Y-DNA haplogroups in European populations

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Y-haplogroups in Europe

Frequencies in some ethnic groups in Europe[edit]

The table below shows the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based on relevant studies, for various ethnic and other notable groups from Europe. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations shown in the first two columns; the third column gives the sample size studied; and the other columns give the percentage for each particular haplogroup. (Ethnic groups from the North Caucasus, although technically located in Europe, are considered in their own article where they are placed alongside populations of the South Caucasus for the purpose of conserving space.)

Population Language[1] n R1b R1a I  E1b1b J G N T Others Reference
Albanians IE (Albanian) 51 17.6 9.8 19.6 21.6 23.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 Semino2000[2]
Albanians (Kosovar) IE (Albanian) 114 21.10 4.42 I1=5.31
I2a2=2.65
47.37 J2=16.7 0 0 0 P[xQ,R1]=1.77 Pericic2005[3]
Albanians (Tirana) IE (Albanian) 30 13.3 13.3 16.7 23.3 20.0 3.3 Bosch2006[4]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 55 18.2 9.1 I1=3.6
I2a=14.5
I2b=3.6
25.5 J1=3.6
J2a=5.5
J2b=14.5
1.8 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[5]
Albanians (Macedonia) IE (Albanian) 64 18.8 1.6 I1=4.5
I2a=12.5
39.1 J1=6.3
J2=15.6
1.6 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[5]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 106 23.6 Rootsi2004[6]
Arkhangelsk (Russia) IE (Slavic), Uralic 28 0 17.9 50.0 3.6 0 0 28.6 0 0 Mirabal2009[7]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 29 65.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.9 L=3.4 Semino2000[2]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 103 3.9 Rootsi2004[6]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 76 9.2 1.1 Semino2004[8]
Aromuns (Dukasi, Albania) IE (Italic) 39 2.6 2.6 17.9 17.9 48.7 10.3 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[4]
Aromuns (Andon Poci, Albania) IE (Italic) 19 36.8 0.0 42.1 15.8 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[4]
Aromuns (Kruševo, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 43 27.9 11.6 20.9 20.9 11.6 7.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[4]
Aromuns (Štip, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 65 23.1 21.5 16.9 18.5 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[4]
Aromuns (Romania) IE (Italic) 42 23.8 2.4 19.0 7.1 33.3 0.0 Bosch2006[4]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic, West) 79 12.7 22.8 43.0 Nebel2001[9]
Ashkenazi Jews IE (Germanic, West) 442 4.1 19.7 38.0 9.7 0.2 Behar2004[10]
Austrians IE (Germanic, West) 219 32 14
Bashkirs (Perm) Altaic (Turkic) 43 86.0 9.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.3 0.0 Lobov[11]
Basque (French, Spanish) Basque (Basque) 67 88.1 0.0 7.5 2.2 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Semino2000[2]
Basque (French, Spanish) Basque (Basque) 109 92.7 0.9 3.7 0.9 Adams2008[12]
Bavarians IE (Germanic, West) 80 50.0 15.0 8.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 Rosser2000[13]
Belgians IE (Germanic/Italic) 92 63.0 4.0 2.0 Rosser2000[13]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 41 0.0 39.0 10.0 2.4 Rosser2000[13]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 147 19.0 Rootsi2004[6]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 68 4.4 45.6 25.0 4.4 1.5 8.8 Kharkov2005[14]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 306 4.2 51.0 4.6 3.3 9.5 Behar2003[15]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 26 7.7 3.8 Semino2004[8]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 43 3.7 Rootsi2004[6]
Bosnians IE (Slavic, South) 69 1.4 24.6 42.0 10.1 0.0 Pericic2005[3]
