This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Type of site
|Traded as||NYSE: BABA|
|Founded||4 April 1999
Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
|Headquarters||Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China|
|Owner||Jack Ma (7.8%)|
|Founder(s)||Jack Ma, Peng Lei|
|Products||E-commerce, Online auction hosting, Online money transfers, mobile commerce|
|Revenue||CN¥158.273 billion (2017)|
|Operating income||CN¥48.055 billion (2017)|
|Net income||CN¥41.226 billion (2017)|
|Total assets||CN¥506.812 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||CN¥321.129 billion (2017)|
|Subsidiaries||Alibaba.com, Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C., Taobao, Tmall, UCWeb, AliExpress, Juhuasuan.com, 1688.com, Alimama.com, Ant Financial, Cainiao, Lazada, Youku Tudou, Alibaba Cloud|
|Slogan(s)||To make it easy to do business anywhere|
Alibaba Group Holding Limited (Chinese: 阿里巴巴集团控股有限公司; pinyin: Ālǐbābā Jítuán Kònggǔ Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī) is a Chinese e-commerce company that provides consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer and business-to-business sales services via web portals. It also provides electronic payment services, a shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. The group began in 1999 when Jack Ma founded the website Alibaba.com, a business-to-business portal to connect Chinese manufacturers with overseas buyers. In 2012, two of Alibaba's portals handled 1.1 trillion yuan ($170 billion) in sales. Suppliers from other countries are supported (with more stringent checks than for Chinese companies), but the company primarily operates in the People's Republic of China (PRC). At closing time on the date of its initial public offering (IPO), 19 September 2014, Alibaba's market value was US$231 billion. However, the stock has traded down and market cap was about $212 billion at the end of December 2015.
It is the world's largest retailer as of April 2016 surpassing Walmart, with operations in over 200 countries, as well as one of the largest Internet companies. Its online sales and profits surpassed all US retailers (including Walmart, Amazon and eBay) combined since 2015. It has been expanding into media and entertainment industry, with revenues rising 3-digit percents year on year.
As of August 2017, Alibaba has over 529 million monthly active mobile users across its platforms. It also provides an online digital distribution service 9Apps, which hosts huge amount of content and applications for downloads.
In 2017, Alibaba's affiliate Ant Financial was ranked sixth in Fortune's Change the World list, recognized for the positive environmental impact of Ant Forest, the world's largest platform for tracking individuals' carbon footprints. Ant Forest allows users to collect "energy points" through their actions in the real world that can be used to grow virtual and ultimately real trees, with 230 million users of Alipay activating Ant Forest accounts. Ant Financial and its partners, including environmental NGOs the SEE Foundation and China Green Foundation, have thus far planted 10.25 million trees, equivalent to a 1.22 million-ton reduction in CO2 emissions.
In May 2017, Alibaba broke the US$300 billion value mark, after Tencent achieved the feat. At the same period, Alibaba also became one of the world's top 10 most valuable companies. It reported sales growth forecast which topped every analyst's estimate, while at the same time surpassing Tencent to become Asia's most valuable company.
In August 2017, Alibaba-backed 58 Suyun will merge with Hong Kong's GoGoVan, to create an Asia-based online logistics platform. Company executives have stated that there are big plans for the merger to become a global logistics corporation.
In September 2017, Alibaba’s Ant Financial unveiled a facial recognition technology that allows a customer to pay by flashing a smile, through its Alipay services. A 3D camera located at the point-of-sale scans the customer’s face to verify their identity, there's also a phone number verification option for additional security. It also enters a partnership with Tencent on music-streaming rights sharing, the deal aims to protect licensed streaming services offering copyrighted content of the music industry, encouraging more high-quality and original music, as well as developing China’s fast-growing streaming market. Alibaba will gain the rights to stream music from international labels, which already have exclusive deals with Tencent, in return for offering reciprocal rights to its catalogue of Chinese and Japanese music.  Alibaba has became the official partner of New York Fashion Week, the collaboration was done in association with one of China’s leading fashion, lifestyle and entertainment management corporations Suntchi and aims to connect international brands with Chinese consumers as well as showcasing Chinese fashion designers to the world, as China's influence on global fashion expands rapidly.
- 1 History
- 2 Companies and affiliated entities
- 3 Corporate governance
- 4 Controversies
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Founding and name
One day I was in San Francisco in a coffee shop, and I was thinking Alibaba is a good name. And then a waitress came, and I said, "Do you know about Alibaba?" And she said yes. I said, "What do you know about?", and she said, "Open Sesame". And I said, "Yes, this is the name!" Then I went on to the street and found 30 people and asked them, "Do you know Alibaba?" People from India, people from Germany, people from Tokyo and China … they all knew about Alibaba. Alibaba – open sesame. Alibaba is a kind, smart business person, and he helped the village. So … easy to spell, and globally known. Alibaba opens sesame for small- to medium-sized companies. We also registered the name "Alimama", in case someone wants to marry us!"
