Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Listed here are notable ethnic groups and populations from Western Asia, North Africa and South Caucasus by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations in the first two columns, the third column gives the sample size studied, and the other columns give the percentage of the particular haplogroup. (IE = Indo-European, AA = Afro-Asiatic) Some old studies conducted in the early 2000s regarded several haplogroups as one haplogrup, e.g. I, G and sometimes J were haplogroup 2, so conversion sometimes may lead to unsubstantial frequencies below.

Population Language (if specified) n E1b1a E1b1b G I  J L N R1a R1b T Reference
Arabs (Algeria) AA (Semitic) 35 0 54 0 0 35 0 0 0 13 0 Arredi2004[1]
Arabs (Algeria - Oran) AA (Semitic) 102 12.8 50.9 0 0 27.4 0 0 1 10.8 0 Robino2008[2]
Arabs (Bedouin) AA (Semitic) 32 0 18.7 0 6.3 65.6 0 0 9.4 0 0 Nebel2001[3]
Arabs (Egyptians) AA (Semitic) 147 2.8 36.7 8.8 0.7 32 0 0 2.7 4.1 8.2 Luis2004[4]
Arabs (Iraq) AA (Semitic) 0.9 8.3 0 0 50.6 0 0 0 0 0 Semino2004[5]
Arabs (Palestine) AA (Semitic) 143 0 20.3 7 6.3 55.2 0 0 1.4 8.4 1.4 Nebel2001[3]
Arabs (Jordan) AA (Semitic) 146 0 26 4.1 3.4 43.8 0 0 1.4 17.8 0 AbuAmero2009[6]
Arabs (Lebanon) AA (Semitic) 31 0 25.8 3.2 3.2 45.2 3.2 0 9.7 6.4 0 Semino2000[7]
Arabs (Libya) AA (Semitic) 63 0 52 8 1.5 24 1.5 0 1.5 3 5 Immel2006[8]
Arabs (Morocco) AA (Semitic) 49 0 75.5 0 0 20.4 0 0 0 0 0 Semino2004[5]
Arabs (Oman) AA (Semitic) 121 7.4 15.7 1.7 0 47.9 0.8 0 9.1 1.7 8.3 Luis2004[4]
Arabs (Qatar) AA (Semitic) 72 2.8 5.6 2.8 0 66.7 2.8 0 6.9 1.4 0 Cadenas2008[9]
Arabs (Saudi Arabia) AA (Semitic) 157 7.6 7.6 3.2 0 58 1.9 0 5.1 1.9 5.1 AbuAmero2009[6]
Arabs (Syria) AA (Semitic) 20 0 10 0 5 30 0 0 10 15 0 Semino2000[7]
Arabs (Sudan) AA (Semitic) 102 0 16.7 0 3.9 47.1 0 0 0 15.7 0 Hassan2008[10]
Arabs (Tunisia) AA (Semitic) 148 1.4 49.3 0 0 35.8 0 0 0 6.8 0.7 Arredi2004[1]
Arabs (UAE) AA (Semitic) 164 5.5 11.6 4.3 0 45.1 3 0 7.3 4.3 4.9 Cadenas2008[9]
Arabs (Yemen) AA (Semitic) 62 3.2 12.9 1.6 0 82.3 0 0 0 0 0 Cadenas2008[9]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 89 0 3.4 0 0 29.2 0 3.4 5.6 24.7 0 Rosser2000[11]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 100 0 6 11 5 24 0 0 6 19 0 Nasidze2004[12]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 734 0 5.4 0 0 0 1.6 0 5.3 32.4 0 Weale2001[13]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic) 79 0 22.8 3.8 6.3 43 0 0 12.7 11.4 0 Nebel2001[3]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic) 442 0.2 19.7 9.7 4.1 38 0.2 0.2 0 0 0 Behar2004[14]
Assyrians (Iran) AA (Semitic) 48 0 4.2 8.3 0 29.2 0 0 8.3 29.2 8.3 Grugni 2012[15]
Azerbaijanis Turkic 72 0 6 18 3 31 0 0 7 11 0 Nasidze2004[12]
Azerbaijanis Turkic 97 0 4.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]
Baloch IE (Iranian, NW) 25 0 8 0 0 16 24 0 28 8 0 Sengupta2006[17]
Berbers (Moyen Atlas) AA (Berber) 69 0 87.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]
