Yale School of Management

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Yale School of Management
Yale SOM
Motto Novus Ordo Seclorum
Motto in English "A New Order of the Ages" "Educating Leaders for Business and Society"
Established 1976 (1976)
Type Private business school
Academic affiliation Yale University
Location New Haven, Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°18′55″N 72°55′13″W / 41.31528°N 72.92028°W / 41.31528; -72.92028
Dean Edward A. Snyder
Academic staff 98 (including joint faculty)
Postgraduates 782 ('16-17) (655 MBA, 64 MAM and 63 MBA-E)[1][2]
Doctoral students 43[3]
Website som.yale.edu

The Yale School of Management (also known as Yale SOM) is the graduate business school of Yale University and is located on Whitney Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. The School awards the Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Advanced Management (MAM), and Ph.D. degrees. As of August 2015, 655 students were enrolled in its MBA program, 63 in the MBA for Executives program, 64 in the MAM program, and 43 in the PhD program. The School has 90 faculty members (including joint and visiting faculty) and the dean is Edward A. Snyder.

The School conducts education and research in leadership, economics, operations management, marketing, entrepreneurship, organizational behavior, and other areas. The School offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate-level academic programs and concentrations. The School also has an Executive MBA degree program with opportunities for focused study in healthcare, asset management or sustainability. It also offers student exchange programs with HEC Paris, IESE, IE Business School, the London School of Economics, and Tsinghua University.

History[edit]

The Yale School of Management has its origins in efforts in the 1950s and ’60s to expand the university’s coursework offerings in the management of businesses and other large, increasingly complex organizations. Upon the death of Frederick W. Beinecke, PhB 1909, in 1971, Yale University received a bequest for the creation of a program in management. The Yale Corporation approved the establishment of a School of Organization and Management two years later, which would confer a master’s degree in public and private management (MPPM).[5]

Founders Hall, the school's former main building

With it's first class of students arriving in 1971, the new school offered a two-year program designed to train leaders who could be effective in the business, government, and nonprofit sectors, and who would have the skills, understanding, and perspective to move among those sectors effectively.[6]

Following evolution in the practice and instruction of management in higher education, the school changed its name to the Yale School of Management in 1994.[7] 1999 brought the offering of a master of business administration (MBA) degree while the school maintained its multi-sectoral focus.[8]

Steinbach Hall, a mansion formerly used by the school on Hillhouse Avenue

Yale SOM launched an MBA for Executives for healthcare professionals in 2005, the year preceding the introduction of SOM's integrated core curriculum, which is was created to prepare leaders for cross-functional environments in modern businesses and organizations.[9] The integrated core is a set of mandatory team-taught classes taken during the first year of MBA study focusing on solving business problems from stakeholder's perspectives (Such as "the Employee," "the Competitor," and "the Executive"), in contrast to traditional business school courses that are more segmented and less integrated.[citation needed]

Concurrently in 2012, SOM launched the Global Network for Advanced Management and the Master of Advanced Management (MAM) program, a one-year program in advanced leadership and management, open to students who have earned or are earning an MBA or equivalent degree from member schools.[10]

2014 marked the first academic year where Yale SOM will enrolled its first class of students in an expanded MBA for Executives program, offering the Yale MBA integrated core along with advanced study in asset management, healthcare, or sustainability and the opening of SOM's new building, Evans Hall.[11]

Campus[edit]

Front of Evans Hall

Edward P. Evans Hall, a 249,743-square-foot building named after the Yale alumnus who donated $50 million to the school, is the new home for Yale School of Management as of January 2014.[12] The building, capturing the retro-futurstic bimorphic architectural spirit is situated at the northern end of the Yale University campus at 165 Whitney Avenue on 4.25 acres and cost a reported $189 million. [13][14]

An inaugural conference entitled "Business + Society: Leadership in an Increasingly Complex World" marked the opening of the new campus. The three-day conference examined major trends transforming markets and organizations around the world.[15]

The building was designed by Foster + Partners, Design Architect with Gruzen Samton, Architect of Record. Foster + Partners is the firm chaired by Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate Lord Norman Foster ARCH ’62. Edward P. Evans Hall houses technology-enabled classrooms, faculty offices, academic centers, and student and meeting spaces organized around an enclosed courtyard. The design is intended to create a teaching and learning environment that will support the school’s integrated MBA curriculum and connect the Yale SOM community.[16]

MAM program[edit]

The Master of Advanced Management program is a one-year program for students from Global Network for Advanced Management schools who want to deepen their understanding of the most complex management issues facing leaders worldwide.