Brick and mortar stores
According to Li Chuan, a senior executive at Alibaba, the company was planning in 2013 to open traditional brick and mortar retail outlets in partnership with Chinese real estate company Dalian Wanda Group. Additionally, Alibaba purchased a 25% stake in Hong Kong-based Intime Retail in early 2014. In early 2017, Alibaba and Intime's founder Shen Guojun agreed to pay as much as 19.8 billion Hong Kong dollars (US$2.6 billion) to take the store chain private. Alibaba's stake—28% from 2014's US$692 million investment—would rise to about 74% after the deal.
On 5 September 2014, the group—in a regulatory filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission—set a US$60- to $66- per-share price range for its scheduled initial public offering (IPO), the final price of which would be determined after an international roadshow to gauge the investor interest in Alibaba shares to shareholders.
On 18 September 2014, Alibaba's IPO priced at US$68, raising US$21.8 billion for the company and investors. Alibaba was the biggest US IPO in history. On 19 September 2014, Alibaba's shares (BABA) began trading on the NYSE at an opening price of $92.70 at 11:55 am EST. On 22 September 2014, Alibaba's underwriters announced their confirmation that they had exercised a greenshoe option to sell 15% more shares than originally planned, boosting the total amount of the IPO to $25 billion.
In December 1999, Hector Ma and 17 other founders released their first online marketplace, named "Alibaba Online". From 1999 to 2000, Alibaba Group raised a total of US$25 Million from SoftBank, Goldman Sachs, Fidelity and some other institutions. In December 2001, Alibaba.com achieved profitability. In May 2003, Taobao was founded as a consumer e-commerce platform. In December 2004, Alipay, which started as a service on the Taobao platform, became a separate business. In October 2005, Alibaba Group took over the operation of China Yahoo! as part of its strategic partnership with Yahoo! Inc.
In November 2007, Alibaba.com successfully listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. In April 2008, Taobao established Taobao Mall (Tmall.com), a retail website, to complement its C2C marketplace. In September 2008, Alibaba Group R&D Institute was established. In December 2008, Alibaba.com Corporation announced that all Alibaba group websites will be shark fin-free on 1 January 2009.
In 2009, global growth equity firm General Atlantic invests $75M, led by the firm's head of global internet and technology sector, Anton Levy. In September 2009, Alibaba Group established Alibaba Cloud Computing in conjunction with its 10-year anniversary. In May 2010, Alibaba Group announced a plan to earmark 0.3% of its annual revenues to fund environmental protection initiatives. In October 2010, Taobao beta-launched eTao as a shopping search engine.
In June 2011, Alibaba Group reorganised Taobao into three separate companies: Taobao Marketplace, Taobao Mall (Tmall.com) and eTao. In July 2011, Alibaba Cloud Computing launched its first self-developed mobile operating system, Aliyun OS over K-Touch Cloud Smartphone. In January 2012, Tmall.com changed its Chinese name as part of a rebranding exercise. In May 2012 Alibaba Group decides to reverse course and take its publicly traded Alibaba.com private, delisting from the Hong Kong stock exchange at close to 13.50 Hong Kong dollars per share.
In September 2013, the company sought an IPO in the United States after a deal could not be reached with Hong Kong regulators. Planning took over 12 months before the company's market début in September 2014, with Reuters Instrument Code "BABA.N". The pricing of the IPO initially raised US$21.8 billion, which later increased to US$25 billion, making it the largest IPO in history. Buyers were actually purchasing shares in a Cayman Islands shell corporation, not in the Alibaba group, as China forbids foreign ownership of its companies.
In September 2013, Alibaba denies ditching HK for IPO after the Hong Kong Exchange refuses to allow the company to list shares. The company "sought to create a partnership structure that effectively would give preferential treatment to one class of shareholders over another. Hong Kong listing rules have long prohibited companies from issuing dual-class shares with different voting rights." The proposal would have allowed the company’s founder, Jack Ma and his partners to be able to nominate a majority of the members of the board and retain control of the company even if it issued new shares.
In September 2013, Embroiled in somewhat of a controversy, Alibaba Group denies abandoning Hong Kong in favor of a U.S. IPO, because of Hong Kong Exchange's refusal to allow a dual class share structure. In March 2014, Alibaba group said it will begin the process of filing for an initial public offering in the US Prior to its IPO filing on Form F-1 as a foreign issuer in the US, Alibaba undertook an aggressive acquisition spree – previously atypical for the company – acquiring numerous majority and minority stakes in companies including micro-blogging service Weibo, China Vision Holdings, and car sharing service Lyft, as well as smart remote app developer Peel Technologies. On 6 May 2014, Alibaba Group filed registration documents to go public in the US in what may be one of the biggest initial public offerings in American history. On 5 June 2014, Alibaba group agreed to take a 50 percent stake in Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club, winners of the 2013 AFC Champions League, for 1.2 billion yuan ($192 million). In June 2014, Alibaba acquired the Chinese mobile internet firm UCWeb. The price of the purchase has not been disclosed but the company did claim that the acquisition creates the biggest merger in the history of China's internet sector.