Berbers (Marrakesh) AA (Berber) 29 0 92.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]
Berbers (Mozabite) AA (Berber) 20 0 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]
Berbers (Morocco) AA (Berber) 64 4.7 79.6 0 0 6.3 0 0 0 0 0 Semino2004[5]
Berbers (north-central Morocco) AA (Berber) 63 9.5 74.6 0 0 3.2 0 0 0 0 0 Bosch2001[18]
Berbers (southern Morocco) AA (Berber) 40 2.5 85 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 Bosch2001[18]
Copts (Sudan) AA (Semitic) 33 0 21.2 0 0 45.5 0 0 0 15.2 0 Hassan2008[10]
Cypriots IE (Greek) 45 0 27 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 0 Rosser2000[11]
Druze AA (Semitic) 28 0 14.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]
Egyptians AA (Semitic) 92 3.3 43.5 2.2 1.1 22.8 0 0 0 5.4 7.6 Wood2005[19]
Egyptians AA (Semitic) 147 2 36 9 1 31 0 0 3 2 8 AbuAmero2009[6]
Egyptians (North) AA (Semitic) 43 0 53.5 7 0 18.2 0 0 2.3 9.3 2.3 Zalloua2008[20]
Egyptians (South) AA (Semitic) 29 0 31 17.2 3.4 24.1 0 0 0 13.8 10.3 Zalloua2008[20]
Georgians Caucasian (South) 63 0 0 30.1 0 36.5 1.6 0 7.9 14.3 1.6 Semino2000[7]
Georgians Caucasian (South) 66 0 3 31.8 1.5 36.4 1.5 0 10.6 9.1 1.5 Battaglia2008[21]
Iranians (North Iran) IE (Iranian, West) 33 0 0 15.2 0 33.3 3 6.1 6.1 15.2 0 Regueiro2006[22]
Iranians (South Iran) IE (Iranian, West) 117 1.7 5.1 12.8 0 35 6 0.9 16.2 6 3.4 Regueiro2006[22]
Iranians IE (Iranian, West) 130 0 4.6 5.4 24.6 13.8 0 0 19.2 4.6 0 Nasidze2004[12]
Iranians IE 938 1.8 7 11.7 0.5 31.4 5 0.1 14.3 10.1 3.4 Grugni 2012[15]
Iraq 203 1 10.8 2.5 0.5 57.6 1 1 6.9 10.8 5.9 Abu A. 2009[6]
Kurdish Jews IE (Iranian, NW) 95 0 12.1 19.2 6.1 37.4 1 0 4 20.2 0 Nebel2001[3]
Kurds (Muslim)(Northern Iraq) IE (Iranian, NW) 95 0 7.4 4.2 16.8 40 3.2 0 11.6 16.8 0 Nebel2001[3]
Lebanon 916 0.7 16.2 6.5 4.8 46 5.2 0 2.5 8.1 4.7 AbuAmero2009[6]
Nubians (Sudan) Nilo-Saharan (Eastern Sudanic) 39 0 23.1 0 5.1 43.6 0 0 0 10.3 0 Hassan2008[10]
Saharawish (Morocco) AA (Semitic) 29 3.4 79.3 0 0 17.2 0 0 0 0 0 Semino2004[5]
Sephardic Jews IE (Italic) 78 0 19.2 7.7 11.5 28.2 0 0 3.9 29.5 0 Nebel2001[3]
Soqotra AA (Semitic) 63 0 9 [23] 0 0 85.7 0 0 1.6 0 0 Cerny2009[24]
Turks Turkic 523 0.2 11.3 10.9 5.4 33.3 [25] 4.2 3.8 6.9 16.1 2.5 Cinnioglu2004[26]
Turks Turkic 741 0 0 0 5.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rootsi2004[27]
Turks Turkic 167 0 10.2 0 0 32.9 0 2.4 4.8 20.4 0 Rosser2000[11]
Turks Turkic 59 0 13.6 8.5 6.8 30.5 0 0 11.9 20.3 1.7 Sanchez2005[28]
Turks (Central Anatolia) Turkic 61 0 6.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pericic2005[29]
Turks (Istanbul) Turkic 0 13 0 0 24.7 0 0 0 0 0 Semino2004[5]
Turks (Konya) Turkic 0 14.5 0 0 31.8 0 0 0 0 0 Semino2004[5]
Turks (Cypriot) Turkic 46 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]
Turks (Southeastern) Turkic 24 0 4.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]
