Sui) 33 8.2 10.0 3.0 66.7 12.1
Amis Austronesian (Formosan) 28 7.1 42.8 17.8 7.1 21.4 3.6
Pazeh Austronesian (Formosan) 21 14.3 38.1 19.1 14.3 14.3
Siraya (Makatao) Austronesian (Formosan) 37 2.7 2.7 5.4 70.3 5.4 13.5
Thao Austronesian (Formosan) 22 4.6 81.8 4.6 9.1
Paiwan Austronesian (Formosan) 22 63.6 27.3 9.1
Atayal Austronesian (Formosan) 22 95.5 4.5
Rukai Austronesian (Formosan) 11 81.8 18.2
Puyuma Austronesian (Formosan) 11 72.7 9.1 9.1 9.1
Tsou Austronesian (Formosan) 18 88.9 5.6 5.6
Bunun Austronesian (Formosan) 17 5.9 17.6 58.8 17.6
Saisiyat Austronesian (Formosan) 11 45.5 9.1 9.1 9.1 27.3
Batak Austronesian (Northwest Sumatran) 13 11.6 19.3 23.1 15.4 23.1 7.7
Bangka Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 13 7.7 7.7 30.8 23.1 23.1 7.7
Malay (Riau) Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 13 7.7 7.7 7.7 38.5 7.7 23.1 7.7
Minangkabau Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 15 6.7 20.0 20.0 13.3 20.0 20.0
Palembang Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 11 9.1 63.6 18.2 9.1
Nias Austronesian (Northwest Sumatran) 12 8.3 91.7
Dayak (Kalimantan Tengah) Austronesian (Bornean) 15 6.7 26.7 20.0 20.0 6.7 6.7 13.3
Banjar Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 15 13.3 6.7 26.7 26.7 26.7
Javanese Austronesian (Javanese) 15 26.7 26.7 20.0 13.3 13.3
Tengger Austronesian (Javanese) 12 16.7 8.3 33.3 33.3 8.3
Balinese Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 14 28.6 14.3 7.1 28.6 14.3 7.1
Bugis Austronesian (South Sulawesi) 15 13.3 20.0 33.3 26.7 6.7
Toraja Austronesian (South Sulawesi) 15 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 6.7 33.3 6.7
Minahasa Austronesian (Philippine) 14 7.1 50.0 21.4 7.1 14.3
Makassar Austronesian (South Sulawesi) 13 23.1 30.8 15.4 7.7 23.1
Kaili Austronesian (Celebic) 15 6.7 33.3 20.0 6.7 26.7 6.7
Sasak Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 15 13.3 13.3 26.7 6.7 20.0 20.0
Sumbawa Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 18 16.7 83.3
Sumba Austronesian (CEMP) 14 14.3 78.6 7.1
Alor Trans–New Guinea 13 38.5 30.7 23.1 7.7
Cenderawasih
(Geelvink Bay)
Austronesian (CEMP) 11 45.5 36.4 18.2
Cham
(Binh Dinh)
Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 11 9.1 90.9
Tsat Austronesian (Malayo-Sumbawan) 31 12.9 16.1 58.1 3.2 6.5 3.2

Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples[edit]

The following table of Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup frequencies of Tibeto-Burman-speaking peoples of western and southwestern China is from Wen, et al. (2004).[1]

Population n C-M130 D* D1-M15 F(xK) K(xO,P1) O2 (M122) O2a2b1 (M134) O1a (M119) O1b1a1a (M95) P1 (M45)
Tibetan (Qinghai) 92 14.13 20.65 2.17 14.13 21.74 5.43 14.13 1.09 6.52
Tibetan (Tibet 1) 75 2.67 33.33 16 2.67 5.33 1.33 32 6.67
Tibetan (Tibet 2) 46 8.7 23.91 17.39 4.35 4.35 34.78 2.17 4.35
Tibetan (Diqing) 27 44.44 3.7 14.81 7.41 29.63
Tibetan (Zhongdian) 49 2.04 28.57 8.16 2.04 10.2 10.2 34.69 4.08
Bai (Dali) 61 8.2 1.64 4.92 18.03 16.39 34.43 4.92 11.48
Lisu (Fugong) 49 2.04 22.45 4.08 61.22 8.16 2.04
Naxi 40 2.5 37.5 7.5 2.5 5
Nu 28 3.57 3.57 14.29 71.43 7.14
Pumi 47 6.38 70.21 2.13 6.38 2.13 6.38 4.26 2.13
Yi (Liangshan) 14 14.29 42.86 21.43 7.14 14.29
Yi (Shuangbai) 50 8 2 1 38 16 1 1 2 4
Yi (Butuo) 43 2.33 16.28 4.65 34.88 4.65 27.91 9.3
Aini (Xishuangbanna) 52 11.54 1.92 34.62 26.92 13.46 3.85 7.69
Bai (Xishuangbanna) 20 2 3 25 15 1
Hani (Xishuangbanna) 34 11.76 35.29 32.35 14.71 2.94 2.94
Jino 36 13.89 5.56 36.11 19.44 19.44 5.56
Lahu (Simao) 13 15.38 30.77 15.38 15.38 15.38 7.69
Lahu (Xishuangbanna) 15 6.67 2 33.33 6.67 2 13.33
Yi (Xishuangbanna) 18 11.11 5.56 33.33 27.78 16.67 5.56
Tujia (western Hunan) 68 14.71 2.94 10.29 29.41 26.47 7.35 8.82
Tujia (Yongshun) 38 5.26 2.63 23.68 39.47 10.53 15.79 2.63
Tujia (Jishou) 49 24.49 2.04 8.16 30.61 22.45 8.16 4.08