Alibaba's consumer-to-consumer portal Taobao and business-to-consumer portal Tmall, each features nearly a billion products and both are among the 20 most-visited websites globally. The Group's websites accounted for over 60% of the parcels delivered in China by March 2013, and 80% of the nation's online sales by September 2014. Alipay, an online payment escrow service, accounts for roughly half of all online payment transactions within China.
On 19 September 2014, Alibaba's shares (BABA) began trading on the NYSE. On 2 February 2015, Alibaba announces that it has acquired a $590m minority stake in the Chinese smartphone maker Meizu. On 30 March 2015, Jack Ma met Prime Minister Narendra Modi and discussed Alibaba Group's plan to help small businesses in India. Alibaba reported sales of $14.32 billion on China's Singles' Day on 11 November 2015, up 60 percent from 2014, In November 2016, the e-commerce giant Alibaba set Singles Day records and generated 120.7 billion CNY (17.79 billion USD) in gross merchandise. Alibaba entered India's e-commerce space with 25% stake in Paytm owner One97. In August 2015, Alibaba Group invested in Snapdeal.
In September 2015, Alibaba Group along with Ant Financial invested about $680 Million in the Indian e-commerce company Paytm. On 11 December 2015, Alibaba buys South China Morning Post and other media assets of SCMP Group for US$266 million. On 31 December 2015, Alibaba buys 33 million shares of Groupon, corresponding to 5.6 per cent stake. On 2 March 2016, Alibaba struck a deal with media agency Oceans Sport and Entertainment to bring Ocean's non-gambling game Match Poker to China. In April 2016, Alibaba announced that it intended to acquire a controlling interest in the privately held Lazada Group, the "Amazon of Southeast Asia", by paying $500 million for new shares and buying $500M worth of shares from existing investors.
On 9 June 2016, Alibaba officially unveiled the Roewe RX5, its first "internet car" in collaboration with SAIC. The RX5 is available for pre-order. It is priced upwards of RMB 148,800 (US$22,300) with deliveries will be scheduled to start in August 2016. Ma believes that "in the future that 80 percent of the car's functionality won’t be related to transportation. The car will become a kind of robot you communicate with on a daily basis." In a speech in Bangkok in October 2016, Ma claimed that Alibaba Group has created more than 30 million jobs in China. In a meeting between Donald Trump and Jack Ma at the beginning of January 2017 they discussed the creation of one million jobs in the United States.
Companies and affiliated entities
Alibaba.com, the primary company of Alibaba, is the world's largest online business-to-business trading platform for small businesses. Founded in Hangzhou in eastern China, Alibaba.com has three main services. The company's English language portal Alibaba.com handles sales between importers and exporters from more than 240 countries and regions. The Chinese portal 1688.com was developed for domestic business-to-business trade in China. In addition, Alibaba.com offers a transaction-based retail website, AliExpress.com, which allows smaller buyers to buy small quantities of goods at wholesale prices.
Alibaba.com went public at the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 2007, and was delisted again in 2012.
In 2013, 1688.com launched a direct channel that is responsible for $30 million in daily transaction value.
Taobao Marketplace, or Taobao, is China's largest consumer-to-consumer online shopping platform. Founded in 2003, it offers a variety of products for retail sale. In January 2015 it was the second most visited web site in China, according to Alexa.com. Taobao's growth was attributed to offering free registration and commission-free transactions using a free third-party payment platform.
Advertising makes up 85 percent of the company's total revenue, allowing it to break even in 2009. Taobao's 2010 profit was estimated to be 1.5 billion yuan (US$235.7 million), only about 0.4 percent of their total sales figure of 400 billion yuan (US$62.9 billion) that year, way below the industry average of 2 percent, according to iResearch estimates.
According to Zhang Yu, the director of Taobao, the number of stores on Taobao with annual sales under 100 thousand yuan increased by 60% between 2011 and 2013. Over the same period, the number of stores with sales between 10 thousand and 1 million yuan increased by 30%, and the number of stores with sales over 1 million yuan increased by 33%. Taobao's total sales (including Tmall) exceeded 1 trillion yuan (USD 160 billion) in 2012. And on 11 November 2012, the biggest online shopping promotion activity, Taobao accomplished 19.1 billion yuan (USD 3.07 billion) sales in one day.
Also, there are other parts of Taobao. Tmall.com was introduced in April 2008 as an online retail platform to complement the Taobao consumer-to-consumer portal and became a separate business in June 2011. As of October 2013 it was the eighth most visited web site in China, offering global brands to an increasingly affluent Chinese consumer base. In addition, there is Juhuasuan, a group shopping website in China. It was launched by Taobao in March 2010 and became a separate business in October 2011. Juhuasuan offers "flash sales", products that are available only for a fixed time period, which can last from one or two days to a full month. To buy at the discounted price, buyers must purchase the item within that defined time. Plus, Taobao launched a service known as eTao. eTao was beta-launched by Taobao in October 2010 as a comparison shopping website, and became a separate business in June 2011. It offers search results from most Chinese online shopping platforms, including product searches, sales and coupon searches. Online shoppers can use the site to compare prices from different sellers and identify products to buy. According to the Alibaba Group web site, eTao offers products from Amazon China, Dangdang, Gome, Yihaodian, Nike China and Vancl, as well as Taobao and Tmall.
