Yakovlev Yak-11

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Yak-11
86 Yak 11 N5934 Czech Mate 2014 gold heat photo D Ramey Logan.jpg
Role Training aircraft
Manufacturer Yakovlev, Let
First flight 10 November 1945
Introduction 1946
Retired 1962
Primary user Soviet Air Force
Number built 4,566

The Yakovlev Yak-11 (NATO reporting name: "Moose", Russian: Як-11) is a trainer aircraft used by the Soviet Air Force and other Soviet-influenced air forces from 1947 until 1962.

Jak 11 F-AZFJ

History[edit]

The Yakovlev design bureau began work on an advanced trainer based on the successful Yak-3 fighter in mid 1944, although the trainer was of low priority owing to the ongoing Second World War.[1] The first prototype of the new trainer, designated Yak-UTI or Yak-3UTI flew in late 1945. It was based on the radial-powered Yak-3U, but with the new Shvetsov ASh-21 seven-cylinder radial replacing the ASh-82 of the Yak-3U.[2][nb 1] It used the same all-metal wings as the Yak-3U, with a fuselage of mixed metal and wood construction. Pilot and observer sat in tandem under a long canopy with separate sliding hoods. A single synchronised UBS 12.7 mm machine gun and wing racks for two 100 kg (220 lb) bombs comprised the aircraft's armament.[3]

An improved prototype flew in 1946, with revised cockpits and a modified engine installation with the engine mounted on shock absorbing mounts.[2] This aircraft successfully passed state testing in October 1946, with production beginning at factories in Saratov and Leningrad in 1947.[4]

Production Yak-11s were heavier than the prototypes, with later batches fitted with non-retractable tail wheels and revised propellers. A 7.62 mm ShKAS machine gun was sometimes fitted instead of the UBS, while some were fitted with rear-view periscopes above the windscreen.[4] In total, Soviet production amounted to 3,859 aircraft between 1947 and 1955. with a further 707 licence-built by Let in Czechoslovakia as the C-11.[5]

The Yak-11 set five world-class records.

Yak-11U[edit]

In 1951, Yakovlev revised the design of the Yak-11, adding a retractable tricycle landing gear, with two variants proposed, the Yak-11U basic trainer and Yak-11T proficiency trainer, which carried similar equipment to contemporary jet fighters. The new aircraft had reduced fuel capacity and was unsuitable for operations on rough or snow-covered runways, and so was rejected for Soviet service, although a few examples were built in Czechoslovakia as the C-11U.[6]

Operational history[edit]

The Yak-11 entered service in 1947, serving as a standard advanced trainer with the Soviet Air Forces and DOSAAF.[7] Both Yak-11 and C-11 were used in all Warsaw Pact countries and were exported to eighteen countries, including many African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries.[4]

North Korean Yak-11s were used in combat in the Korean War, with one Yak-11 being the first North Korean aircraft shot down by US forces when it was shot down by a North American F-82 Twin Mustang over Kimpo Airfield on 27 June 1950.[8] East Germany used the Yak-11 to intercept American reconnaissance balloons.[7]

Survivors[edit]

Due to its Yak-3 lineage, the Yak-11 has recently seen widespread popularity among warbird enthusiasts. Highly modified versions of the Yak-11 can be frequently seen at air races. About 120 Yak-11s remain in airworthy condition.

Operators[edit]

Yak-11 operators
Czechoslovak Yak-11
Fighter trainer aircraft Yakovlev Yak-11 (National People's Army)
Preserved Yak-11 of Polish Air Force
Yakovlev Yak-11 disguised in a wartime fighter camouflage
 Afghanistan
 Albania
 Algeria
 Angola
 Austria
 Bulgaria
 China
 Czechoslovakia
 East Germany
 Egypt
 Iraq
 Hungary
 Mongolia
 North Korea
 Poland
 Romania
 Somalia
 Soviet Union
 Syria
 Vietnam
 Yemen

Description[edit]

Mixed construction (metal and wood) trainer plane. 7-cylinder radial engine with two-blade fixed propeller. Conventional retractable landing gear with fixed tailwheel.

Specifications (Yak-11)[edit]

Yak-11 Silh.jpg

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two - student and instructor
  • Length: 8.20 m (26 ft 10½ in)
  • Wingspan: 9.4 m (30 ft 10 in)
  • Height: 3.28 m (10 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 15.40 m² (166 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 1,900 kg (4,189 lb)
  • Loaded weight: kg (lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 2,440 kg (5,379 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Shvetsov ASh-21 air-cooled radial piston engine, 521 kW (700 hp)

Performance

Armament

  • 1x nose-mounted machine gun, either 12.7 mm UBS or 7.62 mm ShKAS
  • up to 200 kg (440 lb) of bombs on two underwing racks

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The single-row ASh-21 was essentially half of the two-row, 14-cylinder ASh-82.[1]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gunston 1995, p. 469.
  2. ^ a b Gordon Komissarov and Komissarov 2005, p. 249.
  3. ^ Gunston and Gordon 1997, p. 97.
  4. ^ a b c Gunston and Gordon 1997, p. 99.
  5. ^ Gordon Komissarov and Komissarov 2005, pp. 250–251.
  6. ^ Gordon Komissarov and Komissarov 2005, p. 251.
  7. ^ a b Gordon Komissarov and Komissarov 2005, p. 250.
  8. ^ Thompson 2001, pp. 160–161.

References[edit]

  • Gordon, Yefim, Dmitry Komissarov and Sergey Komissarov. OKB Yakovlev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinkley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-85780-203-9.
  • Gunston, Bill. The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft 1975–1995. London, UK: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9.
  • Gunston, Bill and Yefim Gordon. Yakovlev Aircraft since 1924. London, UK: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1997. ISBN 1-55750-978-6.
  • Thompson, Warren. "Twin Mustang in Korea". International Air Power Review. Volume 3, Winter 2001/2002. Norwalk, Connecticut, USA:AIRtime Publishing. ISBN 1-880588-36-6. ISSN 1473-9917. pp. 156–167.