|Founded||Nihonbashi, Tokyo, Japan, 2015|
|Profit||JPY 44,908 million (2014)|
|Total assets||JPY 883,336 million (2014)|
The YKK Group (YKK Waikeikei Gurūpu?) is a Japanese group of manufacturing companies. As the world's largest zipper/zip manufacturer, YKK Group is most famous for making zippers; however, it also manufactures other fastening products, architectural products and industrial machinery.
The initials YKK stand for Yoshida Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha (Japanese: 吉田工業株式会社), meaning "Yoshida Manufacturing Shareholding Company". YKK produces fasteners and architectural products at 109 YKK companies in 71 countries around the world.
Pre World War II
What would later become YKK operated initially as San-es Shokai and was founded by Tadao Yoshida in Higashi Nihonbashi, Tokyo in January 1934. The company specialized in marketing of fastening products. In February 1938 San-es Shokai was renamed to Yoshida Kogyosho. WWII was underway by 1939 and the next major corporate event would not take place until February 1942.
After World War II
In January 1946 the company registered the YKK trademark. A major technological change came in 1950, when the company purchased a chain machine from the U.S. that allowed the automation of the zipper making process. Previously, YKK zippers were made by hand, and hence had an inferior quality compared to automated zippers from abroad.
In March 1951, YKK relocated its headquarters to Chūō, Tokyo. In May 1955, a new plant was opened in Kurobe, Toyama. In August 1958, the headquarters was again relocated to Taitō, Tokyo. In this year, the company also introduced its new Conceal brand that does not show the teeth of the zippers. Another major step came in November 1959, with the opening of its first overseas location, producing YKK zippers in New Zealand. YKK's first US office opened in New York City in 1960 and now is the country's top supplier of zippers and other fastening devices such as snaps and buttons. As the company grew, it brought every step of manufacturing in-house, including smelting brass and dyeing cloth.
In November 1961, the product line was diversified to include aluminium products for buildings. In June 1963, the company relocated its headquarters again to Chiyoda, Tokyo, the current location of the company. In 1966, a new product YZip was introduced, an extra strong and durable zipper for jeans. The development of a machine that automatically included the YZip zipper into the stitching process of jeans further increased sales, especially in the USA. In 1968 YKK opened its first branch in Canada. Its Canadian headquarters are currently in Montreal, Quebec. There was further expansion in the 1970s, with the opening of three new plants in Utazu, Kagawa in April 1972, in Sanbongi, Miyagi in June 1974, and in Yatsushiro, Kumamoto in February 1975. YKK also opened a fastener making factory in Swaziland which has grown to supply the entire sub-saharan region including Madagascar and Mauritius.
More product lines became available with the Quicklon (sometimes called Cosmolon) fasteners in December 1981. International and product expansion continued during the 1980s, with a real estate business in Singapore in December 1984, an agricultural business in Brazil in January 1985, and a plant in Indonesia in September 1986 producing zippers and aluminium parts for buildings. The company was finally renamed YKK in August 1994.
In July 2000, the company established YKK Newmax Co., Ltd, specializing in the production of snaps and buttons. In December 2002, a machine company was established in Suzhou, China. A company specializing in sales, YKK Fastening Products Sales Inc. was established in February 2003. YKK AP Inc. was founded in October 2003, specializing in architectural products.
Overall, the organization operates more than 109 affiliated companies in 71 countries, with 40,708 employees.
On September 19, 2007 YKK was fined 150.3 million euros by the European Commission for running worldwide price-fixing cartels and sharing markets with zip-makers Prym and Coats. Coats of Britain and Prym of Germany were fined 122.4 million and 40.5 million euros respectively for their participation in cartel behaviour. YKK lost their appeal to the General Court on June 27, 2012. It then launched an appeal to the European Court of Justice on September 5, 2012, which was partly successful.[clarification needed]
Fastening products are the first and still the most important product of YKK. Within YKK, the company distinguishes between the Slide Fastener Division, the Textile and Plastic Products Division, and the Snap Fastener and Button Division.
- Standard Metal
- YZiP: Metal zipper, extra durable for jeans
- EverBright: Metal zipper, polished for visual appeal and corrosion resistant
- Excella: Metal zipper, polished and plated for visual appeal, also in different colors. [Available in silver, gold and antique finish.]
- Standard Coil
- Conceal: Plastic coil zipper with concealed elements (no visible teeth)
- Vislon: Standard - rugged plastic zipper
- Hook and loop products, more commonly known under the Velcro brand name of a competitor.
- Plastic parts, including various types of clips and buckles
- Snaps and buttons, including snap fasteners and jeans buttons
On August 26, 2013, YKK Corporation, filed a patent infringement complaint in the Middle District of Georgia against Velcro USA Inc.of Manchester, New Hampshire relating to a fastener strip used in foam molded products like a cushion body used for an automobile seat.
Architectural Aluminium products include fenestration systems for glass exteriors; entrances for commercial and institutional structures; Aluminium sunshades and residential windows. It is based in Austell, Georgia, USA.
YKK AP America Inc. manufactures entrances, storefronts, curtain wall, window wall, sunshades, windows and sliding doors for office buildings, residential high-rises, schools, stadiums, shopping centers and institutional structures.
Machinery and engineering
The Machinery and Engineering Group focuses on the development and production of machines, equipment, and dyes, serving YKK Group with the Exclusive Machinery Division, Industrial Machinery Division, and Dye Division.
- "Financial Highlights". YKK Corporation. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "YKK Corporate Profile". YKK Corporation. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "HISTORY : YKK GROUP". Ykk.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Stevenson, Seth (April 30, 2012). "Why YKK?". Slate. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Schomberg, William (September 19, 2007). "EU fines zip-makers over 328 mln Euros for cartel". Reuters. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- [dead link]
- White, Aoife (2012-06-27). "Coats and YKK Lose EU Court Challenges Over Antitrust Fines". Businessweek. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- [dead link]
- Womble Carlyle Sandridge & Rice, PLLC (October 10, 2013). "YKK Corporation Files Patent Infringement Action Against Competitor Velcro USA". The National Law Review. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "YKK AP Wins Design Award: YKK AP Wins International Design Excellence Award With Aid Of Agency Video". Freebairn & Company. August 21, 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
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