Launched in 2004, Alipay is a third-party online payment platform with no transaction fees. It also provides an escrow service, in which buyers can verify whether they are happy with goods they have bought before releasing money to the seller. In addition, Ant Financial, another Alibaba company, has operated Alipay payments services since 2004. Alibaba Group spun off Alipay in 2010 in a controversial move. According to analyst research report, Alipay has the biggest market share in China with 300 million users and control of just under half of China's online payment market in February 2014. In 2013, Alipay launched a financial product platform called Yu'ebao (余额宝). In 2015, Alibaba announced that they will introduce a system that can be paid by recognizing the owner's face.
Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun)
Alibaba Cloud aims to build a cloud computing service platform, including e-commerce data mining, e-commerce data processing, and data customisation. It was established in September 2009 in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of Alibaba Group. It has R&D centres and operators in Hangzhou, Beijing, Hong Kong, Singapore, Silicon Valley and Dubai. In July 2014, Alibaba Cloud entered into a partnership deal with Inspur. Alibaba Cloud is the largest high-end cloud computing company in China. In 2009, Alibaba acquired HiChina, the largest domain registration service and web hosting service company in China, and built it into Alibaba Cloud.
Launched in 2010, AliExpress.com is an online retail service made up of mostly small Chinese businesses offering products to international online buyers. It is the most visited e-commerce website in Russia. It allows small businesses in China to sell to customers all over the world, and, just like Amazon, you can find just about anything there. It might be more accurate to compare AliExpress to eBay, though, as sellers are independent; it simply serves as a host for other businesses to sell to consumers. Similar to eBay, sellers on Aliexpress can be either companies or individuals. It connects directly Chinese businesses with buyers. The main difference from Taobao is that it´s aimed primarily at international buyers. Mainly in USA, Russia, Brazil or Spain.
Yahoo! China was launched on September 24, 1999. In October 2005, Alibaba Group formed a strategic partnership with Yahoo! and acquired China Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com.cn), a Chinese portal that focuses on Internet services like news, email, and search. In April 2013, Alibaba Group announced that, as part of the agreement to buy back the Yahoo! Mail stake, technological support for China Yahoo! Mail service would be suspended and the China Yahoo! Mail account migration would begin. Several options were offered to users to make the transition as smooth as possible, and China Yahoo! users had four months to migrate their accounts to the Aliyun mail service, the Yahoo! Mail service in the United States, or to another third-party e-mail provider of the user's choice. Yahoo! China closed its mail service on 19 August 2013. E-mails sent to Yahoo! China accounts could be forwarded to an Alimail box until 31 December 2014. Users were also allowed to transfer e-mail accounts to yahoo.com or any other e-mail service. It is estimated there are no more than a million users with Yahoo! Mail for China and chances are they also own other e-mail accounts.
In 2004, the company released its own instant messaging software service Aliwangwang for interactions between customer and online sellers. By 2014 Aliwangwang user has reached 50 million, making it the second largest instant messaging tool in China.
In October 2013, the company's chairman Jack Ma announced that the company would no longer use Tencent's messaging application WeChat, and would henceforth promote its own messaging application and service, Laiwang.
In March 2014, Alibaba agreed to acquire a controlling stake in ChinaVision Media Group for $804 million. The two firms announced they would establish a strategic committee for potential future opportunities in online entertainment and other media areas. The company was renamed Alibaba Pictures Group.
In April 2014, Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a private equity company controlled by Alibaba's founder, Jack Ma, agreed to acquire a combined 18.5 percent stake in Youku Tudou, which broadcasts a series of popular television programs and other videos over the Internet.
On 11 June 2014, Alibaba launched US shopping site 11 Main. The 11 Main marketplace hosts more than 1,000 merchants in categories such as clothing, fashion accessories and jewellery as well as interior goods and arts and crafts and it plans to keep adding more, said the company. On 23 June 2015, Alibaba announced that it is selling 11 Main to OpenSky, an online-marketplace operator based in New York.
South China Morning Post
In December 2015, Alibaba agreed to a deal to acquire the South China Morning Post and other media assets belonging to the group for a consideration of $266 million. Although Alibaba promised editorial independence, vice-chairman Joseph Tsai said that Alibaba believes that "the world needs a plurality of views when it comes to China coverage. China's rise as an economic power and its importance to world stability is too important for there to be a singular thesis." The acquisition attracted media concerns over what this would mean for the newspaper’s coverage.