MAM students participate in a required series of courses and discussions oriented around major trends in global business and the role of business leaders, and customize their experience by choosing electives from throughout Yale University.

The MAM class of 2016 is composed of 64 students from 34 countries and 20 Global Network for Advanced Management schools and is 39% women.

MBA program[edit]

Integrated Curriculum[edit]

For the 2006-2007 academic year, the School introduced its Integrated Curriculum, an effort to move away from the typical "siloed" teaching approach to a more integrated perspective.[17] The new curriculum is unique among those offered by leading business schools as it is designed to reflect the contexts encountered by today's leaders to prepare students for different scenarios and environments in the global economy.[18] Courses in this first year curriculum are taught in two primary segments: Orientation to Management and Organizational Perspectives

Orientation to Management[edit]

The orientation to management is the first segment of the curriculum which introduces students to core concepts and business skills. The constituent courses include Managing Groups and Teams, Global Virtual Teams, Basics of Accounting, Probability Modeling and Statistics, Basics of Economics, Modeling Managerial Decisions, and Introduction to Negotiation.[19]

Organizational Perspectives[edit]

The core of the integrated curriculum and first-year experience is a series of multi-disciplinary, team-taught master classes called Organizational Perspectives. These courses include Employee, Innovator, Operations Engine, Sourcing and Managing Funds, Competitor, Customer, Investor, The Global Macro-economy, and State and Society.[20] The final Organizational Perspectives Course, the Executive, invites students to evaluate and solve a series of case studies involving cross-national or global business challenges and draw on the subject matter taught in the other Organizational Perspectives courses and Orientation to Management skills.[21]

The Organizational Perspectives courses draw from multi-media "raw" cases developed by SOM and the Global Network for Advanced Management peer schools on topics from real-world challenges facing business, government, and nonprofit organizations.[22]

Electives[edit]

MBA Candidates are able to take electives courses at the School of Management during their second semester of their first year and all throughout their second year.[23] These electives can be taken at the School of Management and include traditional instruction as well as independent reading and research with professors and instructors.[24]

Unlike many other business schools, SOM students are also permitted to enroll in classes offered by another school at Yale University including the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Yale Law School, Yale School of Public Health and undergrad classes at Yale College.[25]

Global Studies Requirement[edit]

MBA candidates are required to complete a Global Studies Requirement prior to graduation. This requirement can be fulfilled a number of ways including an International Experience Course, a Global Network Week, a Global Network Course, The Global Social Entrepreneurship Course, the Global Social Enterprise Course, or a term-long international exchange with a partner school.[26]

Leadership Development Program[edit]

All Yale School of Management students participate in the Leadership Development Program that commences during orientation and continues throughout their tenure at SOM. The curriculum is composed of a series of graded classes, assessments, group and individual meetings, and professional coaching opportunities to develop each student's leadership style and potential.[27]

During their first year, MBA candidates take the Leadership Fundamentals course in the fall and the Advanced Leadership course in the spring. Second year students complete a year-long parcticum overseen by leadership coaches and professionals.[28]

MBA for Executives[edit]

The MBA for Executives at SOM during the 2015-2016 academic year is made up 63 students and are 41% women. Graduates of the MBA for Executives program go through the full integrated core curriculum and Leadership and Devleopment modules at SOM. Teaching is done primarily by regular Yale SOM faculty and students can choose to focus on one of three broad verticals - healthcare, asset management, or sustainability.

Rankings[edit]

Business School Ranking
U.S. MBA
Bloomberg Businessweek[29] 6
Forbes[30] 18
U.S. News & World Report[31] 13
Worldwide MBA
Business Insider[32] 11
Financial Times[33] 10
  • #6 Businessweek, 2014 MBA Rankings[34]
  • #7 Financial Times, 2014 US MBA programs (#10 globally)[35]
    • #1 for Organizational Behavior (#1 globally)[36]
    • #2 for CSR/Ethics (#2 globally)[37]
    • #3 for Economics (#4 globally)[38]
  • #8 The Princeton Review Selectivity Rating[39]
    • #4 for Best Professors[40]
    • #5 for Best Classroom Experience[41]
  • #9 in US, #11 Worldwide Business Insider 2014 Best Business Schools[42]
  • #13 U.S. News & World Report[44]
    • #1 for Nonprofit[45]
  • #14 The Economist, US MBA Programs (#19 globally)[46]
  • #3 The Aspen Institute (ranking based on expertise in social, ethical, and environmental issues - now defunct), US Rankings[48]
    • #2 for Coursework
    • #4 for Business Impact
    • #10 for Faculty Research

Admission[edit]

Admission requirements include an earned four-year bachelor's degree from an accredited U.S. institution or the international equivalent, completion of an online application form, GMAT or GRE score, academic transcript, two essays, two professional recommendations, and video-recorded responses to three randomly selected questions. The application process has three rounds.

