Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of South Asia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Listed here are notable groups and populations from South Asia by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. The samples are taken from individuals identified with linguistic designations (IE=Indo-European, Dr=Dravidian, AA=Austro-Asiatic and ST=Sino-Tibetan), the third column gives the sample size studied, and the other columns give the percentage of the particular haplogroup. R1a and H1 are the two most widespread genetic haplotype in South Asia, covering a large majority of population.

Note: The converted frequencies from some old studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century may lead to unsubstantial frequencies below.

Population Language n C F G H J K L O P Q R1a R1b R2 T Reference
Burusho (Pakistan) Isolate (Burushaski) 97 8.2 1.0 1.0 4.1 8.2 47.9 3.1 1.0 2.1 6.5 4.4 0 Firasat2006[1]
Kalash (Pakistan) Isolate Kalasha, IE 44 0 0 18.2 20.5 9.1 25.0 0 0 0 18.2 0 0 Firasat2006[1]
India IE, Dr, AA, ST 728 1.8 5.2 1.2 26.4 9.3 18.7 23.9 0 0.4 27.3 0.5 9.3 0 Sengupta2006[2]
India IE, Dr, AA, ST 931 6.9 0.1 19.1 8.3 20.3 10.1 4.1 31.1 10.5 Cordaux2004[3]
India IE, Dr, AA, ST 1152 1.4 3.0 0.1 23.0 9.1 17.5 18.0 2.7 28.3 0.5 13.5 3.1 Trivedi2007[4]
Indian Indo-Europeans IE 205 2.4 2.4 0.5 28.8 11.3 3.9 4.9 1.0 48.9 1.5 13.7 Sengupta2006[2]
Indian Dravidians Dr 353 1.7 9.3 2.3 32.9 19.7 11.6 13.6 0.3 26.7 0.3 6.2 Sengupta2006[2]
Indian Munda AA 892 4.0 23.1 3.9 0 57.2 1.8 5.4 4.4 Kumar2007[5]
Indian Sino-Tibetans ST 87 1.1 0 0 2.3 0 0 86.2 0 4.6 0 5.7 Sengupta2006[2]
India (North) IE, ST 180 0 1.1 0.6 24.5 7.8 1.7 2.3 0 48.9 0.6 11.1 0 Trivedi2007[4]
India (Maharashtra) IE 204 5.4 0.5 0 33.3 11.3 11.8 0 2.5 0 35.0 6.4 0.5 Sahoo2006[6]
India (South) Dr 372 1.9 4.0 0 27.5 19.7 10.8 0 1.6 26.7 1.3 21.5 5.1 Trivedi2007[4]