Alibaba's flagship health-care unit. Ali Health was launched in 2014 when Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a private equity firm, bought a 54% stake in Citic 21CN. It positions itself as a pharmaceutical e-commerce business and medical services. In April 2015, the group also reached an agreement to transfer its online B2C pharmacy, Tmall Medical (yao.Tmall.com), to Ali Health. The integration provides consumers the widest range of pharmaceutical and health products available in China.
Alibaba's sports division, Alisports, based in Shanghai, was established in 2015 after a consolidation of some of the parent company's existing business units. The new company's operations encompass television and digital sports rights, event operation, venue commercialization, copyright, media, business development, gaming, and ticketing.
Alisports secured exclusive title sponsorship of the FIFA Club World Cup from 2015 to 2022. The company announced a Champion of Champions rugby sevens tournament in 2017, to be played in Shanghai for the highest prize money ever offered in the sport.
UCWeb is a Chinese leading provider of mobile internet software technology and services. Since its inception in 2004, UCWeb's mission has been to provide better mobile internet experience to billions of users around the world. Its international product portfolio includes a mobile browsing service (UC Browser), app and game distribution platforms (9Apps and 9Game), a mobile traffic platform (UC Union) and UC News that primarily caters to all types of news in the India market (as an aggregator) among others.
Lazada Group is a Singaporean e-commerce company founded by Rocket Internet in 2011. Lazada operates sites in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its sites launched in March 2012, with a business model of selling inventory to customers from its own warehouses. In 2013 it added a marketplace model that allowed third-party retailers to sell their products through Lazada's site. Lazada features a wide product offering in categories ranging from consumer electronics to household goods, toys, fashion and sports equipment. In April 2016, Alibaba Group announced that it intended to acquire a controlling interest in Lazada by paying $500 million for new shares and buying $500M worth of shares from existing investors.
Ali Venture Capital
Hangzhou Ali Venture Capital (Chinese: 杭州阿里创业投资) was a company 80% owned by Jack Ma and another manager of Alibaba. For regulatory purpose, Alibaba Group did not owned the company directly, but by pleading. It was considered as a subsidiary and/or consolidated entity of Alibaba Group. Ali Venture Capital was a shareholder of Beijing Enlight Media as well as the A share of China Unicom.
Jack Ma was Alibaba Group's chief executive officer for its first 10 years, but stepped down as CEO on 10 May 2013, becoming executive chairman. Jonathan Lu became the company's new CEO. On 10 May 2015 Daniel Zhang replaced Lu as CEO.
Gold Supplier membership
Alibaba.com offers a paid Gold Supplier membership to try to ensure that each seller is genuine; sellers' Gold Supplier status and the number of years it has been held are displayed. The supplier verification types and checks are listed on Alibaba.com's Web site, with more stringent checks for sellers outside China. While the majority of suppliers are reported to be genuine, there have been many cases of sellers, some with Gold Supplier status, seeking to defraud unsuspecting buyers. In February 2011, controversy ensued when Alibaba's corporate office admitted that it had granted the mark of integrity of its "China Gold Supplier" program to more than 2,000 dealers that had subsequently defrauded buyers; the firm's share price dropped "abruptly" after the announcement. A statement from the firm reported that Yan Limin, the general manager of Alibaba.com at the time, had been dismissed in March for "misconduct"; Phil Muncaster of UK's The Register additionally reported that "a further 28 employees had been involved in dodgy dealings".
As the Economist noted, the company's response has conflicting components: Alibaba's promulgated view that its corrective actions indicate its commitment to quality and integrity (where it contrasts itself with other scandal-associated Chinese business sectors), versus a damage control view suggesting that the subscription-driven, third-party verified "China Gold Supplier" program was endangered by diminished trust in its endorsement system, removing the incentive for global buyers to choose Alibaba as their business-to-business service, thus more broadly endangering Alibaba through impact on its brand and capabilities (the latter via the "defenestration of senior people"). The scandal is said to have placed the head of Alibaba Group, Jack Ma—who is described as having been furious over the scandal—in a position to personally fight to win back trust.
In May 2012, a US law enforcement agent posing as an American broker representing persons in Iran posted an advertisement on Alibaba.com seeking to purchase uranium. In August 2013, Patrick Campbell of Sierra Leone was arrested at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport. Samples of raw uranium ore were allegedly found concealed in the soles of his shoes. Campbell was accused of seeking to arrange the export of 1,000 tonnes of yellowcake from Sierra Leone to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, packed in drums and disguised as the mineral chromite. It was later determined that the samples contained an insignificant amount of uranium, and Campbell was acquitted at trial.
Counterfeit items and scams
Alibaba is frequently associated with fraudulent import of counterfeit items: in 2016, the U.S. Office of the Trade Representative added Taobao back onto a list of notorious counterfeit platforms that includes the likes of torrent site Pirate Bay.
AliExpress is even more controversial: despite claiming to provide buyer protection, it frequently refuses to reimburse customers when goods are seized by customs or when sellers who establish fake business entities vanish after their scam. Several hundred lawsuits and class actions have been filed in the US.
