Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of South Asia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Listed here are notable groups and populations from South Asia by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. The samples are taken from individuals identified with linguistic designations (IE=Indo-European, Dr=Dravidian, AA=Austro-Asiatic and ST=Sino-Tibetan), the third column gives the sample size studied, and the other columns give the percentage of the particular haplogroup. R1a and H1 are the two most widespread genetic haplotype in South Asia, covering a large majority of population.

Note: The converted frequencies from some old studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century may lead to unsubstantial frequencies below. Table below has been sorted in alphabetical order based on the name of the population.

Population Language n B C DE E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R R1 R1a R1b R2 T Reference
Andhra Pradesh Tribals (India) Dr 29 0 10.3 3.4 34.5 3.4 0 6.9 6.9 0 0 27.6 0 6.9 0 Fornarino2009[1]
Balochi (Pakistan) IE 25 8 4 16 24 8 20 8 12 Sengupta2006[2]
Baluchi (Afghanistan) IE 13 7.7 69.3 7.7 15.4 Haber2012[3]
Bengalis (Bangladesh) IE 42 7.14 4.72 35.71 11.9 4.76 9.52 2.38 21.43 7.14 Poznik2016[4]
Bhargavas (India) IE 96 6.3 4.2 16.7 6.3 4.2 2.1 4.2 22.9 1 32.3 Zhao2009[5]
Bihar Paswan (India) IE 27 3.7 11.11 14.81 3.7 7.41 3.7 3.7 11.11 40.74 Sharma2009[6]
Bihar Brahmins (India) IE 38 2.63 2.63 5.26 13.16 5.26 5.26 60.53 5.26 Sharma2009[6]
Brahmins (India) IE 118 10.2 2.5 1.7 11.9 11.9 1.7 2.5 4.2 3.4 28 1.7 20.3 Zhao2009[5]
Brahui (Pakistan) Dr 25 4 16 4 28 8 4 24 12 Sengupta2006[2]
Burusho (Pakistan) Isolate (Burushaski) 97 8.2 1 1 4.1 8.2 16.5 3.1 1 2.1 27.9 14.4 0 Firasat2006[7]
Chamar (India) IE 18 5.6 44.4 38.9 11.1 Sengupta2006[2]
Chaturvedis (India) (India) IE 88 9.1 3.4 6.8 12.5 4.5 2.3 2.3 3.4 23.9 31.8 Zhao2009[5]
Chenchu (India) Dr 41 4.9 36.6 7.3 14.6 26.8 2.4 7.3 Kivisild2003[8]
Dawoodi Bohra (Gujarat) (India) IE 50 2 4 26 8 6 8 30 16 Eaaswarkhanth2009[9]
Dawoodi Bohra (Tamil Nadu) (India) IE 26 38.5 7.7 53.9 Eaaswarkhanth2009[9]
Gujarat Bhils (India) IE 22 9.09 27.27 18.18 18.18 9.09 18.18 Sharma2009[6]
Gujarat Brahmins (India) IE 64 3.33 3.33 10.94 1.56 15.63 3.13 7.81 3.13 9.38 32.81 9.38 Sharma2009[6]
Gujarati Indians (USA) IE 58 20.69 3.45 20.69 8.62 8.62 27.59 1.72 8.62 Poznik2016[4]
Gujaratis (India) IE 29 17.2 13.8 20.7 10.4 3.5 3.5 24.1 3.5 3.5 Kivisild2003[8]
Hazara (Afghanistan) IE 60 5 33.3 5 3.3 3.3 3.33 26.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 6.7 6.7 Haber2012[3]
Hazara (Pakistan) IE 25 40 4 4 8 8 32 4 Sengupta2006[2]