British IE (Germanic, West) 32 68.8 9.4 Helgason2000[16]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 127 11.0 17.3 27.5 19.7 18.1 1.6 0.8 Karachanak2009[17]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 808 10.7 17.5 I*=0.4
I1=4.3
I2a=20.2
I2b=1.7
22.1 J1=3.4
J2=10.5
4.8 0.5 1.6 C=0.5
H=0.6
L=0.2
Q=0.4
R2a=0.1
Karachanak2013[18]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 100 14.0 16.0 34.0 21.0 9.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 others H 1.0 Begoña Martinez-Cruz2012[19]
Catalans IE (Italic) 24 79.2 0.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 8.0 Rootsi2004[6]
Catalans IE (Italic) 33 6.1 3.6 Semino2004[8]
Cantabrians (Pasiegos) IE (Italic) 56 42.9 Cruciani2004[20]
Chuvashes Altaic (Turkic) 79 3.8 31.6 11.3 0 24.2 0 27.8 0 Tambets2004[21]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 108 15.7 34.3 37.0 5.6 1.9 0.9 Pericic2005[3]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 189 38.1 Rootsi2004[6]
Cypriots IE (Greek) 45 9.0 2.0 27.0 Rosser2000[13]
Czechs IE (Slavic, West) 257 34.2 18.3 5.8 4.7 5.1 1.6 Luca2007[22]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 45 35.6 26.7 2.2 Semino2000[2]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 198 13.6 Rootsi2004[6]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 12 41.7 16.7 Helgason2000[16]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 194 38.7 Rootsi2004[6]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 35 2.9 Cruciani2004[20]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 27 70.4 3.7 Semino2000[2]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 26.7[6] 8.0[13] 0[8]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 410 50.2 3.3 32.9 2.9 5.1 4.1 0.2 Barjesteh2008[23]>
English (Central) IE (Germanic, West) 215 61.9 5 25 Weale2002[24]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 207 9.0 3.0 1.0 40.6 Rosser2000[13]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 118 37.3 Laitinen2002[25]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 210 18.6 Rootsi2004[6]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 57 2.0 10.5 2.0 63.2 Rosser2000[13]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 38 0.0 7.9 28.9 63.2 [21]
French IE (Italic) 23 52.2 0 17.4 8.7 4.3 0 0 0 Semino2000[2]
French IE (Italic) 40 8.0 Rosser2000[13]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 56.0 7.0 29.0 2.0 6.0 Wilson2001[26]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 55.3 7.4 34.0 2.1 1.4 Weale2002[24]
Gagauz (Kongaz) Altaic (Turkic) 48 10.4 12.5 31.3 16.7 8.3 10.4 4.2 6.3 Varzari2006[27]
Gagauz(Etulia) Altaic (Turkic) 41 14.6 26.8 24.4 9.8 7.3 17.1 0.0 0.0 Varzari2006[27]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 48 47.9 8.1 22 Helgason2000[16]
Germans IE (Germanic, West) 16 50 16 22 6.2 0 0 0 0 Semino2000[2]
Germans IE (Germanic) 1215 38.9 17.9 23.6 6.2 4.0 1.6 7.7 Kayser2005[28]
Greeks IE (Greek) 77 11.7 15.6 19.5 20.8 16.9 9.1 0.0 2.6 Firasat2007[29]
Greeks IE (Greek) 118 22.8 8.3 Helgason2000[16]
Greeks IE (Greek) 84/92 23.8 6.5 Semino2004[8]
Greeks IE (Greek) 171 13.5 11.1 15.8 31.6 19.9 4.7 1.8 King2008[30]
Greeks (Crete) IE (Greek) 193 17.0 8.8 13.0 8.8 38.9 10.9 2.1 King2008[30]
Greeks (Peloponnese) IE (Greek) 36 47 Semino2004[8]
Greeks (Thrace) IE (Greek) 41 12.2 22.0 19.5 19.5 19.5 4.9 Bosch2006[4]
Greeks (North) IE (Greek) 96 14.6 18.8 12.5 35.4 5.2 2.1 L=1 Zalloua2008[31]
Greeks (South) IE (Greek) 46 19.6 2.2 23.9 43.5 6.5 2.2 Zalloua2008[31]
Greeks (Macedonia) IE (Greek) 57 14.0 12.3 I1=8.8
I2a=21.0
22.9 J1=1.8
J2=14.1
1.8 1.8 Battaglia 2008[5]
Gypsy (Macedonia) IE (Indic) 57 1.8 1.8 5.3 29.8 1.8 0 H=59.6 Pericic2005[3]
Herzegovinians IE (Slavic, South) 141 3.6 12.1 63.8 8.5 0.7 Pericic2005[3]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 215 18.1 25.6 I1=7.91