Alibaba denied wrongdoing and started timid action against counterfeiters with only 2 lawsuits filed as of January 4, 2017, but brands suffering from the counterfeit products continue to blame Alibaba for not doing what it takes to fight the issue
- JD.com, main competitor to Alibaba's Tmall
- "The Top Five Alibaba Shareholders in 2016 (BABA)". Investopedia. 2016-10-11. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "Alibaba Group Announces March Quarter 2017 and Full Fiscal Year 2017 Results" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "Alibaba Group Announces March Quarter 2017 and Full Fiscal Year 2017 Results" (PDF). 18 May 2017.
- "E-commerce in China: The Alibaba phenomenon". The Economist. 23 March 2013.
- "Alibaba.com’s Supplier Verification Services". Alibaba Web site. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Lianna B. Baker; Jessica Toonkel; Ryan Vlastelica (19 September 2014). "Alibaba surges 38 percent on massive demand in market debut". Reuters. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Alibaba passes Walmart as world's largest retailer". RT. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- "Alibaba’s logistics ambition goes global". EJ Insight. 16 June 2014.
- Tong, Frank. "Alibaba’s annual web sales easily surpass U.S. e-retail sales".
- "Alibaba generates more revenue than Amazon and eBay combined". RT International.
- Yu, Eileen. "Alibaba chalks up 1M cloud customers on 96 percent revenue growth | ZDNet". ZDNet.
- "Alibaba Owned UCWeb Faces Risk Of Ban For Data Theft Allegations". inc42.com.
- [www.9apps.com/ "Free Android Apps Download | Best Apps for Android Mobile Phone - 9Apps"] Check
|url=value (help). www.9apps.com.
- "Alibaba Group Holding Market Cap (BABA)". ycharts.com.
- http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/tech/2017-09/09/content_31776061.htm. Missing or empty
- "Ant Financial named in Fortune's "Change the World" list--China Economic Net". en.ce.cn.
- "Tencent : Alibaba Market Cap Tops USD300bn, Becoming Data Provider | 4-Traders".
- Charles, Glen (10 May 2017). "Alibaba Group Holding Limited added 2.69% in its Stock Price in the Previous Trading Session - Free Observer". Free Observer.
- "All the digital news stories you missed this week". Econsultancy.
- Thomas, Lauren (8 June 2017). "Alibaba shares surge after CFO's forecast literally causes investors to gasp".
- Kilgore, Tomi. "Alibaba's stock soars toward record as upbeat revenue outlook draws cheers at investor day". MarketWatch.
- "Alibaba is Asia’s No. 1 company as value soars to US$360 billion". South China Morning Post.
- "Alibaba Adds $42 Billion in Market Cap on Strong Sales Forecast". Bloomberg.com. 8 June 2017.
- "Alibaba becomes first Asian company to hit $400bn market cap". gbtimes.com.
- "Alibaba Group Holding Market Cap (BABA)". ycharts.com.
- DeFotis, Dimitra. "Alibaba Stock Creeps Higher As Targets Exceed $200".
- Yan, Sophia (30 August 2017). "Alibaba and Tencent are showing how companies can get around Beijing's crackdown on foreign deals".
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times.
- Russell, Jon. "Alibaba debuts ‘smile to pay’ facial recognition payments at KFC in China | TechCrunch".
- "Tencent Music in harmony with Alibaba following rights deal". The Drum.
- "Alibaba, Tencent sign music-streaming rights deal". South China Morning Post.
- Writer, Staff. "Alibaba partners with New York Fashion Week". Marketing Interactive.
- "Suntchi, China’s Leading Fashion, Lifestyle and Entertainment Co., Inks 5-Year Partnership Deal with The Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA)". www.businesswire.com.
- Bain, Marc. "Alibaba partners with New York Fashion Week, as China’s influence on global fashion expands". Quartz.
- "Alibaba’s IPO Filing: Everything You Need to Know – Digits – WSJ". blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Where did Alibaba, the brand name, come from?". Wordlab. 15 October 2007.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20070227023026/– The original forum post referred to in the wordlab article; it does not appear to have been posted by Alibaba staff
- Hsu, Alex (3 July 2013). "Alibaba to Open Brick and Mortar Stores in Wanda Plazas Across China". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- Mozur, Paul; Esther Fung (31 March 2014). "Alibaba to Pay $692 Million for Stake in Intime Retail". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Lin, Liza; Nathan Becker (January 10, 2017), "Alibaba Bags Chinese Retailer Intime in $2.6 Billion Deal" (subscription), Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- "Alibaba's IPO Priced at $68 a Share". The Wall Street Journal. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Alibaba prices at $68, becomes top U.S. IPO". USA Today. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Picker, Leslie; Chen, Lulu Yilun (22 September 2014). "Alibaba's Banks Boost IPO Size to Record of $25 Billion". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Alibaba Sells Extra Shares; IPO Raises $25B, Breaks Global Record". IBTimes.com. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Company Overview". Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "China̵". Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Shark fins removed from 'front window' of China-based website, but apparently still available to buyers - latimes.com". Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- De La Merced, Michael J. "Silver Lake Reaps a Golden Return on Its Alibaba Stake After the I.P.O.". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- "Anton J. Levy". General Atlantic website. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- Jones, Terril Yue (28 July 2011). "UPDATE 2-Alibaba launches smartphone running its Cloud OS". Reuters. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Alibaba Group Company Overview". Alibaba Group Group. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- Osawa, Paul Mozur And Juro. "Alibaba Privatization Moves Forward". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "UPDATE 3-U.S. to get coveted Alibaba IPO after Hong Kong talks founder". Reuters. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "IPO launch of Alibaba pushed back by a week". China National News. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Solomon, Steven Davidoff (6 May 2014). "Alibaba Investors Will Buy a Risky Corporate Structure". New York Times (Dealbook blog).