During the 2014-2015 applications cycle for the Class of 2017, applications were up 25%.[49] The class of 2017 has a median GMAT score of 720 with the middle 80% GMAT range being 690-760 and a median undergraduate GPA of 3.6 with a middle 80% undergrad GPA range of 3.23-3.88.[50] The 326 members of the Class of 2017 are made up of 40% women, 40% international students, and 10% under-represented U.S. Minorities.[51] They hold citizenship in 47 different countries and 17% are joint-degree students at other Yale University Graduate and Professional schools. The acceptance rate was 21%.[52]

Class Class of '17 Class of '16 Class of '15
Students 326 323 291
Women 40% 37% 39%
International Students 40% 39% 32%
Median GMAT 720 720 720
Middle 80% GMAT range 690-760 680-760 690-740
Median undergrad GPA 3.6 3.56 3.6
80% undergrad GPA 3.23-3.88 3.17-3.87 3.36-3.8

[53]

The five most represented undergraduate universities in the MBA student body for the combined classes of 2012 and 2013 are University of Pennsylvania, Yale University, Harvard University, Cornell University, and Columbia University. [54]

Employment statistics[edit]

For the class of 2014, the full-time median salary upon graduation was $110,000 with median other guaranteed compensation being $35,000. [55]

Joint-degree and scholarship programs[edit]

The School's joint-degree programs include the MBA/JD with Yale Law School, MBA/MD with Yale School of Medicine, MBA/PhD with Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, MBA/MEM with Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, MBA/MArch with Yale School of Architecture, MBA/MFA with Yale School of Drama, MBA/MDiv or MBA/MAR with Yale Divinity School, MBA/MPH with Yale School of Public Health, MBA/MA in International Relations with Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and MBA/MA in Russian and East European Studies with Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.[56]

The School also offers the Silver Scholars Program for exceptional college seniors. This program is unique from that of any other Business School as Silver Scholars matriculate immediately from undergrad into the School of management and participate in a one-year internship after completing the first year of the Integrated Core Curriculum.[57] Following their internship, Silver Scholars return to campus to complete their MBA coursework.[58] On special occasions, the Assistant Dean will grant special permission to Silver Scholars to extend her or his internship by an additional year.[59]

Among traditional MBA applicants, approximately 30% of incoming students receive merit-based academic scholarships based on prior academic performance, evidence of leadership potential, and standardized test scores.

Graduates with incomes of $77,600 or less who work full-time for government or nonprofit organizations can receive full reimbursement for their annual debt repayment on need-based loans. Those who make more than $77,600 can receive partial loan reimbursement. Eligible alumni may apply at any time during the first 10 years following graduation.[60]

Student life[edit]

Students at the School, like all Yale University students and alumni, are called "Yalies" or "Elis" after Elihu Yale; they are also known as "SOMers." They operate more than 40 MBA student clubs.[61] There are career-oriented clubs such as Finance, Private Equity, Biotechnology, Investment Management, Technology, Marketing and Consulting.[62] There are clinic type clubs, such as Global Social Enterprise and SOM Outreach, through which students complete pro bono consulting engagements with local and international non-profits.[63] There are also athletic clubs including soccer, frisbee, crew, skiing, and squash. SOM participates in the coed MBA ice hockey tournaments during winter months.[64] The Yale SOM Cup soccer tournament is held in October and attracts clubs from numerous top business schools. Each November, many students attend the Harvard-Yale football game (known as "The Game"), the location of which alternates each year between New Haven and Cambridge. The weekend's activities include the Harvard-Yale Leadership & Ethics Debate, an annual contest between the two schools' MBA students.[65] Yale MBA students, like other members of the Yale graduate student community, frequent Gryphon’s Pub, the bar owned and operated by GPSCY (Graduate and Professional Students Center at Yale).[66]

More graduates of the Yale School of Management enter management scholarship than do their contemporaries at other graduate schools of business, with more MBA graduates entering doctoral programs in business.[citation needed]

Alumni Giving[edit]