Turks (Erzurum) Turkic 25 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cruciani2004[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Arredi, B; Poloni, E; Paracchini, S; Zerjal, T; Fathallah, D; Makrelouf, M; Pascali, V; Novelletto, A; Tylersmith, C (2004). "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (2): 338–45. PMC 1216069Freely accessible. PMID 15202071. doi:10.1086/423147. 
  2. ^ Robino, C; Crobu, F; Di Gaetano, C; Bekada, A; Benhamamouch, S; Cerutti, N; Piazza, A; Inturri, S; Torre, C (2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". International journal of legal medicine. 122 (3): 251–5. PMID 17909833. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Nebel, A; Filon, D; Brinkmann, B; Majumder, P; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A (2001). "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (5): 1095–112. PMC 1274378Freely accessible. PMID 11573163. doi:10.1086/324070. 
  4. ^ a b Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioglu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavallisforza, L; Herrera, R (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (3): 532–44. PMC 1182266Freely accessible. PMID 14973781. doi:10.1086/382286.  (Errata)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Semino, O; Magri, C; Benuzzi, G; Lin, AA; Al-Zahery, N; Battaglia, V; MacCioni, L; Triantaphyllidis, C; et al. (2004). "Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1023–34. PMC 1181965Freely accessible. PMID 15069642. doi:10.1086/386295. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics. 10: 59. PMC 2759955Freely accessible. PMID 19772609. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. 
  7. ^ a b c Semino, O.; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P; et al. (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. PMID 11073453. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. 
  8. ^ Immel, U.-D.; Erhuma, M.; Mustafa, T.; Kleiber, M.; Klintschar, M. (2006). "Population genetic analysis in a Libyan population using the PowerPlex 16 system". International Congress Series. 1288: 421–3. doi:10.1016/j.ics.2005.08.036. 
  9. ^ a b c Cadenas, Alicia M; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L; Underhill, Peter A; Herrera, Rene J (2007). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (3): 374–86. PMID 17928816. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. 
  10. ^ a b c Hassan, HY; Underhill, PA; Cavalli-Sforza, LL; Ibrahim, ME (2008). "Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 137 (3): 316–23. PMID 18618658. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876. 
  11. ^ a b c Rosser, ZH; Zerjal, T; Hurles, ME; Adojaan, M; Alavantic, D; Amorim, A; Amos, W; Armenteros, M; et al. (2000). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (6): 1526–43. PMC 1287948Freely accessible. PMID 11078479. doi:10.1086/316890. 
  12. ^ a b c Nasidze, I; Ling, EY; Quinque, D; Dupanloup, I; Cordaux, R; Rychkov, S; Naumova, O; Zhukova, O; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in the caucasus". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 3): 205–21. PMID 15180701. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00092.x. 
