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Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"
Российская объединённая демократическая партия «Яблоко»
LeaderNikolay Rybakov[1]
FounderGrigory Yavlinsky
Yury Boldyrev
Vladimir Lukin
Founded16 October 1993; 28 years ago (1993-10-16)
Political positionCentre[8][9] to
European affiliationAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
International affiliationLiberal International
Colours  Green
Seats in the Federation Council
1 / 170
Seats in the State Duma
0 / 450
1 / 85
Seats in the Regional Parliaments
13 / 3,928
0 / 31

The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (Russian: Росси́йская объединённая демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko") is a social-liberal[15] political party in Russia founded by former Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Grigory Yavlinsky, as well as two Senators, and currently led by Nikolay Rybakov. The party's logo consists of a red circle and a green isosceles triangle, suggesting an apple in a constructivist style, a nod to the party's name (based on the founders' initials: Yavlinsky, Boldyrev, Lukin) which is the Russian word for "apple" (Russian: я́блоко, romanizedyábloko). Yabloko’s party platform stands for a social market economy, fair competition in politics and the economy, is for the inviolability of private property, and for equal opportunity.


The party dates back to early 1990s. The immediate predecessor of the Yabloko party was the electoral cartel Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin, formed for the legislative elections of 1993. "Yabloko" is an acronym of the names of its founders: "Я" (Ya) for Grigory Yavlinsky; "Б" (B) for Yury Boldyrev, and "Л" (L) for Vladimir Lukin, with the full name meaning "apple" in Russian. The party stands for free markets and civil liberties in Russia, better relations with the United States and membership in the European Union. The party opposed president Boris Yeltsin's and his prime ministers' policies, earning the reputation of a determined opposition movement that nevertheless was devoted to democratic reforms (in contrast, most of the opposition was communist or far right at that time).[16]

Originally established as a public organization in 1993, it transformed into a political party in 2001. It contested the legislative elections of 1993, 1995, 1999, and 2003.

It is argued that the vote-count in the 2003 Russian parliamentary election was marred by fraud.[citation needed] Some exit-polls and parallel recounts conducted by opposition observers showed that Yabloko crossed the 5% threshold needed for parliamentary representation, gaining 6% of the vote, which should have been translated into some 20 parliamentary seats.[citation needed] Vladimir Putin himself telephoned Yavlinsky on the night of the election to congratulate his party on making it back into the Duma. However, most of these polls had a high margin of error (plus or minus three percent) and only showed Yabloko obtaining seats by a tiny margin. Official results announced by the Central Election Commission gave Yabloko 4.30% of the vote and no seats on the proportional party-list system. Only four Yabloko candidates won in individual district races and were elected to the Duma.

On 4 December 2005 Yabloko-United Democrats, a coalition formed by Yabloko and the Union of Right Forces, won 11% of the vote in the Moscow municipal elections and became one of only three parties (along with United Russia and the Communist Party) to enter the new Moscow City Duma. This success was seen by Yabloko leaders as a hopeful sign for the 2007 Russian parliamentary election, and reinforced the view that Yabloko and the Union of Rightist Forces need to unite in order to be elected to the State Duma in 2007.

The Commission on the Unification of Democratic Forces, under the chairmanship of Boris Nemtsov, was established by the Union of Rightist Forces on February 16, 2006. However, the merger plans were discarded in December 2006 since the differences seemed too large.[17]

The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko had been an observer of the Liberal International since 2002, and became a full member after the ELDR Bucharest congress in October 2006. The party's central office is located in Moscow.

In the 2007 Russian legislative election, Yabloko lost its representation in the State Duma.

In the Russian Regional elections on 4th of December 2011 Yabloko won a few places in regional parliaments of Russia: 6 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg, 4 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia and 1 of 44 in Pskov legislative body.

In the Russian Regional elections on the 8th of September 2019 Yabloko won in different regional parliaments of Russia: 4 out of 45 seats in the Moscow City Duma and 1 in the Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. The party also managed to secure 111 municipal seats throughout the country, 81 of them in Saint Petersburg.