The Yale School of Management raised more than $3 million from a record 51.5% Alumni in 2015.[67] SOM is the business school with the second-highest Alumni participation in annual charitable contributions, behind Dartmouth Tuck School of Business 70+% contribution and ahead of the The University of Virginia Darden School of Business at 42% participation [68]

Doctoral program[edit]

The doctoral program at Yale SOM is a full-time, in-residence program intended for students who plan scholarly careers involving research and teaching in management.[69] There are five major tracks for PhD students follow at SOM: Accounting, Finance, Marketing, Operations, and Organizations and Management.[70]

The program is deisgned to be completed in four or five years.[71] The curriculum for the first two years of PHD candidates is composed of 14 courses including a two-term sequence in empirical methods and a two-term sequence in social science.[72] The program is small and admits only a few highly qualified students each year; there are 43 doctoral candidates for the academic year of 2015.[73]

Pre-MBA program[edit]

The school offers a two-week program for college juniors, seniors, and recent graduates titled the Global Pre-MBA Leadership Program. It is intended to help attendees acquire business and leadership skills as well as introduce them to the benefits of an MBA degree.[74]

Research and endowment[edit]

The School is home to the following research centers and programs:

  • The Center for Business and Environment is a collaboration between the Yale School of Management and the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, providing a structure for research, education, and outreach for business solutions to global environmental problems.[75]
  • The Center for Customer Insights facilitates interaction between marketing executives and multidisciplinary academic scholars regarding the evolving dynamics of customer behavior.[76]
  • The International Center for Finance provides support for research in financial economics by its fellows and disseminates their work to the world's academic and professional communities.[77]
  • The Chief Executive Leadership Institute brings business leaders, policymakers and academics to foster canddi confidential discussions about emerging leadership issues and societal concerns. [78]
  • The China India Insights Program is a research-based program delivering insights on business issues relating to emerging markets including China and India. This initiative involves academic research with corporate and academic partners, a speaker series and an annual conference.[79]
  • The Program on Entrepreneurship supports entrepreneurs throughout all of Yale University by connecting students with mentors, providing workshops and workspace for entrepreneurs, hosting events, and developing courses and curricula for students studying entrepreneurship.[80]
  • The Program on Social Enterprise supports scholars, students, alumni, and practitioners interested in exploring how business skills and disciplines can be harnessed to achieve social objectives in the nonprofit public social sector and private social sector. [81]
  • The Yale Center Beijing is located in the Chaoyang district of Beijing and supports research and study from each of the University's schools and divisions and serves as a gathering place for alumni from throughout Asia. [82]
  • The Initiative on Leadership and Organization works to advance research into leadership and organizations, supporting work that uses multidisciplinary approaches to investigate topics of pressing interest to organizations and leaders.[83]
  • The Yale Program on Financial Stability provides research and training regarding risk management in global financial markets. Regular panels are convened with participants including former Secratires of the Treasury Timothy Geithner and Henry Paulson, and former Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke. Typical participants for master classes hosted by the Program on Financial Stability include members from over 20 central banks and several non-central bank organizations including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.[84]


The School's endowment fund, valued at US $591 million in 2013, is part of the larger Yale University endowment. The endowment is primarily used according to the donors' intentions, which include the support of teaching and research. Yale University endowment fund manager David Swensen has generated exceptional investment returns over the past two decades.[85]

Prominent faculty[edit]

Steinbach Hall Tower
Dean Years
1 William H. Donaldson (1975–1980)
2 Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr. (1980–1981)
3 Burton G. Malkiel (1981–1987)
4 Merton J. Peck (1987–1988)
5 Michael E. Levine (1988–1992)
6 Paul MacAvoy (1992–1994)
7 Stanley Garstka (1994–1995)
8 Jeffrey Garten (1995–2005)
9 Joel M. Podolny (2005–2008)
10 Sharon Oster (2008–2011)
11 Ted Snyder (2011–Present)

Notable alumni[edit]