India (East) IE, AA, Dr 367 0.8 2.7 0 19.3 4.1 1.9 20.7 2.7 0 23.2 15.5 3.8 Sahoo2006[6]
India (Northeast) ST 108 0 0 0 0.9 0 0 79.7 4.6 1.9 0 0 0 Trivedi2007[4]
India (Central) IE, Dr 50 0 4 2 20 4 4 8 0 0 50 0 6 0 Sahoo2006[6]
India (S. Gujarat tribals) IE 284 8.5 4.2 0 40.1 10.2 2.8 3.2 0 0 2.8 18.7 0 9.5 0 Khurana2014,[7]
Indian castes IE, Dr 616 5.2 9.6 0.2 12.0 11.7 19.0 1.2 3.1 48.9 10.0 Cordaux2004[3]
Indian tribes Dr, IE, AA, ST 315 8.6 18.1 0 31.1 2.9 7.0 6.7 6.0 8.9 4.4 Cordaux2004[3]
Indian tribes Dr, IE, AA, ST 505 2.2 2.0 0.2 21.2 2.6 3.2 40.6 3.2 7.9 1.0 6.1 4.2 Trivedi2007[4]
India's Lower Castes Dr, IE 261 0.8 4.6 0 27.6 3.1 5.4 0.4 2.3 15.7 0 27.6 4.6 Trivedi2007[4]
India's Middle Castes IE, Dr 175 0.6 5.1 0 21.1 9.7 5.7 0 2.9 26.3 0 18.9 1.7 Trivedi2007[4]
India's Upper Castes IE, Dr 211 0.9 1.9 0 23.3 10.0 11.4 0 1.9 30.5 0.5 9.0 0 Trivedi2007[4][8]
Kathmandu (Nepal) IE, ST 77 7.8 0 0 11.7 10.4 0 20.8 0 1.3 35.1 0 10.4 0 Gayden2007[9]
Khasi (India) AA 92 10.9 6.5 0 0 72.8 4.4 0 Kumar2007[5]
Mundari (India) AA 789 3.3 25.4 4.4 0 55.0 1.5 4.9 Kumar2007[5]
Pakistan IE 176 7.4 0 6.2 6.2 15.3 13.1 2.3 3.4 24.4 7.4 7.4 0 Sengupta2006[2]
Pakistan 638 3.0 0.8 2.7 2.5 20.2 11.6 0.5 0 2.2 37.1 7.8 0 Firasat2006[1]
Pashtun (Afghanistan) IE 49 2 0 6.1 6.1 2 12.2 0 0 18.4 51 0 2 0 Haber2012[10]
Pashtun (Pakistan) IE 96 0 2.1 11.5 4.2 6.2 12.5 5.2 0 5.2 44.8 0 1.0 Firasat2006[1]
Sinhalese (Sri Lanka) IE 87 0 20.7 16.1 16.1 0 23.0 0 24.1 0 Kivisild2003a[11]
Sri Lanka IE, Dr 91 3.3 9.9 5.5 25.3 19.8 15.4 1.1 3.3 13.2 Karafet2005[12]
Tharu (Nepal) IE 171 0.6 0 0 25.7 14.0 2.3 36.8 0 1.2 8.8 0 4.7 0 Fornarino2009[13]
New Delhi Hindus (India) IE 49 0 0 2.0 18.3 8.1 0 4.1 2.0 0 6.1 34.7 0 20.4 0 Fornarino2009[13]
Terai Hindus (Nepal) IE 26 11.5 0 0 3.8 3.8 0 0 3.8 0 0 69.2 0 3.8 0 Fornarino2009[13]
Andhra Pradesh Tribals (India) Dr 29 0 10.3 3.4 34.5 3.4 0 6.9 6.9 0 0 27.6 0 6.9 0 Fornarino2009[13]
India IE, DR, AA,ST 1,615 1.3 S Sharma 2009[14]