Himachal Brahmin (India) IE 19 5.26 15.79 10.53 5.26 5.26 5.26 47.37 5.26 Sharma2009[6]
India IE, Dr, AA, ST 728 1.8 5.2 1.2 26.4 9.3 18.7 23.9 0 0.4 27.3 0.5 9.3 0 Sengupta2006[2]
India IE, Dr, AA, ST 1152 1.4 3 0.1 23 9.1 17.5 18 2.7 28.3 0.5 13.5 3.1 Trivedi2007[10]
India IE, DR, AA, ST 1,615 1.3 Sharma2007[11]
India (Central) IE, Dr 50 0 4 2 20 4 4 8 0 0 50 0 6 0 Sahoo2006[12]
India (East) IE, AA, Dr 367 0.8 2.7 0 19.3 4.1 1.9 20.7 2.7 0 23.2 15.5 3.8 Sahoo2006[12]
India (Maharashtra) IE 204 5.4 0.5 0 33.3 11.3 11.8 0 2.5 0 35 6.4 0.5 Sahoo2006[12]
India (North) IE, ST 180 0 1.1 0.6 24.5 7.8 1.7 2.3 0 48.9 0.6 11.1 0 Trivedi2007[10]
India (Northeast) ST 108 0 0 0 0.9 0 0 79.7 4.6 1.9 0 0 0 Trivedi2007[10]
India (S. Gujarat tribals) IE 284 8.5 4.2 0 40.1 10.2 2.8 3.2 0 0 2.8 18.7 0 9.5 0 Khurana2014[13]
India (South) Dr 372 1.9 4 0 27.5 19.7 10.8 0 1.6 26.7 1.3 21.5 5.1 Trivedi2007[10]
India Shia (India) IE 161 3.7 1.9 5.6 5 8.6 28.7 0.6 5 3.7 27.9 9.3 Eaaswarkhanth2009[9]
Indian Dravidians Dr 353 1.7 9.3 2.3 32.9 19.7 11.6 13.6 0.3 26.7 0.3 6.2 Sengupta2006[2]
Indian Indo-Europeans IE 205 2.4 2.4 0.5 28.8 11.3 3.9 4.9 1 48.9 1.5 13.7 Sengupta2006[2]
Indian Munda AA 892 4 23.1 3.9 0 57.2 1.8 5.4 4.4 Kumar2007[14]
Indian Sunni (India) IE 129 3.1 2.3 14 20.1 2.3 3.1 1.5 2.3 39.5 11.6 Eaaswarkhanth2009[9]
Indian tribes Dr, IE, AA, ST 505 2.2 2 0.2 21.2 2.6 3.2 40.6 3.2 7.9 1 6.1 4.2 Trivedi2007[10]
Indian Sino-Tibetans ST 87 1.1 0 0 2.3 0 0 86.2 0 4.6 0 5.7 Sengupta2006[2]
Indian Telugus (UK) Dr 60 1.67 26.67 6.67 1.67 1.67 1.67 26.67 20 Poznik2016[4]
India's Lower Castes Dr, IE 261 0.8 4.6 0 27.6 3.1 5.4 0.4 2.3 15.7 0 27.6 4.6 Trivedi2007[10]
India's Middle Castes IE, Dr 175 0.6 5.1 0 21.1 9.7 5.7 0 2.9 26.3 0 18.9 1.7 Trivedi2007[10]
India's Upper Castes IE, Dr 211 0.9 1.9 0 23.3 10 11.4 0 1.9 30.5 0.5 9 0 Trivedi2007[10]
Indo-Aryan Castes (India) IE 29 5.3 0 3.6 0.6 6.5 0 16.6 1.2 11.2 1.2 4.1 40.2 8.9 Cordaux2004[15]
Iranian Shia (India) IE 25 16 8 4 24 28 4 16 Eaaswarkhanth2009[9]
J&K Kashmir Gujars (India) IE 49 2.04 4.08 10.2 6.12 8.16 16.33 2 2.04 40.86 8.16 Sharma2009[6]
J&K Kashmiri Pandits (India) IE 51 1.96 3.92 1.96 9.8 9.8 9.8 5.88 5.88 1.96 11.76 23.53 13.73 Sharma2009[6]
Kalash (Pakistan) Isolate Kalasha, IE 44 0 0 18.2 20.5 9.1 25 0 0 0 18.2 0 0 Firasat2006[7]
Kathmandu (Nepal) IE, ST 77 7.8 0 0 11.7 10.4 0 20.8 0 1.3 35.1 0 10.4 0 Gayden2007[16]
Khasi (India) AA 92 10.9 6.5 0 0 72.8 4.4 0 Kumar2007[14]
Kodava (India) Dr 50 2 2 8 16 18 38 16 NI-Shodhganga[17]
Kokanastha Brahmin (India) IE 25 12 28 4 40 20 Sengupta2006[2]
Konkanastha Brahmins (India) IE 43 2.3 2.3 9.3 14 2.3 18.6 41.9 9.3 Kivisild2003[8]