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Bo Wen 2004, Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans
  2. ^ a b c Atsushi Tajima; et al. (March 2, 2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (4): 187–193. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. OCLC 110247689. PMID 14997363.
  3. ^ Kumarasamy Thangaraj et al 2002, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population Archived October 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ a b c d e Tatiana M. Karafet 2005, Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders
  5. ^ a b Manfred Kayser et al 2002-2003, Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea
  6. ^ a b Peng Min-Sheng, et al. (2014) Retrieving Y chromosomal haplogroup trees using GWAS data. European Journal of Human Genetics volume 22, pages 1046–1050 (2014). doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.272
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Yali Xue et al 2006, Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times Archived September 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b Kang Longli, Lu Y, Wang C, Hu K, Chen F, Liu K, Li S, Jin L, Li H; Genographic Consortium (2012). Y-chromosome O3 haplogroup diversity in Sino-Tibetan populations reveals two migration routes into the eastern Himalayas. Annals of Human Genetics (2012) 76,92–99.
  9. ^ a b Laura Scheinfeldt, Françoise Friedlaender, Jonathan Friedlaender, Krista Latham, George Koki, Tatyana Karafet, Michael Hammer and Joseph Lorenz, "Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia," Molecular Biology and Evolution 2006 23(8):1628-1641
  10. ^ B. Mohan Reddy 2007, Austro-Asiatic Tribes of Northeast India Provide Hitherto Missing Genetic Link between South and Southeast Asia
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Soon-Hee Kim 2011, High frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroup O2b-SRY465 lineages in Korea: a genetic perspective on the peopling of Korea
  12. ^ Li-Chin Tsai 2001, Haplotype frequencies of nine Y-chromosome STR loci in the Taiwanese Han population
  13. ^ Karafet, Tatiana; Xu, Liping; Du, Ruofu; et al. (September 2001). "Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes". American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (615–628): 2001. doi:10.1086/323299. PMC 1235490. PMID 11481588.
  14. ^ Stefano Mona et al 2009, Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis
  15. ^ P may include Q and/or R.
  16. ^ T. M. Karafet, S. L. Zegura, O. Posukh et al., "Ancestral Asian Source(s) of New World Y-Chromosome Founder Haplotypes," American Journal of Human Genetics 64 : 817–831, 1999
  17. ^ a b c I. Nonaka et al 2007, Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms
  18. ^ F(xJ,K): may include G, H or I.
  19. ^ a b c Toru Katoh 2004, Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis
  20. ^ Dong-Jik Shin et al 2001, Y-Chromosome multiplexes and their potential for the DNA profiling of Koreans
  21. ^ Wook Kim 2007, Lack of Association between Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups and Prostate Cancer in the Korean Population
  22. ^ a b Cristian Capelli et al 2001, A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania
  23. ^ a b Manfred Kayser et al 2006, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific
  24. ^ a b Michael F. Hammer, Tatiana M. Karafet, Hwayong Park, Keiichi Omoto, Shinji Harihara, Mark Stoneking and Satoshi Horai, "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes," Journal of Human Genetics Volume 51, Number 1 / January, 2006.
  25. ^ Tenzin Gayden et al 2007, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow
  26. ^ Bo Wen, Hong Shi, Ling Ren et al., "The origin of Mosuo people as revealed by mtDNA and Y chromosome variation," Science in China Ser. C Life Sciences 2004 Vol.47 No.1 1-10
  27. ^ F(xJ,K); may include G, H, or I.
  28. ^ Ruixia Zhou 2008, Origin and evolution of two Yugur sub-clans in Northwest China: a case study in paternal genetic landscape
  29. ^ F(xJ,K): may include G, H, I.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Chen, Jing, et al. (2006). "Y-chromosome Genotyping and Genetic Structure of Zhuang Populations." Acta Genetica Sinica, December 2006, 33 (12): 1060-1072
  31. ^ Myung Jin Park, Hwan Young Lee, Woo Ick Yang, and Kyoung-Jin Shin, "Understanding the Y chromosome variation in Korea—relevance of combined haplogroup and haplotype analyses." International Journal of Legal Medicine July 2012, Volume 126, Issue 4, pp 589–599. DOI: 10.1007/s00414-012-0703-9
  32. ^ Li, Hui, et al. (2008). "Paternal genetic affinity between western Austronesians and Daic populations." BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, 8:146. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-146

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