I2a=16.74
I2b=2.79
I*=0.93
6.1 J2=6.51
J*[xJ2]=3.72
4.2 0.47 0.0 H=5.12
R2=0.47
R1*=1.40
Völgyi2008[32]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 45 13.3 60.0 11.1 8.9 2.2 2.2 0.0 0.0 L=2.2 Semino2000[2]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 56.6[5] 9.4[8] 2.0[8] 8.0[33] 1.0
Icelanders IE (Germanic, North) 181 41.4 23.8 34.2 Helgason2000[16]
Irish IE (Celtic) 222 81.5 0.5 Helgason2000[16]
Irish IE (Celtic) 257 2.0 Rosser2000[13]
Italians IE (Italic) 50 62.0 8.0 10.0 Rootsi2004[6]
Italians IE (Italic) 2.7[16] 13.0[13]
Italians (Calabria) IE (Italic) 32.4[2] 5.4[6] 16.3[3] 24.6[8]
Italians (Apulia) IE (Italic) 2.6[6] 13.9[8] 31.4[8]
Italians (Sardinia) IE (Italic) 22.1[2] 42.3[6] 5.0[8] 12.5[8]
Italians (Northern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 86 20.0 0.0 28.0 13.0 21.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Italians (Southern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 187 19.0 1.0 35.0 11.0 14.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Italians (North-central) IE (Italic) 62.0[2] 0.5[6] 10.4[3] 26.9[8]
Italians (South) IE (Italic) 68 25.0 3.0 6.0 26.0 15.0 3.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Italians (Sicily) IE (Italic) 8.8 27.3 23.8 Semino2004[8]
Italians (East Sicily) IE (Italic) 87 20.0 2.3 5.0 29.0 5.0 5.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Italians (West Sicily) IE (Italic) 125 27.0 2.4 11.0 19.0 13.0 3.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Komi Uralic (Finnic) 94 16.0 33.0 5.3 35.1 [21]
Komi (Izhemsky) Uralic (Finnic) 54 0.0 29.6 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 68.5 0.0 Mirabal2009[7]
Komi (Priluzsky) Uralic (Finnic) 49 2.0 32.7 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 61.2 0.0 Mirabal2009[7]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 114 39.5 0.9 42.1 Laitinen2002[25]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 34 15.0[13] 41[13] 7.0[13] 32[13] Rosser 2000[13]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 38 5.0 [13]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 114 36.0 0.9 43.0 Laitinen2002[25]
ethnic Macedonians IE (Slavic, South) 211 11.4 14.2 31.3 18.0 16.0 3.8 0.5 1.9 L=0.5 Noveski2010[34]
ethnic Macedonians IE (Slavic, South) 79 5.1 15.2 34.2 24.1 12.7 5.1 Pericic2005[3]
Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 52 13.5 13.5 28.8 23.1 11.5 3.8 Bosch2006[4]
Maltese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 187 22.0 5.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 111 2.7 47.7 8.1 41.4 [21]
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 48 10.4 29.2 0.0 6.3 50.0 Rosser2000[13]
Moldavians (Karahasani) IE (Italic) 72 16.7 34.7 25.0 12.5 9.7 0.0 1.4 0.0 Varzari2006[27]
Moldavians (Sofia) IE (Italic) 54 16.7 20.4 35.2 13.0 5.6 1.9 3.7 1.9 Varzari2006[27]
Mordvins (Erzya) Uralic (Finnic) 46 39.1 Malaspina2003[35]
Mordvins (Moksha) Uralic (Finnic) 46 21.7 Malaspina2003[35]
Mordvins Uralic (Finnic) 83 13.3 26.5 19.3 19.3 [21]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 25.9[16] 17.9[16] 40.3[6]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 52 30.8 1.9 1.9 3.8 0.0 Rosser2000[13]
Orcadians IE (Germanic, West) 71 66.0 19.7 Wilson2001[26]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 16.4[2] 56.4[2] 17.8[6] 4.0[8] 1.0[8]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 93 13.4 55.9 16.1 3.2 [21]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 913 11.6 57.0 17.3 4.5 2.5 3.7 3.3 Kayser2005[28]
Portuguese IE (Italic) 303 5.3 Rootsi2004[6]
Portuguese (South) IE (Italic) 57 56.0 2.0 17.0 Rosser2000[13]
Portuguese (North) IE (Italic) 328 62.0 0 11.0 Rosser2000[13]
Romanians IE (Italic) 54 13.0 20.4 48.1 7.4 5.6 5.6 0.0 0.0 Varzari2006[27]
Romanians IE (Italic) 361 22.2 Rootsi2004[6]