Koraga Tribal (India) Dr 33 0 6.1 0 0 87.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.1 Cordaux2004[15]
Koya (India) Dr 41 26.8 70.7 2.4 Kivisild2003[8]
Lambadi (India) IE 35 17.1 2.9 8.6 5.7 17.1 2.9 8.6 37.1 Kivisild2003[8]
Madhya Pradesh Brahmins (India) IE 42 2.38 7.14 23.81 7.14 2.38 2.38 4.76 38.1 Sharma2009[6]
Madhya Pradesh Gonds (India) Dr 64 62.5 6.25 6.25 6.25 18.75 Sharma2009[6]
Madhya Pradesh Saharia (India) AA 57 5.27 33.33 3.51 1.75 50.87 5.3 Sharma2009[6]
Maharashtra Brahmins (India) IE 30 3.33 3.33 10 16.67 3.33 10 3.33 3.33 0 43.33 3.33 Sharma2009[6]
Mappila (India) Dr 40 27.5 20 5 10 32.5 5 Eaaswarkhanth2009[9]
Mundari (India) AA 789 3.3 25.4 4.4 0 55 1.5 4.9 Kumar2007[14]
New Delhi Hindus (India) IE 49 0 0 2 18.3 8.1 0 4.1 2 0 6.1 34.7 0 20.4 0 Fornarino2009[1]
Pakistan IE 176 7.4 0 6.2 6.2 15.3 13.1 2.3 3.4 24.4 7.4 7.4 0 Sengupta2006[2]
Pakistan 638 3 0.8 2.7 2.5 20.2 11.6 0.5 0 2.2 37.1 7.8 0 Firasat2006[7]
Pashtun (Afghanistan) IE 49 2 0 6.1 6.1 2 12.2 0 0 18.4 51 0 2 0 Haber2012[3]
Pashtun (Pakistan) IE 96 0 2.1 11.5 4.2 6.2 12.5 5.2 0 5.2 44.8 0 1 Firasat2006[7]
Pathan (Pakistan) IE 21 4.8 9.5 14.3 9.5 9.5 4.8 38.1 9.5 9.5 Sengupta2006[2]
Punjab Brahmin (India) IE 28 3.58 3.57 3.57 21.43 7.14 35.71 25 Sharma2009[6]
Punjabi (India) IE 66 3 4.6 21.2 12.1 47 7.6 4.6 Kivisild2003[8]
Punjabis (Pakistan) IE 48 2.08 8.33 6.25 27.08 4.17 4.17 35.42 12.5 Poznik2016[4]
Rajput (India) IE 29 3.4 3.4 20.7 17.2 6.9 3.4 31 13.8 Sengupta2006[2]
Shia (India) IE 154 9.1 11 3.3 9.7 7.8 19.5 3.3 3.9 2 2 15.6 13 Zhao2009[5]
Sindhi (Pakistan) IE 21 33.3 4.8 4.8 52.4 4.8 Sengupta2006[2]
Sinhalese (Sri Lanka) IE 39 10.3 10.3 10.3 18 12.8 38.5 Kivisild2003[8]
Sourashtrians (India) IE, Dr 46 6.5 0 4.4 15.2 0 2.2 0 26.1 2.2 0 39.1 4.3 Cordaux2004[15]
South Indian Tribals (India) Dr, AA 315 8.6 0.6 18.1 0 31.1 0 2.9 7 6.7 6 8.9 4.4 Cordaux2004[15]
South castes (India) Dr 447 5.1 11.9 14.1 0 9.8 5.6 21.9 1.6 1.9 13.6 10.6 Cordaux2004[15]
Sri Lanka IE, Dr 91 3.3 9.9 5.5 25.3 19.8 15.4 1.1 3.3 13.2 Karafet2005[18]
Sri Lankan Tamils (UK) Dr 55 5.45 29.01 14.55 18.19 3.64 27.27 5.45 Poznik2016[4]
Sunni (India) IE 104 7.7 2 5.8 10.6 15.4 2 3.8 2.9 2 28.8 19.2 Zhao2009[5]
Tajik (Afghanistan) IE 56 3.6 5.4 7.1 1.8 17.9 8.9 1.8 8.9 1.8 1.8 30.4 3.6 3.6 3.6 Haber2012[3]
Terai Hindus (Nepal) IE 26 11.5 0 0 3.8 3.8 0 0 3.8 0 0 69.2 0 3.8 0 Fornarino2009[1]
Tharu (Nepal) IE 171 0.6 0 0 25.7 14 2.3 36.8 0 1.2 8.8 0 4.7 0 Fornarino2009[1]
Uttar Pradesh (South) Kols (India) AA 54 11.11 33.34 40.74 14.81 Sharma2009[6]
Uttar Pradesh (South) Gonds (India) Dr 37 59.46 18.92 10.81 2.7 8.11 Sharma2009[6]
Uttar Pradesh Brahmin (India) IE 31 16.13 3.23 3.21 6.46 67.74 3.23 Sharma2009[6]