Y Haplogroup Q distribution of India[14][edit]

India Regions Social Category Linguistic Category No. of Samples No. of Q(xQ5) No. of Q5-ss4 bp -
North(11)
J&K Kashmiri Pandits Caste high IE 51 3
J&K Kashmiri Gujars Tribe IE 61 1(M120)
Uttar Pradesh Brahmin Caste high IE 14 1(M346) (Q4)Sengupta2006[2]
Uttar Pradesh Brahmin Caste high IE 31 1 1
Himachal Rajputs Caste high IE 35 1
Central (8)
Madhya Pradesh Brahmins Caste high IE 42 1 1
Madhya Pradesh Gonds Tribe DR 17 1
Madhya Pradesh Saharia Tribe IE 89 1 2
Halba Tribe IE 21 1(M346) (Q4)Sengupta2006[2]
East(11)
Bihar Brahmins Caste high IE 38 1 1
West(5)
Northeast(7)
South(15)
Yadhava Caste DR 129 3
Vellalar Caste middle DR 31 1(M346) (Q4)Sengupta2006[2]
Total (57 regions) 1,615 16 5

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Firasat, Sadaf; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Papaioannou, Myrto; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Underhill, Peter A; Ayub, Qasim (2006). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (1): 121–6. PMC 2588664Freely accessible. PMID 17047675. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Sengupta, S; Zhivotovsky, L; King, R; Mehdi, S; Edmonds, C; Chow, C; Lin, A; Mitra, M; et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. PMC 1380230Freely accessible. PMID 16400607. doi:10.1086/499411. 
  3. ^ a b c Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S.M.; Stoneking, Mark (2004). "Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages" (PDF). Current Biology. 14 (3): 231–5. PMID 14761656. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.024. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Trivedi, R.; Singh, Anamika; Bindu, G. Hima; Banerjee, Jheelam; Tandon, Manuj; Gaikwad, Sonali; Rajkumar, Revathi; Sitalaximi, T; Ashma, Richa (2008). "High Resolution Phylogeographic Map of Y-Chromosomes Reveal the Genetic Signatures of Pleistocene Origin of Indian Populations" (PDF). In Reddy, B. Mohan. Trends in molecular anthropology. Delhi: Kamla-Raj Enterprises. pp. 393–414. ISBN 978-81-85264-47-9. 
  5. ^ a b c Kumar, Vikrant; Reddy, Arimanda NS; Babu, Jagedeesh P; Rao, Tipirisetti N; Langstieh, Banrida T; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Reddy, Alla G; Singh, Lalji; Reddy, Battini M (2007). "Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 47. PMC 1851701Freely accessible. PMID 17389048. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-47. 
  6. ^ a b c Sahoo, S.; Singh, A.; Himabindu, G.; Banerjee, J.; Sitalaximi, T.; Gaikwad, S.; Trivedi, R.; Endicott, P.; Kivisild, T.; Metspalu, M.; Villems, R.; Kashyap, V. K. (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (4): 843–8. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103..843S. PMC 1347984Freely accessible. PMID 16415161. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. 
  7. ^ Khurana, P; et al. (2014). "Y Chromosome Haplogroup Distribution in Indo-European Speaking Tribes of Gujarat, Western India". PLOS ONE. 9: e90414. PMC 3948632Freely accessible. PMID 24614885. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090414.  In this paper, C consists of C5(currently C1b1a1)-M356* 3.2% and C5a(currently C1b1a1a)-P92 5.3%, F is F-M201*, H consists of H-M69* 1%, H1a-M39 25.0%, H2-Apt 14.1%, J consists of J2a-P84 2.8%, J2b2*-M241 7.4%, L is L1-M27, Q is Q1a3(currently Q1a2)-M346, R1a is R1a1-PK5*, R2 is R2-M124.
  8. ^ Chowdhuri Parkash, J. (2012). Caste system, social inequalities and reservation policy in india: Class, caste, social policy and governance through social justice. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
  9. ^ Gayden, T; Cadenas, AM; Regueiro, M; Singh, NB; Zhivotovsky, LA; Underhill, PA; Cavalli-Sforza, LL; Herrera, RJ (2007). "The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (5): 884–94. PMC 1852741Freely accessible. PMID 17436243. doi:10.1086/516757. 
  10. ^ Haber, Marc; Platt, DE; Ashrafian Bonab, M; Youhanna, SC; Soria-Hernanz, DF; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.; et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. PMC 3314501Freely accessible. PMID 22470552. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. 
  11. ^ "Kivisild, Toomas; et al. (2003a). "The Genetics of Language and Farming Spread in India". In Bellwood P, Renfrew C. Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis (PDF). McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 215–222." (PDF). 
  12. ^ Karafet, TM; Lansing, JS; Redd, AJ; Reznikova, S; Watkins, JC; Surata, SP; Arthawiguna, WA; Mayer, L; et al. (2005). "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93–114. PMID 16114819. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0030. 
  13. ^ a b c d Fornarino, Simona; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maranta, Ramona; Achilli, Alessandro; Modiano, Guido; Torroni, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana A (2009). "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 154. PMC 2720951Freely accessible. PMID 19573232. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154. 
  14. ^ a b Sharma, S; Rai, E; Bhat, AK; Bhanwer, AS; Bamezai, RN (2007). "A novel subgroup Q5 of human Y-chromosomal haplogroup Q in India". BMC Evol. Biol. 7: 232. PMC 2258157Freely accessible. PMID 18021436. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-232. , Q4 is currently Q1a2-M346

External links[edit]