Romanians (Constanţa) IE (Italic) 31 16.1 9.7 41.9 9.7 6.5 12.9 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[4]
Romanians (Ploieşti) IE (Italic) 36 8.3 5.6 38.9 16.7 19.4 8.3 0.0 0.0 Bosch2006[4]
Romanians IE (Italic) 179 10.1 20.1 I1=5.6
I2a1= 17.3
Other I2= 5.0
19.6 J1=2.2
J2a=7.3
J2b = 8.9
2.2 0.6 0.6 Q=0.6 Martinez-Cruz 2012[19]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 122 6.6 46.7 6.6 4.1 18.0 Rosser2000[13]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 61 21.3 42.6 13.1 16.4 [21]
Russians (Kursk) IE (Slavic, East) 40 7.5 52.5 15.0 10.0 2.5 0 12.5 0 0 Mirabal2009[7]
Russians (Northern) IE (Slavic, East) 380 6.1 33.4 14.5 0.3 1.8 1.3 41.3 0.0 Balanovsky2008[36]
Russians (Central) IE (Slavic, East) 364 7.7 47.0 16.5 5.2 3.3 0.0 17.0 0.8 Balanovsky2008[36]
Russians (Adygea) IE (Slavic, East) 78 24.4 Rootsi2004[6]
Russians (Bashkortostan) IE (Slavic, East) 50 6.0 Rootsi2004[6]
Russians (Belgorod region) IE (Slavic, East) 143 2.8 59.4 16.7 Balanovsky[36]
Russians (Cossacks) IE (Slavic, East) 97 22.7 Rootsi2004[6]
Russians (Kostroma region) IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9 Rootsi2004[6]
Russians (North, Pinega) IE (Slavic, East) 127 4.7 Rootsi2004[6]
Russians (Smolensk region) IE (Slavic, East) 120 10.8 Rootsi2004[6]
Sami (Sweden) Uralic (Finnic) 38 7.9 15.8 31.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 44.7 0.0 Karlsson2006[37]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 127 3.9 11.0 47.2 [21]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 31.4 Rootsi2004[6]
Scots IE (Celtic) 750 72.5 8.5 14 [38]
Sephardic Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 78 29.5 3.9 11.5 19.2 28.2 Nebel2001[9]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 179 4.5 14.5 48 17.3 5.6 2.2 3.3 L=0.6 Mirabal,V.2010[39]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 113 10.6 15.9 36.3 21.2 8 Pericic2005[3]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 103 7.8 20.4 37.9 18.4 7.8 5.8 1.9 Regueiro2012[40]
Serbs (Bosnia) IE (Slavic, South) 81 6.2 13.6 40.7 22.2 9.9 1.2 6.2 0.0 Battaglia2008[5]
Slovenians IE (Slavic, South) 75 21.3 38.7 30.7 2.7 4.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 Battaglia2008[5]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 70 37.1 7.1 5.7 0.0 0.0 Rosser2000[13]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 55 38.2 Rootsi2004[6]
Spanish IE (Italic) 126 68.0 2.0 10.0 Rosser2000[13]
Ibiza islanders IE (Italic) 54 57.4 0.0 1.9 7.4 13.0 16.7 Zalloua2008[31]
Majorca islanders IE (Italic) 62 66.1 0.0 8.1 6.2 6.2 1.6 Zalloua2008[31]
Minorca islanders IE (Italic) 37 73.0 2.7 2.7 18.9 0.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Spanish (South) IE (Italic) 162 65.0 2.0 6.0 9.0 4.0 0.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Valencians IE (Italic) 73 64.0 3.0 10.0 11.0 1.0 1.0 Zalloua2008[31]
Swedes (Northern) IE (Germanic, North) 48 22.9 18.8 2.1 2.1 8.3 Rosser2000[13]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 110 20.0 17.3 Helgason2000[16]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 225 40 Rootsi2004[6]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 160 13.1 24.4 37.5 1.3 0.0 14.4 Lappalainen2008[41]
Swiss IE (German/Italic) 144 7.6 Rootsi2004[6]
Tatars Altaic (Turkic) 126 8.7 24.1 4.0 33.0 [21]
Turks (Istanbul) Altaic (Turkic) 13.0 24.7 Semino2004[8]
Udmurt Uralic (Finnic) 87 2.3 10.3 1.1 85.1 [21]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 50 2.0 54.0 18 4 6 4.0 6.0 2.0 Semino2000[2]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 21.9[6] 8.6[8] 7.3[8]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9 41.5 24.5 9.4 0.0 5.7 0.0 Varzari2006[27]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 88 89.0 1.0 3.0 Wilson2001[26]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 196 8.1 Rootsi2004[6]