Uzbek (Afghanistan) IE 17 41.2 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 17.6 17.6 Haber2012[3]
West Bengal Brahmins (India) IE 18 5.56 72.22 22.22 Sharma2009[6]
West Bengalis (India) IE 31 3.2 3.2 3.2 9.7 9.7 3.2 38.7 6.5 22.6 Kivisild2003[8]

Y Haplogroup Q distribution of India[6][edit]

India Regions Social Category Linguistic Category No. of Samples No. of Q(xQ5) No. of Q5-ss4 bp -
North(11)
J&K Kashmiri Pandits Caste high IE 51 3
J&K Kashmiri Gujars Tribe IE 61 1(M120)
Uttar Pradesh Brahmin Caste high IE 14 1(M346) (Q4)Sengupta2006[2]
Uttar Pradesh Brahmin Caste high IE 31 1 1
Himachal Rajputs Caste high IE 35 1
Central (8)
Madhya Pradesh Brahmins Caste high IE 42 1 1
Madhya Pradesh Gonds Tribe DR 17 1
Madhya Pradesh Saharia Tribe IE 89 1 2
Halba Tribe IE 21 1(M346) (Q4)Sengupta2006[2]
East(11)
Bihar Brahmins Caste high IE 38 1 1
West(5)
Northeast(7)
South(15)
Yadhava Caste DR 129 3
Vellalar Caste middle DR 31 1(M346) (Q4)Sengupta2006[2]
Total (57 regions) 1,615 16 5

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Fornarino, Simona; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maranta, Ramona; Achilli, Alessandro; Modiano, Guido; Torroni, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana A (2009). "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 154. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154. PMC 2720951. PMID 19573232.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sengupta, S; Zhivotovsky, L; King, R; Mehdi, S; Edmonds, C; Chow, C; Lin, A; Mitra, M; et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
  3. ^ a b c d e Haber, Marc; Platt, DE; Ashrafian Bonab, M; Youhanna, SC; Soria-Hernanz, DF; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.; et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  4. ^ a b c d e Poznik, G David; Xue, Yue; Mendez, Fernando L; Willems, Thomas; Massaia, Andrea; Wilson, Melissa A (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 14 (48): 593–599. doi:10.1038/ng.3559. PMC 4884158. PMID 27111036.
  5. ^ a b c d e Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha (2009). "Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes". Annals of Human Biology. 36 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1080/03014460802558522. PMC 2755252. PMID 19058044.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Sharma, S; Rai, E; Sharma, P; Jena, M; Singh, S; Darvishi, K; Bhat, AK; Bhanwer, AJS; Tiwari, PK; Bamezai, RNK (2009). "The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1 substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system". Journal of Human Genetics. 54: 49. doi:10.1038/jhg.2008.2. PMID 19158816.