  13. ^ Weale, ME; Yepiskoposyan, L; Jager, RF; Hovhannisyan, N; Khudoyan, A; Burbage-Hall, O; Bradman, N; Thomas, MG (2001). "Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group". Human Genetics. 109 (6): 659–74. PMID 11810279. doi:10.1007/s00439-001-0627-9. 
  14. ^ Behar, DM; Garrigan, D; Kaplan, ME; Mobasher, Z; Rosengarten, D; Karafet, TM; Quintana-Murci, L; Ostrer, H; et al. (2004). "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations". Human Genetics. 114 (4): 354–65. PMID 14740294. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1073-7. 
  15. ^ a b Grugni, Viola et al 2012, Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians PLoS ONE 7(7): e41252. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Cruciani, F; La Fratta, R; Santolamazza, P; Sellitto, D; Pascone, R; Moral, P; Watson, E; Guida, V; et al. (2004). "Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1014–22. PMC 1181964Freely accessible. PMID 15042509. doi:10.1086/386294. 
  17. ^ Sengupta, S; Zhivotovsky, L; King, R; Mehdi, S; Edmonds, C; Chow, C; Lin, A; Mitra, M; Sil, S; Ramesh, A.; Usha Rani, M.V.; Thakur, Chitra M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Majumder, Partha P.; Underhill, Peter A. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. PMC 1380230Freely accessible. PMID 16400607. doi:10.1086/499411. 
  18. ^ a b Bosch, E; Calafell, F; Comas, D; Oefner, P; Underhill, P; Bertranpetit, J (2001). "High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Variation Shows a Sharp Discontinuity and Limited Gene Flow between Northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (4): 1019–29. PMC 1275654Freely accessible. PMID 11254456. doi:10.1086/319521. 
  19. ^ Wood, ET; Stover, DA; Ehret, C; Destro-Bisol, G; Spedini, G; McLeod, H; Louie, L; Bamshad, M; et al. (2005). "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 867–76. PMID 15856073. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408. 
  20. ^ a b Zalloua, P; Platt, D; Elsibai, M; Khalife, J; Makhoul, N; Haber, M; Xue, Y; Izaabel, H; Bosch, E; Adams, Susan M.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana María; Aler, Mercedes; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Jobling, Mark A.; Comas, David; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2008). "Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (5): 633–42. PMC 2668035Freely accessible. PMID 18976729. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012. 
  21. ^ Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri; et al. (2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (6): 820–30. PMC 2947100Freely accessible. PMID 19107149. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. 
  22. ^ a b Regueiro, M; Cadenas, AM; Gayden, T; Underhill, PA; Herrera, RJ (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Human heredity. 61 (3): 132–43. PMID 16770078. doi:10.1159/000093774. 
  23. ^ May include other clades of Haplogroup E.
  24. ^ Cerný, V; Pereira, L; Kujanová, M; Vasíková, A; Hájek, M; Morris, M; Mulligan, CJ (2009). "Out of Arabia-the settlement of island Soqotra as revealed by mitochondrial and Y chromosome genetic diversity". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 138 (4): 439–47. PMID 19012329. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20960. 
  25. ^ Haplogroup J1 = 9.0; Haplogroup J2 = 24.3.
  26. ^ Cinnioglu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoglu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C.; et al. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics. 114 (2): 127–48. PMID 14586639. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. 
  27. ^ Rootsi, S; Magri, C; Kivisild, T; Benuzzi, G; Help, H; Bermisheva, M; Kutuev, I; Barać, L; et al. (2004). "Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in europe". American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (1): 128–37. PMC 1181996Freely accessible. PMID 15162323. doi:10.1086/422196. 
  28. ^ Sanchez, Juan J; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Børsting, Claus; Hernandez, Alexis; Gorlin, RJ (2005). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 856–66. PMID 15756297. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390. 
  29. ^ Pericić, M; Lauc, LB; Klarić, IM; Rootsi, S; Janićijevic, B; Rudan, I; Terzić, R; Colak, I; et al. (2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (10): 1964–75. PMID 15944443. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. 

External links[edit]