- "Alibaba IPO: What It Says about Shareholder Rights in Asia". CFA Institute Market Integrity Insights. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "Alibaba denies ditching HK for IPO|Companies|chinadaily.com.cn". usa.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- Alibaba picks U.S. for IPO; in talks with six banks for lead roles, https://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/16/us-alibaba-ipo-idUSBREA2F05O20140316
- "Alibaba Continues Pre-IPO Spending Spree". PrivCo. February 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Peel gets another major investment from Alibaba, strikes alliances in China". Gigaom. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Ryan Mac; Brian Solomon. "Chinese E-commerce Giant Alibaba Files For IPO".
- "China's Alibaba to buy 50% stake in Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club".
- "Alibaba continues quest to own the Chinese internet". CNN.
- "Alibaba: The world’s greatest bazaar". The Economist. 23 March 2013.
- "Alibaba invests $590m in Chinese smartphone maker Meizu".
- "Jack Ma meets Narendra Modi, Alibaba to help small businesses in India". The Economic Times. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Carsten, Paul. "Alibaba's Singles' Day sales surge 60 percent to $14.3 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Alibaba reports record $9 billion Singles' Day sales". businesstoday.intoday.in.
- Wanxia, Lin (11 November 2016). "Alibaba’s Singles Day smashes sales record in 15 hours". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- "Alibaba enters India's e-commerce space with 25% stake in Paytm owner One97". Economic Times. 6 February 2015.
- "Alibaba, Ant Financial invest about 680 million in PayTm". The Economic Times. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "Alibaba to Buy South China Morning Post for $266 Million".
- "China’s Alibaba buys 5.6 per cent stake in Groupon to rank as No. 4 shareholder in online deals site".
- "Alibaba looking to exploit loopholes, introducing poker to China". www.gamblinginsider.com. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
- Lulu Yilun Chen and Selina Wang for Bloomberg News. April 12, 2016 Alibaba Expands in Southeast Asia With $1 Billion Lazada Deal
- Jon Russel (6 July 2016). "Alibaba unveils its first smart car — and it’s available for pre-order now". Tech Crunch. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Alibaba Wants a Slice of the World's Largest Car Market". Bloomberg. 2016-07-06. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Sangwongwanich, Pathom (11 October 2016). "Ma says next 30 years will define Asia". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- "Donald Trump: 'Great meeting' with Alibaba's Jack Ma". Usatoday.com. 2017-01-09. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- USA today, Amazon to add 100,000 full-time jobs in U.S. by ’19, Friday January 13, 2017, Page B1
- "Alibaba Defends Against Counterfeit Accusations | PYMNTS.com". www.pymnts.com.
- "Alibaba Flexes Muscles Before IPO". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Alibaba Group Said to Plan Privatizing Alibaba.com Close to IPO Price". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- Hsu, Alex (17 July 2013). "Alibaba's 1688.com Launches New Direct Channel, Responsible for 30 Million USD Per Day in Transactions Value". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- "Alibaba Agrees to Buy AutoNavi in $1.5 Billion Map Deal". Bloomberg. 2014-04-11. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Einhorn, Bruce (15 January 2013). "Alibaba's Jack Ma Is Moving On, With an IPO Looming". Bloomberg Businessweek. businessweek.com. Retrieved 16 January 2013
- "Taobao's Alexa Statistics". Alexa.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Zhe, Sun (January 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China.
- Hsu, Alex (17 July 2013). "Alibaba's Taobao Continues to Attract New Stores, Focuses on Personalized Services, Store Branding and Customized Contracts". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- Jude. "Total Taobao Sales Exceeded 1 Trillion Yuan in 2012". China Internet Watch. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Alexa Web Site Statistics for Tmall.com". Alexa.com. Alexa.com. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Microsoft and eTao". The Next Web. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Guilford, Gwynn (June 2014). "Alibaba has a new way of explaining its controversial Alipay spinoff". Quartz.
