Yakovlev Yak-40

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Yak-40
Barkol Yakovlev Yak-40 Dvurekov-1 (cropped).jpg
a Yak-40 on final approach
Role Regional jet/ VIP transport
National origin Soviet Union
Manufacturer Yakovlev
First flight October 21, 1966
Introduction September 1968 (Aeroflot)
Status In service
Primary users Motor Sich Airlines[1]
Vologda Aviation Enterprise[2]
Aeroflot (former)
Produced 1967–1981
Number built 1,011 (according to some sources, 1,013)[which?]
Developed into Yakovlev Yak-42

The Yakovlev Yak-40 (Russian: Яковлев Як-40; NATO reporting name: Codling) is a regional jet designed by Yakovlev. The trijet's maiden flight was in 1966, and it was in production from 1967 to 1981. Introduced in September 1968, the Yak-40 has been exported since 1970.

Development[edit]

By the early 1960s, Soviet international and internal trunk routes were served by Aeroflot, the state airline, using jet or turboprop powered airliners, but their local services, many of which operated from grass airfields, were served by obsolete piston-engine aircraft such as the Ilyushin Il-12, Il-14 and Lisunov Li-2.[3] Aeroflot wanted to replace these elderly airliners with a turbine-powered aircraft, with the Yakovlev design bureau being assigned to design it. High speed was not required, but it would have to be able to operate safely and reliably out of poorly equipped airports with short (less than 700 m or 2,300 ft) unpaved runways in poor weather.[4]

Yakovlev studied both turboprop and jet-powered designs to meet the requirement, including Vertical Take-Off and Landing designs with lift jets in the fuselage or in wing-mounted pods, but eventually they settled on a straight-winged tri-jet carrying 20 to 25 passengers. The engines were to be the new AI-25 turbofan being developed by Ivchenko at Zaporozhye in Ukraine.[5]

Design[edit]

Bucket thrust reverser on the center engine
Cockpit of a Yak-40
Rear view of the aircraft, showing the rear integrated airstairs
Interior photosphere of the VIP variant of the Yak-40, located at the Estonian Aviation Museum.
(view as a 360° interactive panorama)

The Yak-40 is a low-winged cantilever monoplane with unswept wings, a large T-tail and a retractable tricycle landing gear. The passenger cabin is ahead of the wing, with the short rear fuselage carrying the three turbofan engines, with two engines mounted on short pylons on the side of the fuselage and a third engine in the rear fuselage, with air fed from a dorsal air-intake by an "S-duct", as is an auxiliary power unit, fitted to allow engine start-up without ground support on primitive airfields.[6][7] The three AI-25 engines are two-shaft engines rated at 14.7 kN (3,300 lbf). The engines have no jetpipes, and initially no thrust reversers.[8][9]

The pressurized fuselage has a diameter of 2.4 metres (94 in). Pilot and co-pilot sit side by side in the aircraft's flight deck, while the passenger cabin has a standard layout seating 24 to 27 passengers three-abreast, although 32 passengers can be carried by switching to four-abreast seating. Passengers enter the aircraft via a set of ventral airstairs in the rear fuselage.[9][10]

The wing is fitted with large trailing-edge slotted flaps, but has no other high-lift devices, relying on the aircraft's low wing loading to give the required short-field take-off and landing performance. The wings join at the aircraft centerline, with the main spar running from wingtip to wingtip. The wings house integral fuel tanks with a capacity of 3,800 litres (1,000 US gal; 840 imp gal). The aircraft has a large fin, which is swept back at an angle of 50 degrees to move the tailplane rearwards to compensate for the short rear fuselage. The horizontal tailplane itself is unswept.[7][11]

The Yak-40 was the first Soviet-built airliner designed to Western airworthiness requirements.[12]

Operational history[edit]

The first of five prototypes made its maiden flight on 21 October 1966,[9] with production being launched at the Saratov Aviation Plant in 1967 and Soviet type certification granted in 1968.[7] The type carried out its first passenger service for Aeroflot on 30 September 1968.[11] In the 1972 version, a tailspin was removed. In 1974, new version was introduced, with non-stop flight distance increased. Also, the forward door on the right side of the fuselage changed its place – it was located together with the sixth window.[citation needed]

In 1975, the last upgrade of Yak-40 took place – the number of cabin windows on the right side changed from nine to eight.[citation needed]

By the time production ended in November 1981, the factory at Saratov had produced 1,011 or 1,013 aircraft. By 1993 Yak-40s operated by Aeroflot had carried 354 million passengers.[13] As well as being the backbone of Aeroflot's local operations, flying to 276 domestic destinations in 1980, the Yak-40 was also an export success. In addition to this, Yak-40 became the first Russian/Soviet aircraft to get flying certificates from Italy and West Germany. It was demonstrated in 75 countries of the world, including the US, where orders for the Yak-40 were made.[citation needed]

A total of 130 were exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Italy, Laos, Madagascar, Philippines, Poland, Syria, Vietnam, Yugoslavia and Zambia.[7][13]

