Scarab seal of Sekhaenre, now likely in the Petrie Museum
|Reign||c.25 years, 1805-1780 BCE (Ryholt) (likely 14th Dynasty)|
Sekhaenre Yakbim or Yakbmu was a ruler during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. Although his dynastic and temporal collocation is disputed, Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt believes that he likely was the founder of the Levantine-blooded 14th Dynasty, while in older literature he was mainly considered a member of the 16th Dynasty.
His name never appears inside the cartouche, which was a pharaonic prerogative; nevertheless, on his seals he is usually called “the good god, Sekhaenre” (or simply “Sekhaenre”) and “the son of Ra, Yakbim”.
Talking about the name, there is not direct evidence that Yakbim's throne name was Sekhaenre. This equation is based on stylistic features of the seals and was proposed by William Ayres Ward and later elaborated by Ryholt; Daphna Ben-Tor disputed this identification, pointing out that the seals of the several rulers lived during this period are too similar to make such correlations on the basis of mere design features.
Assuming that Ward was right, Sekhaenre Yakbim is attested by a remarkable 123 seals, second only—for this period—to the 396 of Sheshi. Basing on that, Ryholt estimated for him a reign length of around 25 years, in the interval 1805-1780 BCE.
Israeli Egyptologist Raphael Giveon identify Yakbim with another ruler of the same period, Ya'ammu Nubwoserre, while Jürgen von Beckerath equated Yakbim with Salitis, the Manethonian founder of the 15th Dynasty.
- Ryholt, op. cit., p.409.
- Ryholt, op. cit, p.96.
- Sekhaenre Yakbim on Egyphica.net
- Ben-Tor, D., op. cit., pp.99ff.
- Ward, W.A., op. cit., pp.163ff.
- Ryholt, op. cit., pp.41-47.
- Ryholt, op. cit., p.199
- Ben-Tor, D., “Sequences and chronology of Second Intermediate Period royal-name scarabs, based on excavated series from Egypt and the Levant", in Marcel Marée (ed), The Second Intermediate Period: Current Research, Future Prospects (= Orientalia Lovaniensa Analecta 192), Uitgeverij Peeters and Departement Oosterse Studies, Leuven-Paris-Walpole, MA, 2010, pp.91-108.
- Ryholt, K. S. B. (1997), The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800 - 1550 BC, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, ISBN 87-7289-421-0
- Ward, W.A., “Royal-Name Scarabs”, in Tufnell, O., “Scarab Seals and their Contribution to History in the Early Second Millennium B.C.”, Studies on Scarab Seals 2, Warminster, Aris & Phillips, pp.151-192.
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