- John Watling (14 February 2014). "China's Internet Giants Lead in Online Finance". The Financialist. Credit Suisse. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Chohan, Usman W. "Financial Innovation in China: Alibaba’s Leftover Treasure – 余额宝". McGill University. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Newsis (17 March 2015). "알리바바, 알리페이에 '얼굴 인식' 결제 도입".
- Wanxia, Lin (22 November 2016). "Alibaba Cloud’s global expansion program rolls into Dubai". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Aliyun & Inspur Partner to Beat Cloud competition".
- Mutton, Paul (May 27, 2015). "Aliyun cloud growth makes Alibaba largest hosting company in China". Netcraft. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- Adrien Henni (2014-09-09). "Alibaba tops e-commerce sites in Russia as well as China". Internetretailer.com. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Kasperkevic, Jana (2014-09-23). "Why Alibaba is a success in the US: its market for human hair extensions nets American women in its weave". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- GOOALI®. "Jack Ma: Su inspiradora historia". GOOALI® (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- "Yahoo! Inc. - Company Timeline". Wayback Machine. 13 July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 July 2008. Retrieved 2016-07-19.
- Steadman, Ian. (22 April 2013) Yahoo! decides to close its Chinese mail service (Wired UK) Archived 31 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Wired.co.uk. Retrieved on 21 September 2013.
- "Yahoo!China Closing Mail Service Today". TechNode. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "阿里旺旺". Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- "Alibaba's Jack Ma to dump WeChat service in favour of 'own baby' Laiwang". South China Morning Post. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Donny Kwok; Denny Thomas (12 March 2014). "Alibaba buys ChinaVision stake for $804 million; gains TV, movie content". Reuters.
- Neil Gough (28 April 2014). "Alibaba Buys Stake in Chinese Web TV Company for $1.2 Billion". New York Times.
- Juro Osawa (11 June 2014). "Alibaba Tackles Amazon, eBay on Home Turf". Wall Street Journal.
- "BBC News – China's Alibaba plans US online shop". bbc.com. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Juro Osawa; Eva Dou (23 June 2015). "Alibaba Stumbles in U.S. Online Market". Wall Street Journal.
- "Connecting Asia's startup ecosystem". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "Alibaba agrees on $266 million acquisition deal with South China Morning Post". Reuters. 14 December 2015.
- "Company Overview of Alisports.com". Bloomberg. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Infantino suggests 32-team FIFA Club World Cup". Special Broadcasting Service. Sydney. 19 November 2016. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "China to host richest ever rugby sevens tournament as US$100 million injection bears first fruit". South China Morning Post. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Yan, Sophia (2014-06-11). "Alibaba continues quest to own the Chinese Internet - Jun. 11, 2014". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Alibaba Expands in Southeast Asia With $1 Billion Lazada Deal, www.bloomberg.com, 12.4.2016
- "List of Significant Subsidiaries and Consolidated Entities of Alibaba Group Holding Limited" (SEC filing). Alibaba Group.
- "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Beijing Enlight Media (in Chinese). Shenzhen Stock Exchange. 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "非公开发行A股股票预案" (PDF) (in Chinese). China United Network Communications. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- Wee, Willis (13 May 2013). "Jack Ma's Last Speech as Alibaba CEO". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Hille, Kathrin (15 January 2013). "Jack Ma steps down as Alibaba chief". Financial Times. United Kingdom. Retrieved 23 September 2014. (Subscription required (. ))
- Millward, Steven (11 March 2013). "Alibaba Appoints Jonathan Lu as New CEO, Will Take Ma's Desk on May 10". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Kelley, Michael B.; Yarow, Jay (7 May 2015). "Alibaba's CEO replaced". www.businessinsider.com. BUSINESS INSIDER. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "Gold Supplier". Alibaba Web site. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Andrew Minalto (January 2014). "Top 10 Scams on Alibaba.com!". Andrewminalto.com. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Alibaba and the 2,236 thieves". The Economist. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Muncaster, Phil (6 July 2012). "Ex-Alibaba GM cuffed as bribery scandal resurfaces". The Register. London. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Epstein, Gady (11 April 2011). "Alibaba's Jack Ma Fights To Win Back Trust". Forbes. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "BBC News – Iran nuclear: 'Uranium shoe' man arrested in US". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "The Uranium Sting: Did Homeland Security Catch a Smuggler or Create One?". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Why Alibaba Can’t Complain About Its Return to the ‘Notorious’ Counterfeit Market List". 22 December 2016.
- "Is AliExpress.com a scam". 10 February 2017.
- "Buying counterfeit goods on Alibaba's platforms is easy, proving it is harder". CNBC. 18 May 2016.
- "We Expose Major Fraud And Scams On Alibaba And AliExpress". 16 February 2017.
- "Fraud And Scams On Alibaba And AliExpress". 16 February 2017.
- "Alibaba sues sellers of counterfeit good for the first time after it was blacklisted by the US". CNBC. 4 January 2017.
- "Brands accuse Alibaba of not doing enough to stop sale of counterfeit goods". Wall Street Journal. 4 February 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alibaba Group.|