Yavlinsky criticized Alexei Navalny's investigations and political views and asked the latter's supporters not to vote for Yabloko. Many party members criticized Yavlinsky for expressing these views while Navalny was in jail after having been poisoned.[18] Some commentators said that Yavlinsky thus assisted government propaganda against Navalny.[19]


Leader Took office Left office
Явлинский 2017.jpg
Grigory Yavlinsky 16 October 1993 21 June 2008
Sergey Mitrokhin (Moscow International Book Fair 2013).jpg
Sergey Mitrokhin 21 June 2008 20 December 2015
Emilia Slabunova in the State Duma (2019-12-10) (cropped).jpg
Emilia Slabunova 20 December 2015 15 December 2019
Николай Рыбаков на экологической конференции 30 мая 2014 года.jpg
Nikolay Rybakov 15 December 2019 Incumbent

Election results[edit]

Presidential election[edit]

Election Candidate First round Second round Result
Votes % Votes %
1996 Grigory Yavlinsky 5,550,752
Lost Red XN
2000 Grigory Yavlinsky 4,351,452
Lost Red XN
2004 Didn't nominate a candidate[20]
2008 Endorsed Vladimir Bukovsky Not admitted to the elections[21]
2012 Grigory Yavlinsky Not admitted to the elections[22]
2018 Grigory Yavlinsky 769,644
Lost Red XN

State Duma elections[edit]

Election Party leader Performance Rank Government
Votes % ± pp Seats +/–
1993 Grigory Yavlinsky 4,233,219
27 / 450
New 5th Opposition
1995 4,767,384
Decrease 0.97
45 / 450
Increase 18 Increase 4th Opposition[a]
1999 3,955,611
Decrease 0.96
20 / 450
Decrease 25 Decrease 5th Opposition
2003 2,610,087
Decrease 1.63
4 / 450
Decrease 16 Steady 5th Opposition
2007 1,108,985
Decrease 2.71
0 / 450
Decrease 4 Decrease 6th Extra-parliamentary
2011 Sergey Mitrokhin 2,252,403
Increase 1.84
0 / 450
Steady 0 Increase 5th Extra-parliamentary
2016 Emilia Slabunova 1,051,335
Decrease 1.44
0 / 450
Steady 0 Decrease 6th Extra-parliamentary
2021 Nikolay Rybakov 753,280
Decrease 0.65
0 / 450
Steady 0 Decrease 7th Extra-parliamentary
  1. ^ Some members of the party (Mikhail Zadornov as Minister of Finance in 1997-1999, Oksana Dmitriyeva as Minister of Labour and Social Protection in Apr.-Sep. 1998) participated in the government on an individual basis, for which they were expelled from the party.

Regional parliamentary elections[edit]

Regional parliaments of Russia in which Yabloko is represented.

Regional Parliament Election year & Amount of Seats Current seats Next Election
# Position
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
 Republic of Karelia 4 3 2
3 / 36
#2[a] 2026
 Khabarovsk Krai 0 0 1
1 / 36
#4 2024
 Kostroma Oblast 0 1 1
1 / 36
#3[a] 2025
 Pskov Oblast 1 0[b] 1[c] 2[d] 1
1 / 36
#4 2026
 Saint Petersburg 6 2 2
2 / 50
#3 2026
 Moscow 0 0 4 5[e]
5 / 45
#3 2024
  1. ^ a b Tied with other parties.
  2. ^ In 2015, Lev Schlossberg was deprived of authority by a court and by vote of fellow deputies.
  3. ^ In 2016, Lev Schlossberg won his seat back
  4. ^ In September 2019, another member of the Pskov legislature joined Yabloko
  5. ^ In 2021, Vladimir Ryzhkov won the by-elections to the Moscow City Duma.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Hale, Henry (2004). "Yabloko and the Challenge of Building a Liberal Party in Russia". Europe-Asia Studies. 56 (7): 993–1020. doi:10.1080/1465342042000294338. S2CID 153711518.
  • White, David (2006). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy, Burlington: Ashgate.


