|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Y-linkage, which can also be known as sex linkage, affects traits that are located on the Y chromosome.
For a trait to exhibit Y-linkage it must follow three requirements: the trait occurs in males only, it reoccurs in all sons of affected males, and that the daughters of affected men are not only phenotypically normal but also do not have affected offspring.
One trait that is known to be Y-linked occurs on spontaneously hypertensive rats. The trait is hypertension, which is composed of at least two loci in rats, one of which is autosomal while the other is Y-linked.
Y-linkage is very hard to determine and prove. The Y-chromosome is small and does not contain as many genes as autosomal genes or the X-chromosome. In the 1950s using human pedigrees, many genes were determined incorrectly to be Y-linked. Y-linkage has been disproved in many cases. Hairy ears were once thought to be Y-linked in humans; however, that hypothesis has been discredited.
Genes known to be contained on the Y chromosome
As of the year 2000, a number of genes were known to be Y-linked, including:
- ASMTY (acetylserotonin methyltransferase),
- TSPY (testis-specific protein),
- IL3RAY (interleukin-3 receptor),
- SRY (sex-determining region),
- TDF (testis determining factor),
- ZFY (zinc finger protein),
- PRKY (protein kinase, Y-linked),
- AMGL (amelogenin),
- CSF2RY (granulocyte-macrophage, colony-stimulating factor receptor, alpha subunit on the Y chromosome),
- ANT3Y (adenine nucleotide translocator-3 on the Y),
- SOX21 (known to cause baldness),
- AZF2 (azoospermia factor 2),
- BPY2 (basic protein on the Y chromosome),
- AZF1 (azoospermia factor 1),
- DAZ (Spermatogenes is deleted in azoospermia),
- RBM1 (RNA binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1, member A1),
- RBM2 (RNA binding motif protein 2), and
- UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome).
- Curt, Stern (1957). "The Problem of Complete Y-Linkage in Man". American Journal of Human Genetics. 9.3: 147–166 – via Google Scholar.
- Ely, D.L. (1990). "Hypertension in the spontaneously hyptertensive rat is linked to the Y chromosome". American Heart Association – via JSTOR.
- Skaletsky, Helen. "The male specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes". Nature International weekly journal of science. 423: 825–837 – via Google Scholar.
- Lee, Andrew (2004). "Molecular evidence for absence of Y-linkage of the Hairy Ears trait". European Journal of Human Genetics. 112: 1077–1079.
- "Y-linked gene definition - Medical Dictionary: Definitions of Popular Terms Defined on MedTerms". Medterms.com. 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
- Y-linked Genetic Diseases at wrongdiagnosis.com
|This genetics article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|