  7. ^ a b c d Firasat, Sadaf; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Papaioannou, Myrto; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Underhill, Peter A; Ayub, Qasim (2006). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726. PMC 2588664. PMID 17047675.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Kivisild, T; Rootsi, S; Metspalu, M; Mastana, S; Kaldma, K; Parik, J; Metspalu, E; Adojaan, M; et al. (2003). "The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations". AJHG. 72 (2): 313–32. doi:10.1086/346068. PMC 379225. PMID 12536373.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; et al. (2009). "Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (3): 354–63. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.168. PMC 2859343. PMID 19809480.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Trivedi, R.; Singh, Anamika; Bindu, G. Hima; Banerjee, Jheelam; Tandon, Manuj; Gaikwad, Sonali; Rajkumar, Revathi; Sitalaximi, T; Ashma, Richa (2008). "High Resolution Phylogeographic Map of Y-Chromosomes Reveal the Genetic Signatures of Pleistocene Origin of Indian Populations" (PDF). In Reddy, B. Mohan. Trends in molecular anthropology. Delhi: Kamla-Raj Enterprises. pp. 393–414. ISBN 978-81-85264-47-9.
  11. ^ Sharma, S; Rai, E; Bhat, AK; Bhanwer, AS; Bamezai, RN (2007). "A novel subgroup Q5 of human Y-chromosomal haplogroup Q in India". BMC Evol. Biol. 7: 232. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-232. PMC 2258157. PMID 18021436., Q4 is currently Q1a2-M346
  12. ^ a b c Sahoo, S.; Singh, A.; Himabindu, G.; Banerjee, J.; Sitalaximi, T.; Gaikwad, S.; Trivedi, R.; Endicott, P.; Kivisild, T.; Metspalu, M.; Villems, R.; Kashyap, V. K. (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (4): 843–8. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103..843S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. PMC 1347984. PMID 16415161.
  13. ^ Khurana, P; et al. (2014). "Y Chromosome Haplogroup Distribution in Indo-European Speaking Tribes of Gujarat, Western India". PLOS ONE. 9: e90414. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...990414K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090414. PMC 3948632. PMID 24614885. In this paper, C consists of C5(currently C1b1a1)-M356* 3.2% and C5a(currently C1b1a1a)-P92 5.3%, F is F-M201*, H consists of H-M69* 1%, H1a-M39 25.0%, H2-Apt 14.1%, J consists of J2a-P84 2.8%, J2b2*-M241 7.4%, L is L1-M27, Q is Q1a3(currently Q1a2)-M346, R1a is R1a1-PK5*, R2 is R2-M124.
  14. ^ a b c Kumar, Vikrant; Reddy, Arimanda NS; Babu, Jagedeesh P; Rao, Tipirisetti N; Langstieh, Banrida T; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Reddy, Alla G; Singh, Lalji; Reddy, Battini M (2007). "Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 47. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-47. PMC 1851701. PMID 17389048.
  15. ^ a b c d e Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S.M.; Stoneking, Mark (2004). "Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages" (PDF). Current Biology. 14 (3): 231–5. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.024. PMID 14761656.
  16. ^ Gayden, T; Cadenas, AM; Regueiro, M; Singh, NB; Zhivotovsky, LA; Underhill, PA; Cavalli-Sforza, LL; Herrera, RJ (2007). "The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (5): 884–94. doi:10.1086/516757. PMC 1852741. PMID 17436243.
  17. ^ "http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/10603/137860/10/10_chapter%204.pdf" (PDF). External link in |title= (help)
  18. ^ Karafet, TM; Lansing, JS; Redd, AJ; Reznikova, S; Watkins, JC; Surata, SP; Arthawiguna, WA; Mayer, L; et al. (2005). "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Human Biology. 77 (1): 93–114. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0030. PMID 16114819.

External links[edit]