As of July 2021, a Yak-40 has begun testing with an electric propeller engine in the nose of the aircraft.[14]

YK-40 business aircraft interior

Variants[edit]

Data from:- OKB Yakovlev[15]

  • Yak-40 – The first production model.
  • Yak-40-25 Military conversion with the nose of a MiG-25R and SRS-4A Elint installation.
  • Yak-40 Akva (Aqua) – Military conversion with nose probe, pylon-mounted sensors, a fuselage dispenser and underwing active jammer pods.
  • Yak-40D (Dal'niy – long-distance) – with non-stop flight distance enlarged.
  • Yak-40EC – Export version.
  • Yak-40 Fobos (Phobos) – Military conversion with two dorsal viewing domes and a removable window on each side.
  • Yak-40K – cargo / convertible / combi version with a large freight door. Produced in 1975–81.
  • Yak-40 Kalibrovshchik – Military Elint conversion with a "farm" of blade, dipole and planar antennas.
  • Yak-40L – Proposed version with two Lycoming LF507-1N turbofans, a joint program between Skorost and Textron (now Allied-Signal) Lycoming. The original design would have had a slightly swept wing.
  • Yak-40 Liros – Military conversion with nose probe carrying air-data sensors.
  • Yak-40M – Proposed 40-seat stretched passenger version.
  • Yak-40 M-602 – Flying testbed with a Czechoslovak M 602 turboprop installed in the nose.
  • Yak-40 Meteo – Military conversion with multipole dipole antennas and fuselage dispenser.
  • Yak-40P – Yak-40L with large nacelles projecting ahead of the wings.
  • Yak-40REO – Military conversion with large ventral canoe for IR linescan. Lateral observation blister on right side.
  • Yak-40 Shtorm – Military conversion with multiple probes and sensors on the forward sidewalls.
  • Yak-40TL – Proposed upgraded version, to be powered by three Lycoming LF 507 turbofan engines.
  • Yak-40V – Export version powered by three AI-25T turbofan engines.
  • Yak-40MS – Experimental upgrade with two Honeywell TFE731-5 turbofan engines by SibNIA.[16]
  • STR-40DT – A proposed twin-engine composite-wing[17] derivative along the line of TVS-2DTS, also being developed by SibNIA. Endorsed, but not supported by Yakovlev.[18]

Operators[edit]

Yak-40 operators (exclusively civil operators in blue)

Civilian operators[edit]

Three-abreast seating configuration of the Yak-40.

As of July 2019, a total of 22 out of 1011 Yakovlev Yak-40 aircraft remained in service with civil operators.[19] The airworthiness of several Yak-40 of smaller Russian and Central Asian charter airlines is uncertain, as is the whereabouts of one Air Libya Tibesti aircraft after the civil war. Most aircraft in service today have been reconfigured for VIP-charter services, with fewer than ten remaining in scheduled passenger service. Known operators are:[20]

 Afghanistan
 Albania
 Angola
 Azerbaijan
 Belarus
  • Government of Belarus
 Bolivia
 Bulgaria
 Cuba
 Czech Republic
  • Government of the Czech Republic – former operator
 Czechoslovakia
 Egypt
 West Germany
  • General Air – former operator
 Greece
 Guatemala
 Honduras
  • Rollins Air – former operator
 Hungary
 Italy
 Kazakhstan
  • Air Kazakhstan – former operator
  • Air Kokshetau – former operator
  • Bek Air – former operator
  • East Kazakhstan Region Air Enterprise – 2 in cargo configuration
  • Euro-Asia Air – former operator
  • Semeyavia – former operator
  • Tulpar Air Service – former operator
  • Zhetysu Aviakompania – 2: one for charter and one in cargo configuration
  • Zhezkazgan Air – 2 in scheduled service
 Kyrgyzstan
 Libya
 Lithuania
 Moldova
 Peru
  • Expreso Aéreo – former operator
  • Servicios Aéreos Amazónicos – former operator
 Philippines
 Poland
 Russia
 Slovakia
  • Government of Slovakia – former operator
 Soviet Union
 Syria
 Tajikistan
 Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
 Uzbekistan
 Venezuela
  • Oriental de Aviación – former operator
 Vietnam

Military operators[edit]

Czech Air Force Yak-40 landing

As of November 2012 no more than 17 Yak-40 remain in military service (possibly fewer, with the unclear situation in Syria). Known operators are:

 Angola
Angolan Air Force – 1 as of December 2016.[24]
 Bulgaria
Bulgarian Air Force – former operator
 Cuba
Cuban Air Force – 3 in service
 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakian Air Force – former operator
 Czech Republic
Czech Air Force – 1 as of December 2016.[25]
 East Germany
East German Air Force – former operator
 Ethiopia
Ethiopian Air Force – 1 in service
 Equatorial Guinea
Military of Equatorial Guinea – presidential aircraft
 Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau Air Force – former operator
 Hungary
Hungarian Air Force – former operator
 Kazakhstan
Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan – 1 in service
 Laos
Lao People's Liberation Army Air Force – former operator
 Lithuania
Lithuanian Air Force – former operator
 Madagascar
Military of Madagascar – 2 in service
 Poland
Polish Air Force – former operator
 Russia
Russian Air Force – 1 in service
 Serbia
Serbian Air Force – former operator
 Syria
Syrian Air Force – up to 6 in service, airworthiness unclear
 Soviet Union
Soviet Air Force – former operator
 Vietnam
Vietnam People's Air Force – former operator
 Yemen
Yemen Air Force – 2 in service
 Yugoslavia
Yugoslav Air Force – former operator
 Zambia
Zambian Air Force – former operator
 Zimbabwe
Air Force of Zimbabwe - former operator[26]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Specifications (Yak-40)[edit]

Yakovlev Yak-40 3-view drawing
Proposed VTOL and four-engined Yak-40 variants

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77[9]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3 (two pilots, one flight mechanic)
  • Capacity: 32 passengers
  • Length: 20.36 m (66 ft 10 in)
  • Wingspan: 25.0 m (82 ft 0 in)
  • Height: 6.50 m (21 ft 4 in)
  • Wing area: 70.00 m2 (753.5 sq ft)
  • Aspect ratio: 9:1
  • Empty weight: 9,400 kg (20,723 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 15,500 kg (34,172 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 3,910 L (860 imp gal; 1,030 US gal)
  • Powerplant: 3 × Ivchenko AI-25 turbofan engines, 14.7 kN (3,300 lbf) thrust each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.7 (IAS)
  • Cruise speed: 550 km/h (340 mph, 300 kn) at 7,000 m (23,000 ft) (max. cruise)
  • Range: 1,800 km (1,100 mi, 970 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 8,000 m (26,000 ft) [27]
  • Rate of climb: 8.00 m/s (1,575 ft/min)

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Motor Sich Airlines - Fleet". flymotorsich.com. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  2. ^ "Вологда, аэропорт - Авиапарк". avia35.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  3. ^ Stroud 1968, p. 269–270.
  4. ^ Gunston and Gordon 1997, p. 185.
  5. ^ Gunston and Gordon 1997, pp. 185–186.
  6. ^ Stroud 1968, p. 270–272.
  7. ^ a b c d Gordon Komissarov and Komissarov 2005, p. 303
  8. ^ Gunston and Gordon 1997, p. 187.
  9. ^ a b c d Taylor 1976, pp. 448–449.
  10. ^ Stroud 1968, pp. 272–273.
  11. ^ a b Gunston and Gordon 1997, pp. 186–187.
  12. ^ "1975 | 0140 | Flight Archive". www.flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 2016-04-24.
  13. ^ a b Gunston and Gordon 1997, p. 189.
  14. ^ "Yak-40 with superconducting engine begins test flights". www.flightglobal.com.
  15. ^ Gordon, Yefim; Dmitry; Sergey Komissarov (2005). OKB Yakovlev. Hinkley: Midland Publishing. pp. 303–311. ISBN 1-85780-203-9.
  16. ^ "Новосибирские инженеры подняли в воздух самолет, который станет современным аналогом Як-40". tass.ru.
  17. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Yak-40 | A village trijet". YouTube.
  18. ^ "Опытный образец цельнокомпозитного самолёта СТР-40ДТ покажут в конце года - Авиация России". aviation21.ru. 7 June 2018.
  19. ^ Thisdell and Seymour Flight International 30 July–5 August 2019, p. 47.
  20. ^ "World Airline Census 2018". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  21. ^ 1972 original route network: https://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/257185/1972-olympic-airways-network/
  22. ^ a b Ottenhof, 1996, p. 418
  23. ^ Ottenhof, 1996, p.419
  24. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 26.
  25. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, pp. 33–34.
  26. ^ Cooper et al. 2011, pp. 210, 235–236
  27. ^ Gunston 1995, p. 492.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cooper, Tom; Weinert, Peter; Hinz, Fabian; Lepko, Mark (2011). African MiGs, Volume 2: Madagascar to Zimbabwe. Houston: Harpia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9825539-8-5.
  • Gordon, Yefim, Dmitry Komissarov and Sergey Komissarov. OKB Yakovlev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinkley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-85780-203-9.
  • Gunston, Bill. The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995. London:Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9.
  • Gunston, Bill and Yefim Gordon. Yakovlev Aircraft since 1924. London, UK: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1997. ISBN 1-55750-978-6.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 190, No. 5566, 6–12 December 2016, pp. 22–53. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Ottenhof, Guus; Hillman, Peter and Jessup, Stuart. Soviet Transports. Aviation Hobby World. 1996. ISBN 0-907178-60-X.
  • Stroud, John. Soviet Transport Aircraft since 1945. London:Putnam, 1968. ISBN 0-370-00126-5.
  • Thisdell, Dan and Seymour, Chris. "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Vol. 196, No. 5694, 30 July–5 August 2019. ISSN 0015-3710. pp. 24–47.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77. London:Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00538-3.

External links[edit]