Frequencies in geographical Europe[edit]

Listed here are the average frequencies of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in indigenous people of geographical Europe (including only European part of Russia and Turkey).[42]

Haplogroup Total Europe Western Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Eastern Europe
R1b 33.5% 50.5% 53.0% 41.5% 9.0%
R1a 21.0% 9.5% 9.5% 6.0% 43.5%
I2 9.5% 6.5% 6.0% 9.5% 13.5%
I1 8.5% 13.0% 18.0% 3.5% 5.5%
E1b1b 7.0% 6.0% 2.0% 12.5% 5.5%
J2 6.5% 5.0% 2.5% 13.0% 5.0%
N 5.5% 0.5% 6.5% 0.5% 12.5%
G 3.5% 5.5% 1.0% 6.0% 2.0%
T 1.0% 1.0% 0.5% 2.5% 1.0%
J1 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 2.5% 0.5%
Q 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 1.0%
Others 1.5% 1.5% 0.5% 2.0% 1.0%

Chronological development of haplogroups found in Europe[edit]

Listed here are notable groups from Europe and their chronological development based on relevant studies:[10][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][37][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][6][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138][139][140]

Haplogroup Possible time of origin Possible place of origin Highest frequencies
K 40,000 years ago South Asia or West Asia
T 30,000 years ago West Asia
J 30,000 years ago Middle East
R 28,000 years ago Central Asia
E1b1b-M35 26,000 years ago East Africa
I 25,000 years ago Balkans
R1a1 21,000 years ago Southern Russia
R1b 20,000 years ago Around the Caspian Sea or Central Asia
E1b1b-M78 18,000 years ago Egypt/Libya
G 17,000 years ago Between India and the Caucasus
I2 17,000 years ago Balkans
J2 15,000 years ago Mesopotamia
I2b 13,000 years ago Central Europe
N1c1 12,000 years ago Siberia or Mongolia 90% Yakuts
I2a 11,000 years ago Balkans
R1b1b2 10,000 years ago North or south of the Caucasus
J1 10,000 years ago Middle East
E1b1b-V13 8,500 years ago Balkans
I2b1 9,000 years ago Germany
I2a1 8,000 years ago Sardinia
I2a2 2,500 years ago Poland, Central Europe
E1b1b-M81 5,500 years ago Maghreb
I1 5,000 years ago Scandinavia
R1b-L21 4,000 years ago Central or Eastern Europe
R1b-S28 3,500 years ago around the Alps
R1b-S21 3,000 years ago Frisia or Central Europe
I2b1a < 3,000 years ago Britain

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IE = Indo-European
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Ornella Semino et al 2000, The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pericic, M.; Lauc, L. B.; Klarić, I. M.; Rootsi, S; Janićijevic, B; Rudan, I; Terzić, R; Colak, I; Kvesić, A; Popović, D; Sijacki, A; Behluli, I; Dordevic, D; Efremovska, L; Bajec, D. D.; Stefanović, B. D.; Villems, R; Rudan, P (2005). "High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bosch E, Calafell F, González-Neira A, Flaiz C, Mateu E, Scheil HG, Huckenbeck W, Efremovska L, Mikerezi I, Xirotiris N, Grasa C, Schmidt H, Comas D (2006). "Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns". Ann. Hum. Genet. 70 (Pt 4): 459–87. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x. PMID 16759179. 
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