  1. ^ "«Яблоку» предложили не прерывать съезд" (in Russian). Kommersant. 15 December 2019.
  2. ^ White, David (2005). "Going their own way: The Yabloko Party's opposition to unification". Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics. 21 (4): 462–486. doi:10.1080/13523270500363395. S2CID 153746098.
  3. ^ Laura Lyytikainen, ed. (2016). Performing Political Opposition in Russia: The Case of the Youth Group Oborona. Routledge. ISBN 9781317082293. According to one ex-activist of Oborona who had been also part of the movement from the beginning, the coalition between the right-wing SPS and the more social-liberal oriented Yabloko was possible because of Putin's 'antidemocratic' politics
  4. ^ "Russia parliament elections: How the parties line up". BBC. 6 March 2012.
  5. ^ Lewis, Paul G. (19 October 2018). Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe: The First Decade. Taylor & Francis US. ISBN 9780714681740 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ "Yabloko hosts international conference on protecting women's rights". Alliance of Liberals and Democrats For Europe. 3 December 2020.
  7. ^ Sharkov, Damien (23 February 2016). "Russian Vandals Stop Maidan Massacre Commemoration in St. Petersburg". Newsweek.
  8. ^ Carroll, Oliver (7 February 2017). "Russia's Last Opposition Hero". Foreign Policy.
  9. ^ "Moscow court reverses Sergei Mitrokhin election ban". Deutsche Welle. 13 August 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2020. The Moscow city court ruled that the electoral commission should immediately register Mitrokhin of the centrist Yabloko party as a candidate, according to Russian state news agencies.
  10. ^ Gowland, David; Dunphy, Richard; Lythe, Charlotte, eds. (2006). The European Mosaic (Third ed.). Pearson Education. p. 228. ISBN 9780582473706.
  11. ^ Cucciolla, Riccardo Mario (2019). "Introduction: The Many Dimensions of Russian Liberalism". In Cucciolla, Riccardo Mario (ed.). Dimensions and Challenges of Russian Liberalism: Historical Drama and New Prospects. Philosophy and Politics—Critical Explorations. 8. Springer Nature. p. xxxi. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-05784-8. ISBN 978-3-030-05784-8. ISSN 2352-8370.
  12. ^ Ross, Cameron (2009). Local Politics and Democratization in Russia. ISBN 9780415336543. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  13. ^ "Russian women denied protest against bill decriminalising domestic violence vow to keep fighting". International Business Times UK. 27 January 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2020. The Russian United Democratic Party Yabloko, a centre-left opposition party with currently no representation in the parliament have launched a campaign against the law. They invited people to speak out on social media, using the hashtag: "I'm against the law on decriminalisation of domestic violence".
  14. ^ Taras Kuzio, ed. (2007). Ukraine?Crimea?Russia: Triangle of Conflict. Columbia University Press. p. 111. ISBN 9783838257617. ... the centre-left Yabloko, initiated the first votes in the Russian Supreme Soviet ... of the centre-left Union of Right Forces and became an adviser to President ..
  15. ^ "How Russia's political parties line up". BBC News. 6 March 2012. Yabloko's ideology is a mix of liberalism and social democracy.
  16. ^ Shabaev, Andrey. "Российская многопартийность. Глава 4". partinform.ru.
  17. ^ Sputnik (16 December 2006). "Russian liberal SPS, Yabloko parties give up unification plans". Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  18. ^ Козлова, Дарья. ""Яблочные" войны". Новая Газета. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  19. ^ ""Яблоко" против Навального: зачем Кремль заставил Григория Явлинского совершить коллективный самострел". Republic.ru. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  20. ^ https://www.svoboda.org/a/24187013.html "Яблоко" не будет выдвигать своего кандидата на президентских выборах 2004-го года
  21. ^ https://www.gazeta.ru/news/lastnews/2007/12/22/n_1156082.shtml ЦИК не пустил Буковского на выборы
  22. ^ https://www.rosbalt.ru/politrally/2012/01/24/937051.html ЦИК РФ: Явлинский выбывает из президентской гонки

External links[edit]