|Type||Anti-ship cruise missile|
|Place of origin||People's Republic of China|
|Used by||People's Liberation Army Navy|
|Weight||2,500 kg (5,500 lb)|
|Length||6.3 m (21 ft)|
|Diameter||0.756 m (2.48 ft)|
|Warhead||205–500 kg (452–1,102 lb)|
|Engine||integrated ramjet/booster propulsion system|
|250–400 km (160–250 mi; 130–220 nmi) (depending on altitude)|
|Speed||Mach 2-4 (depending on altitude)|
|Inertial navigation system (INS)/Beidou navigation system
A 2011 article in the United States Naval War College Review credited the "YJ-91/YJ-12" with a range of 400 km and a 205 kg high explosive warhead, compared to the 130 km (81 mi; 70 nmi) range of a Harpoon anti-ship missile. Furthermore, an aircraft could launch the "YJ-91/YJ-12" while still 230 km beyond the range of SM-2 and Sparrow anti-air missiles, which have ranges of less than 170 km. According to Chinese sources, the YJ-12 has a speed of around Mach 2 if launched from low altitude and up to Mach 3.2 if launched from high altitude, with a maximum range of around 380 km (240 mi; 210 nmi) depending on launch altitude; terminal attack altitude is 15 meters. In a September 2014 article published in Joint Forces Quarterly, the missile was credited with a range of up to 250 km and a speed of Mach 2.5. In February 2015, military expert Li Li claimed the YJ-12 has a 400–500 kg (880–1,100 lb) warhead and a range of 300 km (190 mi; 160 nmi) when traveling at Mach 3, or 400 km at a speed of Mach 4. Speed and range varies on launch altitude and flight path, achieving maximum performance at an altitude of 40 km (130,000 ft) and degrading as it gets lower. Although actual warhead weight may be roughly 200 kg, its supersonic speed enables lethality equivalent to a subsonic missile equipped with a 400-500 kg warhead.
A saturation attack by YJ-12's fired at long range would pose a grave threat to American carrier strike groups; once the wave of sea-skimming missiles appeared over the horizon and was detected by ships' own sensors, they would only have some 45 seconds to engage before impact and if there were enough, short range defenses would be overwhelmed. Given that fighters such as the Su-30MKK and J-11B have a combat radius of about 1,500 km, equipping them with the YJ-12 gives them a potential strike range out to 1,900 km (1,200 mi; 1,000 nmi). The U.S. Navy's counter is to use the Cooperative Engagement Capability to detect and destroy the YJ-12's launch aircraft with SM-6 missiles and fighters at long range before they can be fired.
It has been test-launched from Xian H-6 bombers and will be fitted on the JH-7B. Reportedly, they may also be launched from the J-10, Su-30MKK, the J-11, and J-16. There is a surface-launched variant called the YJ-12A, which is equipped with a rocket booster for initial acceleration.
In August 2000, the Chinese unveiled a model of an air-launched missile labelled as the YJ-91, resembling the French Air-Sol Moyenne Portée. Later, a similar looking missile was seen that may have been designated as the YJ-12. Jane's reported that a YJ-12A was supposedly in development in 2004. The YJ-91 designation ultimately went to the Chinese development of the Russian Kh-31. The YJ-12 ultimately resembled a lengthened Kh-31.
The YJ-12 appeared at the 2015 China Victory Day Parade, indicating that the missile had entered active service since all weapons showcased during the parade are actively inducted prior to the parade.
The CM-400AKG is an air-launched supersonic surface attack cruise missile, believed to be the export version of the YJ-12. The 910 kg (2,000 lb) missile is 0.4 m (1.3 ft) in diameter and has a range of between 54–130 nmi (62–150 mi; 100–241 km) while carrying either a 150 kg (330 lb) blast or 200 kg (440 lb) penetration warhead. It has three guidance options, including inertial navigation system (INS) coupled with satellite positioning to get within 50 m, an onboard IR/TV seeker for terminal guidance and 5 m accuracy, and passive radar to supplement the seeker, which delivers (strangely worse) 5-10 m accuracy. One unusual characteristic is that it does not fly at low altitude to avoid detection, but rather uses “high altitude launching” to achieve “higher aircraft survivability.” It may have a top speed of Mach 5.
In November 2016, CASIC unveiled the CM-302 as the export version of the YJ-12. It is marketed as "the world's best anti-ship missile" on claims that it is supersonic throughout its flight, can be launched from air, land, and naval platforms, can disable a 5,000-tonne warship, and be used in a land attack role. Assuming physical characteristics similar to the YJ-12, the missile is likely 7 m (23 ft) long and 0.6 m (2.0 ft) diameter, with an estimated weight of 2,000–2,500 kg (4,400–5,500 lb). It is stated to have a range of 280 km (170 mi; 150 nmi), a 250 kg (550 lb) warhead, guided by BeiDou which can be updated by data-link with an active radar seeker for terminal homing to achieve a 90% probability of hitting its target, while traveling at a mid-course speed of Mach 1.5-2 and accelerating to Mach 3 or higher during the terminal flight phase.
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