Also see: List of Yale University people

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://som.yale.edu/news/news/yale-som-welcomes-mba-class-2016
  2. ^ http://som.yale.edu/news/2015/08/meet-mba-class-2017
  3. ^ http://som.yale.edu/overview
  4. ^ http://poetsandquants.com/2014/12/16/is-yale-the-most-distinctively-global-u-s-business-school/3/
  5. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/about-yale-som/history
  6. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/about-yale-som/history
  7. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/about-yale-som/history
  8. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/about-yale-som/history
  9. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/about-yale-som/history
  10. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/about-yale-som/history
  11. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/about-yale-som/history
  12. ^ http://www.architectmagazine.com/design/buildings/edward-p-evans-hall-designed-by-foster-partners_o
  13. ^ http://epefoundation.org/yale/
  14. ^ http://www.architectmagazine.com/design/buildings/edward-p-evans-hall-designed-by-foster-partners_o
  15. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-approach/edward-p-evans-hall/opening-events/business-society-leadership-increasingly-complex-world
  16. ^ "Supporting an Integrated MBA Curriculum". BVH Integrated Services, PC.  Text "http://www.bvhis.com/edward-p.-evans-hall-school-of-management,-yale-university.html " ignored (help)
  17. ^ "MBA curriculum changes at Yale and Stanford". The Economist Magazine. 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  18. ^ Alsop, Ronald (2006-07-11). "M.B.A. Programs Blend Disciplines To Yield Big Picture". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  19. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  20. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  21. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  22. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  23. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  24. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  25. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  26. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  27. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  28. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  29. ^ "Business School Rankings and Profiles: MBA". Bloomberg Businessweek. 2012. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 
  30. ^ "Business School Rankings and Profiles: MBA". Forbes. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
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  34. ^ "2014 Business School Rankings". Businessweek. Retrieved 2014-11-11. 
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  36. ^ "A League of Their Own: The Top 10 Programmes in Selected Categories" (PDF). Financial Times. 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  37. ^ "A League of Their Own: The Top 10 Programmes in Selected Categories" (PDF). Financial Times. 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  38. ^ "A League of Their Own: The Top 10 Programmes in Selected Categories" (PDF). Financial Times. 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  39. ^ "School Rankings 2013". The Princeton Review. 2013. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  40. ^ "School Rankings 2013". The Princeton Review. 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  41. ^ "School Rankings 2013". The Princeton Review. 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-24. 
  42. ^ "The World's Best Business Schools". Business Insider. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  43. ^ "QS Global 200 Business Schools Report 2014, North America". 
  44. ^ "America's Best Graduate Schools 2013". U.S. News & World Report. L.P. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  45. ^ "America's Best Graduate Schools 2012, Specialty Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. L.P. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  46. ^ "2009 Rankings". The Economist. Retrieved 2009. 
  47. ^ Badenhausen, Kurt (2009-08-05). "The Best Business Schools". Forbes.com (Forbes.com LLC). Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  48. ^ "Rankings: Top Ten Lists". The Aspen Institute. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  49. ^ http://poetsandquants.com/2015/08/23/the-gatekeeper-at-yale-school-of-management/
  50. ^ http://poetsandquants.com/2015/08/23/the-gatekeeper-at-yale-school-of-management/
  51. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/full-time-mba/student-experience/class-profile
  52. ^ http://som.yale.edu/news/2015/08/meet-mba-class-2017
  53. ^ http://poetsandquants.com/2015/08/23/the-gatekeeper-at-yale-school-of-management/
  54. ^ http://directory.som.yale.edu/search.php?target=browse_cat&opt=newsearch&term=school&browse_cat=school
  55. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/mba/careers/employment-report
  56. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  57. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  58. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  59. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  60. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/m.b.a.-degree-program.html
  61. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/mba/student-experience/student-clubs-groups
  62. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/mba/student-experience/student-clubs-groups
  63. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/mba/student-experience/student-clubs-groups
  64. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/mba/student-experience/student-clubs-groups
  65. ^ "Annual HBS-Yale MBA Leadership Debate". The Harbus. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  66. ^ http://www.yale.edu/gpss/GPSCY_Bar/gryphons.html
  67. ^ http://som.yale.edu/yale-som-connect/alumni/support-yale-som/alumni-fund
  68. ^ http://www.beatthegmat.com/mba/2015/08/21/record-alumni-giving-at-tuck-raises-more-funds-than-any-prior-year
  69. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/phd/admissions/frequently-asked-questions
  70. ^ http://som.yale.edu/overview
  71. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/phd/admissions/frequently-asked-questions
  72. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/doctoral-program/curriculum
  73. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/phd/current-phd-students
  74. ^ http://som.yale.edu/our-programs/global-pre-mba-leadership-program
  75. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  76. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  77. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  78. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  79. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  80. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  81. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  82. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  83. ^ http://www.yale.edu/printer/bulletin/htmlfiles/som/history-and-mission.html
  84. ^ http://yaledailynews.com/blog/2015/08/20/yale-hosts-historic-master-class-on-financial-crises/
  85. ^ Vickers, Marcia (2005-10-03). "The Money Game". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 

External links[edit]